This is a working version not a completed document nato order of battle



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Note 3: Squadron Strength: Each Fligerstaffel nominally contains 12 aircraft plus reserves, although given the actual number of available aircraft, there is likely some variation.
Note 3: Aircraft Inventory. According to an Aviation News piece on the Swiss Air Force from Oct/Nov 89, Inventory at that time consisted of:

30 Mirage IIIS

16 Mirage IIIRS

4 Mirage IIBS

2 Mirage IIIDS

1 Mirage IIICS

90 F-5E

12 F-5F


130 Hunter Mk. 58/Mk. 58A (40 configured to launch Maverick)

7 Hunter Mk. 68 (trainers)

70+ Vampire FB.6

36 Vampire T.55 (30 in training role, 6 in recon, testing or EW)

78 Alouette III

21 Alouette II

3 AS.332 Super Puma

20 Bae Hawks (deliveries beginning late 1989)



Yugoslavia
Yugoslav Army
The Yugoslav Army converted from a division to a brigade based army during the late 1980s. This conversion, which saw large numbers of relatively weak infantry divisions replaced by stronger brigades, was substantially complete by early 1990. This organization reflects that period. This section was mainly provided by TankNet’s Bojan. The letter following unit is its readiness category, where known.
1. Proleterska Gardijska Divizija (all mechanized brigades)

a) 1. Proleterska Gardijska Mehanizovana Brigada - Belgrade - B qualification

b) 2. Proleterska Gardijska Mehanizovana Brigada - Valjevo - B qualification

c) 3. Proleterska Gardijska Mehanizovana Brigada - Pozarevac - B qualification


2. Armored Brigades:

a) 1. Oklopna Brigada - Vrhnika - B

b) 4. Oklopna Brigada - Jastrebarsko - B

c) 211. Oklopna Brigada - Nis - B

d) 243. Oklopna Brigada - Skoplje - B

e) 252. Oklopna Brigada - Kraljevo - B

f) 329. Oklopna Brigada - Banja Luka - B
3. Mechanized Brigades:

a) 12. Proleterska Mehanizovana Brigada - Osijek - A

b) 15. Proleterska Mehanizovana Brigada - Pristina - A

c) 31. Mehanizovana Brigada - Dugo Selo - R

d) 32. Mehanizovana Brigada - Varazdin - A

e) 36. Mehanizovana Brigada - Subotica - A

f) 51. Mehanizovana Brigada - Pancevo - A

g) 265. Mehanizovana Brigada - Bjelovar - A

h) 453. Mehanizovana Brigada - Sremska Mitrovica - A
4. Motorized Brigades:

a) 8. Proleterska Motorizovana Brigada - Karlovac

b) 49. Motorizovana Brigada - Sarajevo

c) 125. Motorizovana Brigada - Sremska/Titova Mitrovica

d) 140. Motorizovana Brigada - Zagreb

e) 195. Motorizovana Brigada - Maribor

f) 228. Motorizovana Brigada - Postojna

g) 592. Motorizovana Brigada - Kumanovo


5. Mountain Brigades (two of them, number unknown):
6. Infantry Brigades (a number existed, primarily lower-grade reserve units)
7. Specialist Units

a) Airborne Brigade

b) Marine Brigade
8. Territorial Defense Force

Mobilization strength of 860,000 according to IISS

Organized for local defense, most units have static defense/area denial role

Main unit would be territorial infantry brigade, of which a large number existed. There also existed AA artillery units, field artillery units and others.

Not under army command, but in separate command structure formally reporting to communist party.
General Note: Yugoslavia maintained a large military organization for the size of its nation, focused on territorial defense. Equipment and manning levels likely varied widely in different units.
Note 1: Mechanized Brigade Organization (3838 men, 63 or 83 tanks, 82 APC/IFV)

2 Mechanized Battalions

2 Armored Battalions:

Mixed Artillery Group

Mixed Anti-Armor Group

Light SP-SAM Group

Engineer Battalion

Recon Company

Engineer Battalion
Mechanized Brigade Equipment Holdings:

83 x MBTs - T-55 (1st, 15th, 32nd, 36th had 83 tanks - rest had 63)

3 x Recce Tanks - PT-76B

86 x IFVs or APCs - M-80A or M-60P

3 x armored recce cars - BRDM-2

5 x ARVs - TZI-55 (TZI-55 was a generic designation for all T-55 based ARVs)

4 x Bridge tanks - TNM-55 (also generic designation for all T-55 based bridge layers)

