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PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY®

Answer Key

October 14, 2007 - Week #6


1- Columbus Day *

2- Columbia, SC. The Rock ‘n Roll Hall of Fame is in Cleveland.

3- Columbus, OH. ** See: www.santamaria.org

4- Columbus, GA


5- Name the state capital these teams will fly over or near going to their game. SGS

Charlotte(CAR) Panthers over Oklahoma City, OK

Philadelphia Eagles over Trenton, NJ

Minneapolis(MN) Vikings near Madison, WI

Boston(N.E.) Patriots over Frankfort, KY

Houston Texans over Tallahassee, FL


6. A narrow strip of land surrounded by water on two sides. SGS

7. Lake Mendota and Lake Monona

8- Cincinnati Bengals. http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/dictionary.html A good glossary of terms.
9- NC, TN, AR, OK, TX, NM, AZ. Expect argument on SC, and allow it if you want.

10- Chicago, Cleveland

11- Florida. Yes.

12- Delmarva Peninsula. Hope all the students are using the Study Hint Sheet. SGS

13. Olympic Peninsula

14. Baja California. Hope you students in Long Beach never go to Tijuana.

15- Door Peninsula.
16. West. 39 degrees N. latitude.

17. Cincinnati known for chili. Kansas City is known for BBQ. KANSAS CITY STAR students had better

not miss this question. If you STAR students do well, Mr. Sajevic might buy you a slab.

Do any of you KANSAS CITY STAR readers ever go to the Boulevard Drive-in theatre?


18. Appalachian Mountains. Tell the students the Appalachians form the eastern Continental Divide,

but no questions will ever be asked about it. A sign near mile-marker 54 on I-26 near Hendersonville, NC, advises that you are crossing the Eastern Continental Divide at 2,130 ft.


19. Springer Mountain, GA, to Mount Katahdin, ME. Have a couple of students use some yarn to mark the trail on a map from Springer Mountain, GA; Fontana Dam, NC; Damascus, VA; Pearisburg, VA; Waynesboro, VA; Harpers Ferry, WV; Wind Gap, PA; Danbury, CT; Great Barrington, MA; Hanover, NH; Monson, ME; Mount Katahdin, ME.

www.appalachiantrail.org. Many websites about the “AT”. See www.museumofappalachia.com


20. Charlotte(CAR) Panthers, New Orleans Saints

21. Cascade Mountain Range SGS

22. Chicago. Do you students in Wisconsin know about the disastrous Peshtigo fire?
23. Minneapolis(MN) Vikings. *** www.vikingship.org www.havhingsten.dk/index www.seastallion.ie

Do you agree with this, Ms. Jenko?


24. Hagar the Horrible

25. Baltimore


continued
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PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY®

Answer Key

October 14, 2007 - Week #6


* On this and succeeding quizzes, when the number of a question is followed by a hyphen or dash(-), this denotes the easy, repetitive questions about information most students should have acquired by now; especially if it is information coming directly from the "Study Hint Sheet". Some teachers may have their students answer only the questions followed by the hyphen or dash.
** Eight states of the U.S. have Columbia counties. At least 11 states have towns named Columbia, and at least 12 states have towns named Columbus. Have students determine if there is one or the other in your state. Students in Cincinnati, Toledo, Youngstown and Elyria don’t have to

answer this.


*** In July, the Sea Stallion Viking ship with a crew of 65 was re-creating a trip from Denmark to Ireland

taken 1,000 years ago. Google Sea Stallion of Glendalough. Also in July, it was announced that

a father and son in England found one of the biggest Viking treasures ever. The find on January

6, 2007, included coins, jewelry and items from Ireland, France, Russia and Scandinavia that had

been hidden after the year 927. Can you find any reference to this in the British Museum?

