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Addition-Subtraction, Graphing Instructions

Dear Teacher:

Students will enjoy the Addition and Subtraction Exercise in connection with PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY. There are usually 15 games played on Sunday in the National Football League, and the scores of these games will be reported in the sport section of your Monday's newspaper. However, be reminded that there are some open dates for all teams, and only 13 games will be played on certain Sundays.
This exercise sheet is completed by simply taking the scores of the first two competing teams and adding to determine the total number of points scored in the game; then subtracting the same scores to determine the margin of victory. Repeat the process with the second set of scores, etc. until all 15 games are calculated.
This is a practical and meaningful math assignment for 1st through 6th graders. It should NOT be a timed exercise for grades 1-3, but can be for grades 4 and above. The ability of your class should determine the time allotted for completion, but it is generally recommended that 6th graders be given four(4) minutes to complete the drill, 5th graders five(5) minutes, and 4th graders six(6) minutes. Reduce the time allowed to complete the drill by 10-15 seconds when the weekend schedule is reduced to 13 games on Sunday.
Now graph the results of the addition and subtraction assignment. This is a project probably best suited for 6th graders and above, but you must be the one to determine how appropriate this may be for your class. Your students are being timed as they work with the NFL results on Monday, and they raise their hand to signal they are finished. Their time is quickly called to them when they raise their hand, and they note this exact time on their exercise sheet. For example, you call 3:19. This means they completed the exercise in 3-minutes and 19-seconds.
Round-off the time to the nearest three seconds(3:18), and graph the results as a bar graph for that particular week of the football season. The bars should be colored in RED in the weeks the exercise is not completed with 100% accuracy, and colored in GREEN when it is done with 100% accuracy. When there are less than 14 scheduled games, add 10 seconds to a student's time for each game not played. This will make the graph present a more realistic picture of consistent improvement from week to week, instead of so much weekly fluctuation when there are open dates.
What you hope to see as the weeks pass it that more and more of the bars are becoming green, and there is a stair step pattern downward to the right as computational speed increases.
The results might more appropriately be graphed with a line graph, but experience has shown that students are more enthused about making bar graphs than line graphs.






Answer Key

September 9, 2007 - Week #1

Sunday, the 9th, is NATIONAL GRANDPARENTS DAY. Look for some ideas in your newspaper to recognize this day. Perhaps some art/card making projects in class.
Looking a week ahead. September 11th is Patriot Day in commemoration of the terrorist attacks on the United States on 9-11, 2001. Plan a moment of silence to honor those who lost their lives in the attacks. For junior high and high schools, assign 2-4 students to be “class reporters” throughout the football season to discuss every issue in the Patriot Act. Several candidates are vying for the presidential nomination of their political party. Will the candidates’ position on national security be observed more closely? Where will each student draw the line between security and tyranny? Follow the debates in your newspaper. BOSTON HERALD students, Patriots Day is not for the team.

1. Miami Dolphins

2. Cincinnati. The Ohio River Sternwheel Festival is going on in Marietta, OH. American history

teachers, relive the history of our developing nation. Sternwheelers reflect what time period in American history? Any CINCINNATI ENQUIRER students going to Covington for Oktoberfest?

3. St. Louis, Minneapolis (MN)

4. Cleveland, Buffalo are located on Lake Erie. State Geography Standards = SGS

5. Indianapolis

6. San Francisco, Minneapolis, Buffalo, Jacksonville, NY Jets *

Appreciate the reading comprehension skills that are required to answer the questions. Make sure you get the correct response when students are asked for the “will be visited” or “will visit” team(s) as in questions #1 and #6. Don’t blame me if it drives you nuts. You have been warned.
7. California

8. Texas, New York, Ohio

9. Boston(N.E.) Patriots, Pittsburgh Steelers, Phoenix(AZ) Cardinals

10. San Diego, Seattle, San Francisco, Green Bay, Oakland SGS

11. Seattle on Elliott Bay visited by Tampa Bay
12 Denver Broncos over  Lansing, MI  SGS

Miami Dolphins near  Richmond, VA 

NY Giants near  Little Rock, AR 

Nashville(TN) Titans over  Atlanta, GA 

13. New York, NY. First Labor Day parade was in NYC in 1882. Oregon made it a legal holiday in 1887, and President Cleveland made it a national holiday in 1894. **
Destroying a myth related to Labor Day and New York City. The New York post office opened to

the public on Labor Day, Sept. 7, 1914. Common belief has it that the inscription on the front of

the building is the motto of the postal service: Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night

stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds. The post office has no

official motto, but the legend remains.