7 x command/signal APCs - BTR-50PU



Mixed Artillery Group

12 x SPH - 2S1

6 x MRL - 128mm M63 "Plamen"

12 x 120mm mortars - M74 or M75

6 x command/signal APCs - 1vxx series based on the MTLB and SNAR-10

Light SP-SAM Group

12 x SPAA - ZSU-57-2

6 x SP-SAM - Strela-1M (SA-9b)

3 x AD command vehicle (BTR-60 derivates)



Anti-Armor Group

12 x SPGs - M-36

6 x SP-ATGM - M-83 or 9P133 (BRDM-2 Sagger-C)
Note 2: Armored Brigade Organization (3411 men, 104 tanks, 61 APC/IFV)

1 Mechanized Battalion

3 Armored Battalions

Mixed Artillery Group

Light SP-SAM Group

Engineer Battalion

Recon Company

Engineer Battalion


Armored Brigade Equipment Holdings:

104 x MBTs - T-55 or M-84/84A (officially; in practice, 94-94 tanks)

3 x Recce Tanks - PT-76B

61 x IFVs or APCs - M-80A or M-60P

3 x armored recce cars - BRDM-2

5 x ARVs - TZI-55

4 x Bridge tanks - TNM-55

7 x command/signal APCs - BTR-50PU



Mixed Artillery Group

12 x SPH - 2S1

6 x MRL - 128mm M63 "Plamen"

12 x 120mm mortars - M74 or M75

6 x command/signal APCs - mix of the 1vxx series based on the MTLB and SNAR-10

Light SP-SAM Group

12 x SPAA - ZSU-57-2

6 x SP-SAM - Strela-1M (SA-9b)

3 x AD command vehicle (BTR-60 derivates)


Note 3: Motorized Brigade Equipment Holdings:

18 howitzers (105mm M2/M101, 105 M56, 122mm D30J, 122mm M38 for reserves)

24 81mm or 82mm mortars total

24 120mm mortars

35 M57 or M80 AT rocket launchers

96 M79 Osa AT rocket launchers

48 Recoilless Rifles (M60, M60A)

30 AT-3 ATGM

20 20mm AA Guns

24 triple 20mm AA guns

21 SA-7 or similar variants
Note 4: Mountain Brigade Organization

3 Mountain Infantry Battalions

Artillery Group

Air Defense Group

Engineer Battalion

Mixed Anti-Armor Group

Recon Company
Mountain Brigade Equipment Holdings:

Mountain Infantry Battalion

3 Mountain Inf Co with light weapons

Recce Ptn with light weapons

12 81mm M68 or 82mm M69 mortars

2 M2-HB HMG, 4 MMG (M84 or M53)

3 ATGM, 3 M79 Osa or RB M57/M80



Mixed Artillery Group

12 105mm howitzers (M56, M101, maybe some M102)

12 120mm mortars M74 or M75

12 120mm mortars UBM-52

6 command/signals vehicles

Air Defense Group

12 Light AA guns (various types of towed 20mm guns)

12 Light SAM (SA-7B, SA-7BY, SA-14, SA-18, SA-16)

Mixed Anti-Armor Group

6 ATGM (AT-3, AT-3C, AT-4)


Note 5: Infantry Brigade Organization

3 Light Infantry Battalions

Mixed Artillery Group

Air Defense Group

Engineer Battalion

Mixed Anti-Armor Group

Recon Company
Infantry Brigade Equipment Holdings

Light Infantry Battalion

3 Light Inf Co with light weapons

Recce Ptn with light weapons

6 or 12 81mm M68 or 82mm M69 mortars

2 M2-HB HMG, 4 MMG (M84 or M53)

3 ATGM, 3 M79 Osa or RB M57/M80



Mixed Artillery Group

12 122mm D30J howitzers

6 128mm M63 “Plamen” MRL

12 120mm mortars M74 or M75

6 command/signal vehicles

Air Defense Group

12 Light AA guns (various types of towed 20mm guns)

12 Light SAM (SA-7B, SA-7BY, SA-14, SA-18, SA-16)

Mixed Anti-Armor Group

12 100mm T-12/MT-12 or 100mm M87 AT Guns

6 ATGM (AT-3, AT-3C, AT-4)
Note 6: Territorial Infantry Unit Organization

2-3 Territorial Infantry Battalions

Artillery Group

Air Defense Group

Engineer Battalion (local construction personnel)