Answer Key

September 9, 2007 - Week #1

14. Hope this question will be a practical writing assignment for you. The SAT test now requires more essay type writing. Your first chance to see the compositional skills of your students.
15. Or you may settle for an interesting class discussion on what memories this day evokes for the students.
* Be advised, in case some student tries to “wise you up”, that the NY Giants and NY Jets play in the

Meadowlands in New Jersey. However, they will be from NYC as long as they have New York in their name. As a point of reference for measuring direction or distance in the future, The location of New York City will be considered as the tip of Manhattan.

** Questions identified as Beyond the 10, 20, 30, or 40, are more difficult, and indicate the students will have to consult some reference source. This source may be some type of reference book, or mom, dad, grandma or grandpa. Strive to get the family involved. As in kicking field goals, a 40-yarder is more difficult than a 10-yarder, so more extra credit should be given for this extra effort. Some of you may choose to ignore these questions.

Bonus points! Perhaps for anyone bringing in a picture or article of the Labor Day walk across the Mackinac Bridge connecting the two peninsulas of Michigan. An event that only happens once a year. Objective: Develop awareness of Great Lakes. Teach concepts of peninsula and strait. Strait will be discussed in later lessons. or Click on Labor Day walk. Look at the back of the Michigan quarter.
Who’s up next? Names of Atlantic hurricanes in 2007: Andrea, Barry, Chantal, Dean, Erin, Felix, Gabrielle, Humberto, Ingrid, Jerry, Karen, Lorenzo, Melissa, Noel, Olga, Pablo, Rebekah, Sebastien, Tanya, Van and Wendy.. On May 23, 2007, 13-17 tropical storms were forecast for 2007, of which nine(9) will be hurricanes, five(5) of them major. How is this prediction coming along? The prediction of 17 in 2006 was missed when there were only 10 named storms, and the prediction of 2005 was missed where there were 28 named storms. The word hurricane comes from the Caribbean word Huracon, who was the god of evil.
The hurricane season for 2007 began on an odd note. Andrea occurred a week before the

hurricane season officially began on June 1st. The hurricane forecast was revised on July 24, to

14 named storms, 9 hurricanes and 3 majors due to cooler than normal ocean temperatures.

As of August 1st, three named storms had occurred with no kind of a threat to any area.

If you want, have a few students or the class keeping the PASSES ATTEMPTED/PASSES COMPLETED GRAPH. THIS GRAPH WILL ALLOW YOUR STUDENTS TO GRAPH THE PASSING SUCCESS OF THEIR FAVORITE QUARTERBACK FOR THE 17 WEEKS OF THE NFL SEASON. The QB graph is on page 21. Objective for math: Figuring percentages by converting common fractions to their decimal equivalent.
MAYBE JUST FOR PACKER FANS In which week will Brett Favre break Dan Marino’s all-time record of 420 TD passes? Why don’t you teachers in Wisconsin set up a contest for your students by having them guess the week and in which quarter of the game Favre will break the record?
SPECIAL SCIENCE/GEOGRAPHY PROJECT Does your newspaper provide time of sunrise and sunset on the weather page? Start an HOURS OF DAYLIGHT graph on Monday, the 10th to plot the descending hours of daylight leading to the autumnal equinox. Fall

arrives at 5:51 a.m. EDT on September 23rd. Do this if studying the changing seasons, rotation and




Answer Key

September 9, 2007 - Week #1

revolution of the Earth, Tropic of Cancer, Tropic of Capricorn and Equator are part of your curriculum. Figure the hours of daylight even if you don’t graph them.
September is National Honey Month. Did you DAILY TIMES-CALL students know the National Honey Board is in Longmont, CO? That’s why Ms. Piller is so sweet.
What do you HOUSTON CHRONICLE readers know about the infamous Galveston hurricane of September 8, 1900? Brief report anyone? Made Katrina look like a wimp.

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC magazine, “Killer Hurricanes. New Orleans: Home No More”, August 2006,

pages, 42 - 77.
Are you students in Torrance, Pasadena and Long Beach recognizing the founding of Los Angeles this

week? Los Angeles was founded September 4, 1781, and incorporated on April 4, 1850.