Anti-Armor Group

(support units, such as signals, were much smaller than regular army counterparts)
Territorial Infantry Brigade Equipment Holdings

Territorial Infantry Battalion

(usually 3 infantry companies, but varied widely)



Artillery Group

12 howitzers or guns – could be anything from US M101 or Yugo M65 105mm, German WWII 105mm guns rechambered for US 105mm ammo, USSR 76mm guns, etc

12 mortars – officially should be various 120mm models, but could have been US 81mm, UK 3”, etc

Air Defense Group

12 Light AA guns – could be virtually anything, including a variety of 20mm Oerlikons, 20mm Bredas (Italian WWII), USSR 14.5mm twin or quad, .50cal quads or various makes, German WWII 20mm single or quads, etc


Note 7: Readiness Levels

A qualification: at least 4 active Bns/groups and 60-100% of equipment and personal.

B qualification: 2-3 active Bns/groups and 15-60% of equipment and personal.

R qualification - no active Bns/groups and up the 15% of equipment and personal.


Note 8: Equipment Holdings – list is rather incomplete. Yugoslavia kept basically every piece of equipment from World War II on

Armor: 10 Soviet T-72M, 65 Czech T-72M, 750-980 T-55 (lower number may be those serviceable), 290 M-84, ~75 M-84A, 105 M-47 (reserves), 208 T-34/85M/M1 (reserves)

SP AT Guns: 180 M-36 Jackson, 112 M-18 Hellcats, 12 SU-100 M-44 (reserves)

APCs/IFVs/Recon: 420 M-60P, 420 M-80A, 180 BOV (BMP copy), 12 BTR-60PB (internal security), 6 TAB-71 (internal security), 67 BRDM-2

SP ATGM: 18 BRDM-1 Snapper (2P27), 24 BRDM-2 Sagger (2P122), 60 BRDM-2 Sagger (2P133), 90 BOV-1 (M-83)

Towed Artillery: 105 M2/M101 105mm howitzers, 48 155mm M1/M114 howitzers, 25 203mm M2/M115 howitzers, 180 130mm M46 guns, 92 152mm M84 howitzers, 150 128mm M-63 Plamen MRL

Self Propelled Artillery: ~80 122mm 2S1, ~40 128mm M-77 Oganj SP MRL, 12 262mm M-87 Orkan SP MRL

Anti-Aircraft Artillery: 400 37mm M39, 128 40mm Mk1, 60 40mm M-1, 250 57mm S-60, 300 Bofors 40mm L/70

SP AA: 130 M53/59 and M53/70 (triple 20mm?), 80 BOV-3, 6 BOV-30, 60 ZSU-57-2, 100 SA-9, 20 SA-13

Yugoslav Air Force
1. 3 Air Corps, integrating air defence fighters, SAMs and artillery:
a. 12 Fighter-Ground Attack Squadrons with 25 J-20 Kraguj (assigned to TO), ~80 Jastreb, 60 Super Galeb, 55 Orao-2
b. 13 Fighter Squadrions with 112 Mig-21PF/M/bis, 18 Mig-21U, 14 Mig-29A, 2 Mig-29UB
c. 4 Recon Squadrons:

1. Tactical Recon: 24 J-21 (two seat Galeb), 20 Jastreb RJ-1, 25 Orao-1

2. Strategic Recon: Mig-21R (L-14i), L-16i and L-17i (local designation for Hughes recce pod equipped Mig-21MF and Mig-21bis).
2. Armed Helicopters: 70 Mi-8, 120 Gazela (plus 10 Mi-8 in transport role), 12 Gazela, 8 Ka-25, 2 Ka-28 (in naval roles), 4 Mi-14
3. Training: 80 Galeb, 30 Jastreb, 70 UTVA-75. ~40 UTVA-60, 20 Gazela
4. Transports: 15 An-26, 4 CL-215, 2 Falcon 50, 2 Learjet, 9 PC-6 (army)
5. Others: 6 Yak-40 (radar calibration)
Note 1: Air Defense assets include: 8 SA-2 battalions, 6 SA-3 battalions, 6-7 SA-6 battalions, 15 regts of AD artillery (assigned to army)
Note 2: Does not include helicopters assigned to Milicija (some SA-341/-342)
Appendix 1