Jesse James was born on September 5, 1847. I guess you students in St. Joseph, MO, only care

about his death on April 3, 1882.

Don’t you TIMES UNION students party too much at Saturday’s Jazz Festival.
NEXT WEEK: September 17th is CONSTITUTION/CITIZENSHIP DAY. Perhaps a writing assignment on what it means to be a citizen in this great country of ours.

9/11 has just passed. LET US NEVER FORGET!!

Cities located on the Atlantic Ocean

Gulf of Mexico

Okefenokee Swamp

Identifying Great Lakes

Golden color of the leaves of an aspen tree

Intermediate directions

Identifying states of the United States
Will LaDainian Tomlinson set a touchdown scoring record this year? Goals to surpass:

S. Alexander(Seattle, 2005)--28; P. Holmes(Kansas City, 2003)--27; M. Faulk(St. Louis, 2000)--26




Answer Key

September 16, 2007 - Week #2

Hope you begin calculating the hours of daylight from your weather page as we go from summer to fall.
1. Phoenix, Boston, Nashville, Denver

2. Nashville. Roy Acuff was born on Sept. 15, 1903. Think the Titans will give some recognition to

the “King of Country Music”? Have a student make a one-minute report on Roy Acuff. On

Saturday, a Hankfest is going on in Chicago to honor the life of Hank Williams, Sr. It is Hank

Williams, Jr. that asked, “Are you ready for some football?” Any of you DAILY HERALD students in Arlington Heights going to the Hankfest?
3. Jacksonville, Pittsburgh, Chicago

4. Cincinnati Bengals. Would CINCINNATI ENQUIRER students want to research and find

what is causing the dramatic drop in the Bengal tiger population in India? National Geographic says there may be between 5,000 and 7,000 in the wild, but some people think there may be fewer than 2,000. Tell Ms. Garrison at THE ENQUIRER what you found in your research.

5. Florida

6. Pennsylvania

7. Jacksonville, Miami, Boston, New York

8. Boston. Too early to introduce the term transcontinental.

9. Gulf of Mexico SGS

10. Okefenokee Swamp *
11. Baltimore

12. Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie SGS

13. Golden color of the aspen trees. Don’t you DAILY TIMES-CALL students in Longmont and you

DAILY SENTINEL students in Grand Junction laugh at this question.

14. Cincinnati = N.E. NY Jets = S.W. SGS

New Orleans = S.E. Kansas City = N.E.

15. TX, LA, MS, AL, GA, SC, NC. ** SGS
* Last April 16, the largest wildfire in Georgia’s history started in the Okefenokee Swamp area. Can

anyone find out how much damage it did to the area? Because of smoke, highway 1 between Waycross and Jacksonville was closed, and I-10 was closed frequently.

** OBJECTIVE: To teach state identification. Be flexible on grading these questions as cartographers will tell you all maps are not the same. If a student can prove that by the map he/she is using that the corner of a state is or is not touched, allow the answer. Some students will realize that airplanes fly the “Great Circle Route” above the Earth’s surface, but for these questions they will be considered to fly in a straight line, or the “Crow Flight” route. IDEA! Challenge your students to be able to point out and name each of the 50 states on an outline map of the U.S. in one(1) minute by the 12th week of the NFL season. This will be a great public relations activity for you. Parents will love what their child is learning and accomplishing.

To facilitate grading, demand the states be listed in the order they are traversed en route to a city. This is good mental discipline for the students. The state of departure and the state of arrival will always be the first and last, respectively. State Geography Standards



Answer Key

September 16, 2007 - Week #2

How many French fries will you GRAND FORKS HERALD students eat at the Potato Bowl this week?

Ms. Lindlauf said you give free taters to out-of-staters. Is this true?

Did any of you GRAND FORKS HERALD students have a bad experience with the June flood? Did the

Red River reach a predicted record crest of 41 feet? The record was 40.11 ft. set in 2005.

All of you JOURNAL GAZETTE and NEWS-SENTINEL students in Ft. Wayne had better be enjoying

the Johnny Appleseed Festival.

Are all you HERALD-WHIG readers in Quincy, IL, frolicking at the Riverfest?
Just for you ANN ARBOR NEWS students. Famous track star Jesse Owens was born on September 12,

1913. How many world records did he break at a track meet in Ann Arbor on May 25, 1935? He broke three records and tied one other. If he had done that today, do you think Domino’s would have treated him to pizza?