Map of NATO Deployments on the Central Front
Note 1: unit locations are approximate, and generally represent the location of the divisional headquarters. Frequently, brigades are deployed throughout the region surrounding the headquarters.
Note 2: The location of the 5th US Mech Division POMCUS site is provisional – it was in the Netherlands, but there were four sites there. It may have been split between them.
Note 3: The Dutch 4th Mech Division had one brigade in Germany, with the rest in Holland. The two deployments are shown separately.
Note 4: The map is from the CIA, and dates from 1994. I have added the inter-German border.
Map Key:

US: Green

US POMCUS Sites: Circles with Green

West German: Gray

UK: Light Brown

Canadian: Dark Brown

French: Blue

Danish: White and Red

Dutch: Orange

Belgian: Tan



Appendix 2
NATO Organization
NATO Military Organization
The top NATO military organization is the Defence Planning Committee. Representatives of each of the member nations participating in NATO’s integrated command structure. Meets permantly at the ambassadorial level and twice yearly at the ministerial level.
Under the Defence Planning Committee is the Miltary Committee, which is composed of the chiefs of staffs of all member nations (except France, Spain and Iceland). The Military Committee is the highest military command in the Alliance and is responsible for the three major military commands:

    1. Allied Command Atlantic

    2. Allied Command Europe

    3. Allied Command Channel


Allied Command Europe (ACE) controls allied ground and air forces throughout Europe. Its command headquarters is Supreme Headquarters, Allied Powers Europe (SHAPE). It has three major subsidiary commands:

    1. Allied Forces Northern Europe

    2. Allied Forces Central Europe

    3. Allied Forces Southern Europe

SHAPE also has two minor subsidiary commands:



    1. United Kingdom Air Forces

    2. ACE Mobile Force


Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT) is the primary NATO military command for West Germany. It consists the HQ Northern Army Group (NORTHAG) based in Monchen-Gladback in the FRG, the HQ Central Army Group (CENTAG) based a Heidelburg, FRG, and HQ Allied Air Forces Central Europe (AAFCE) at Ramstein AFB in the FRG.
NORTHAG’s area of responsibility stretched from Hamburg in the north to Kassel in the south, and from the inter-German border in the east to the Dutch border in the west. It is co-located with the 2nd Allied Tactical Air Force (2ATAF). Allied units under NORTHAG command include BAOR, the I Netherlands, I Belgian, and I West German.
CENTAG’s area of responsibility is all of Germany south of Kassel, along with Luxembourg and part of Belgium. It is co-located with the 4th Allied Tactical Air Force (4ATAF). Allied units under its command include III and V US Corps, II and III West German Korps, and the Canadian Forces Europe.
Allied Forces Southern Europe (AFSOUTH) is the NATO military command covering Italy, Greece, Turkey, the Mediterranean, and the Black Sea. AFSouth is headquartered in Naples, Italy. AFSOUTH subordinate headquarters include: AIRSOUTH, controlling 5th Allied Tactical Air Force (5ATAF) in Italy, and 6th Allied Tactical Air Force (6ATAF) in Turkey. LANDSOUTH controls forces in Italy, and while it consists of mainly Italian units, it also has contingents from the US and Portugal. LANDSOUTHEAST controls forces in Greece and Turkey. Allied Naval Forces Southern Europe (NAVSOUTH) controls allied naval forces in the Meditteranean, except for the US 6th Fleet, which comprises Naval Striking and Support Forces, Southern Europe (STRIKFORSOUTH).
Allied Forces Northern Europe (AFNORTH) is the NATO military command covering Norway, Denmark, and West Germany north of the river Elbe along with adjacent air and sea space. It has three major subsidiary commands: Allied Forces North Norway (COMNON) is headquartered at Reitan, near Bodo in Norway. Allied Forces South Norway (COMSONOR) is headquartered in Oslo. Allied Forces Baltic Approaches (BALTAP) controls all Danish units and West German units of Schleswig-Holstein territorial command, and would control a large number of allied forces (mainly from the US and UK) in the event of mobilization.

Appendix 3
NATO War Material Production


United States

M1xx Abrams: 516 per year

M2/M3 Bradley: 700+ per year
AH-64 Apache: ~70 per year
Great Britain

Challenger:

Warrior (and variants): ~150 per year
West Germany

Leopard II:

Leopard I:

Fuchs:


Wiesel:
France

AMX-10P (and variants): ~160 per year

AMX-30 to AMX-30B2 conversion: 75+ per year
Belgium

AIFV and M113 production wrapped up in late 1980s; had been running about 60 each per year. Beginning construction of 285 AIFV hulls for Turkey




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