NEXT WEEK: Are your plans in order to recognize Constitution Day next Monday?

Four Corners region of the United States

Studying American history along the Natchez Trace

A horse beat Tom Thumb, the “Iron Horse” in a race in Baltimore

River cities in the NFL

With so much negative news going on in the sports world, how about a breath of fresh air? Have a

student read and report on “It’s How You Play the Game”, by Brian Kilmeade. The book profiles 100

celebrities and examines how the discipline and rules learned on the field prepared them to handle their lives with sportsmanship and dignity.

Students might be interested in knowing that the National Football League was formed on September 17,

1920 in Canton, Ohio. The NFL Hall of Fame is in Canton.

The first Monday Night Football game was played on September 21, 1970.
September 23, 1779, is the date of a famous naval battle in American history. John Paul Jones, captain of the Bonhomme Richard, reportedly said to the British captain of the Serapis, “Sir, I have not yet begun to fight.”
Have a couple of students monitor the scores of the coming Sunday games to see which team overcame the greatest half-time deficit to win the game. Perhaps this team said at half-time, “We have not yet begun to fight.”



Answer Key

September 23, 2007 - Week #3

1. NY Giants

2. Atlanta, Boston, Denver

3. Pennsylvania

4. Charlotte (CAR) Panthers, Buffalo Bills

5. Baltimore, Green Bay, Tampa Bay, Oakland, Seattle. Any POST-CRESCENT students going up to

the game? How many TD passes does Favre have now? SGS

6. Green Bay

7. Miami Dolphins

8. Mississippi River = New Orleans. Ohio River = Pittsburgh. Missouri River = Kansas City SGS

9. UT, AZ, CO, NM

10. Times will vary with the city you are in and the day’s newspaper you are using. SGS
11. Accept any reasonable answer. The Natchez Trace was an important commercial and military route

between Natchez, MS, and Nashville, TN, in the early 1800’s. Pioneers, farmers and merchants

floated their goods down the Mississippi River to New Orleans then returned via the Trace. The Natchez Trace was well known, well used and infamous. A report anyone? You might not want the students to report on Natchez “under the hill”.
Students might like to know the Natchez Fall Pilgrimage runs from September 30 – October 14.

This is a tour of 18 antebellum mansions.

12. Cleveland Browns over Cheyenne, WY

Buffalo Bills over Albany, NY

Cincinnati Bengals over Indianapolis, IN, and over Helena, MT.
13. FL, NC, VA, MD, DE, NJ, NY. Be generous in scoring this. Wanted the students exposed to the

small states.

14. Baltimore

NEXT WEEK: September 24th is National Punctuation Day. Teacher, this may interest you.
“Life” of Paul Bunyan for English and literature teachers

Cruising on the Erie Canal

California and Florida are the leading orange producing states

Location of the Grand Canyon and the Everglades

Traveling the Santa Fe Trail

Salton Sea and Chocolate Mountains in so. California

Cartoons of Thomas Nast

Look ahead at the City, State, Team Name exercise on page 56. Decide if you want to give this quiz after the 4th, 5th or 6th week.

Are all you POST-CRESCENT students in Appleton, WI, going to Octoberfest?



Answer Key

September 30, 2007 - Week #4

1. Green Bay Packers, Philadelphia Eagles

2. Atlanta, Indianapolis, Phoenix

3. Indianapolis

4. Harvest Moon *

5. Many answers. Have English, reading, literature teachers and parents help. Do you LEADER-TELEGRAM students get to the camp often?

6. NY Jets. A bucket of water was brought from the Atlantic Ocean and poured into Lake Erie to

signify the meeting of the waters. At that time, Buffalo was called the “Gateway to the West.”

See: NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC magazine, “The Erie Canal: Living Link to Our Past”, November 1990, pages 38 – 65. BUFFALO NEWS and TIMES UNION students don’t have to

answer this question. SGS Examine the back of a New York quarter carefully. Perhaps with a magnifying glass.

7. Oakland Raiders vs. Miami Dolphins

8. Arizona has the Grand Canyon. Did one of Babe’s horns really dig the Grand Canyon?

Florida has the Everglades
9. Kansas City Chiefs. Santa-Cali-Gon Days in Independence, MO, are celebrated over the Labor Day weekend, but the website will give you the information. Have the students realize that Independence is where the Santa Fe, California Trail and Oregon Trail all began. SGS Any of you KANSAS CITY STAR students attend? See: NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC magazine,

“Along the Santa Fe Trail”, March 1991, pages 98 - 123. ** Great American history lesson.

10. Salton Sea and the Chocolate Mountains. The Salton is not a sea at all, it’s a 365 sq. mile lake.

What are the natural chemical reactions that sap oxygen from the water each July and cause

fish to die? Millions of tilapia died over the weekend of July 21-22, 2007.
11. The editorial, opinion or viewpoint page. Students may not care much about Nast’s political cartoons, but they will want to know that it was Nast that gave us our image of Santa Claus as we see him today. You students in New York will want to study Nast and Boss Tweed.
* Some answers are written on solid lines like this: __________. Other answers are to be written on broken lines like this: _ _ _ _ _. The solid lines are used for very general answers. The broken line is a way of being more helpful to the student with the number of spaces matching the number of letters in the correct answer.
** Students must understand that the Oregon, California and Mormon trails were pioneer trails.

The Santa Fe Trail was a commercial trail.

NEXT WEEK: Panhandle states, and West Virginia has two panhandles

Lake of the Ozarks in Missouri – Okefenokee Swamp in Georgia

London Bridge in Lake Havasu City, AZ

Sailing from Miami to Houston. Straits, gulf, bay, channel

Directions, intermediate and cardinal

Door Peninsula and Green Bay – “Rip Van Winkle” in the Catskill Mts.

Hudson River and the boroughs of New York City

Works of Frederic S. Remington - Writer Damon Runyan and sports

Any WICHITA EAGLE students going to Woofstock next week? What kind of mutt will you strut?


Answer Key

October 7, 2007 - Week #5

1. Green Bay, Nashville. Any POST-CRESCENT students going up to the game? Have your


2. Charlotte(CAR) Panthers near Montgomery, AL

Baltimore Ravens over Lincoln, NE

3. Texas, Oklahoma SGS

4. Idaho

5. West Virginia

6. Lake of the Ozarks. When the Erie Canal was completed, Buffalo was the “Gateway to the West”.

St. Louis is now the “Gateway to the West” because the Lewis & Clark Expedition was launched

from nearby Hartford, IL, directly across from the mouth of the Missouri River. See the back of a

Missouri quarter. SGS
7. London Bridge was disassembled, shipped to the U.S. and reassembled at Lake Havasu City. It was dedicated on October 10, 1971, and it isn’t falling down. See:
8. WA, ID, MT, ND, SD, MN, WI, MI, OH, PA
9. Straits of Florida; across the Gulf of Mexico; into Galveston Bay; and up the Houston Ship Channel.

10. Phoenix(AZ) Cardinals

11. Phoenix(AZ) = N.E. Charlotte(CAR) = S.W.

Seattle = S.E. Jacksonville = N.W.

12. West

13. Lake Michigan, around the tip of the Door Peninsula, and south on Green Bay. SGS

14. Jacksonville Jaguars
15. Hudson River

16. Holland and Lincoln tunnels. Newark students, remember when the truck was stuck in the Lincoln?

17. Manhattan, Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn and Staten Island.

18. Catskill Mts. Any copies of “Rip” in the library? Any TIMES UNION students have friends or family

involved in the June flash flooding in the southern part of the Catskills? If so, tell Mr. Stapleton.
19. Buffalo Bills, Washington Redskins, Kansas City Chiefs, Dallas Cowboys, Houston Texans,

Denver Broncos, Indianapolis Colts and San Francisco 49ers.

20. Sports section. Mr. Runyan was born in Manhattan, KS. Do you think he was a Wildcat fan?

From Manhattan, it would be heretical if he were a Jayhawk fan.

NEXT WEEK: Questions followed by a hyphen or dash(-) are easier questions

Columbus Day. Columbia, SC, Columbus, OH, and Columbus, GA

Madison, WI, is on an isthmus

Peninsulas, peninsulas and peninsulas

Latitude of Cincinnati and Kansas City

Food: Chili in Cincinnati, BBQ in Kansas City

Appalachian, Rocky and Cascade Mountains – Hike the Appalachian Trail

Leif Erikson Day and Viking history

Location of the U.S. Naval Academy

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