October 13th is INTERNATIONAL NEWSPAPER CARRIER DAY. Please acknowledge the boy, the girl,

the man, the woman that delivers your newspaper each day. www.naa.org

NEXT WEEK: Cape Cod Peninsula. Michigan and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan

Lots of information on the Great Lakes

Vidalia onions from Georgia

Vieux Carre of New Orleans and the Underground of Atlanta

Cape Hatteras and Outer Banks of North Carolina, plus lots of information

for the American history teacher.

Interstate highway map needed. Capital cities along I-35

Capital cities along I-80 and the infamous Donner Pass

Source and mouth of the Missouri River

West and east extreme cities of the Mississippi River drainage basin

www.greatriver.com www.greatriver.com/tribs.htm

The Allegheny and Monongahela rivers form the Ohio River

Leadville, CO, (Lake County) is near the source of the Arkansas River

Source of Tennessee River near Knoxville, TN

Soap Box Derby is run in Akron, OH

Latitude and longitude


Be sure to share the interesting comment with your students about Atlanta being on the eastern

Continental Divide and to where the rainfall runs.


How many of you DAYTONA BEACH NEWS-JOURNAL students are planning to attend Biketoberfest next week?
Students living on or near a Great Lake, try to obtain information about viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS). See notes related to this destructive virus on page 31.
Try to obtain as much information as you can regarding Lake Superior and why it is so low and why it is

cooling. Scientists are mystified by the extremes. It’s as low as it has been in 80 years, and this is costing the shipping industry millions of dollars.


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PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY®

Answer Key

October 21, 2007 - Week #7


1- New York, Florida, Texas

2- Tampa Bay Buccaneers

3- Cape Cod Peninsula BOSTON HERALD and CAPE COD TIMES students don’t have to answer

this. Students in New Bedford do.


4- Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, Lake Huron, Lake Erie. Look at the back of a Michigan quarter. Since Lake Ontario doesn’t touch the state, many people are of the opinion that it shouldn’t be shown. What do you students in Pontiac, Flint, Ann Arbor and Saginaw think? *

Waters are low on the lakes this year costing shipping companies millions of dollars in revenue.


5- Buffalo. Hope this isn’t NEWS to students in Buffalo.

6- 1,463,281 – 550,521 = 912,760

7- 75,192 – 68,756 = 6,434 Practice subtraction with the population of competing cities or the stadium

sizes as much as necessary to master the skill.

No more population or capacity questions will be asked.


8. Sweet Vidalia onions are an herb-vegetable belonging to the lily family. You students in Longmont probably know about onions, too. Find out about the “1015” onion developed in Texas.

9. Atlanta Falcons vs. New Orleans Saints. Discuss the future of New Orleans with your students.

Seek opinions from the students’ parents. See: NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC magazine, “Should

New Orleans Rebuild?”, August 2007, pages 32 – 67.


10- Miami

11. New Orleans

12. Boston(N.E.) Patriots
13. Cape Hatteras is part of the Outer Banks that extend for 30 miles from the North Carolina shore. These shoals and chain of islands are very dangerous to ships. Lighthouses and other offshore lights warn ships away. This is part of Cape Hatteras National Seashore. Dangerous winds, treacherous currents, shallow waters have all combined to cause more than 500 ships to sink

here. The ironclad, the Monitor, sank somewhere off Hatteras. A native of the Outer Banks said, "The sea at Hatteras is enigmatic and sometimes seemingly sorcerous, a place where winds and currents stir the ghosts of time." Discuss the Outer Banks being a great vacation destination. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, “Cape Hatteras Lighthouse Makes Tracks”, May 2000, page 98


NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC magazine, “North Carolina’s Outer Banks”, October 1987, pages

484 - 513. Did you get to the Outer Banks this year, Mr. Eck?


14. The Monitor. Is it deja vu or a retroship? ** They brought the Monitor’s turret to the surface on August 5, 2002. This is a must see site for all history teachers. www.monitor.noaa.gov www.history.navy.mil/index.html http://home.att.net/~iron.clad/2/legacy_of_the_uss_monitor.htm
15. Minneapolis(MN) Vikings. Glad the Vikes didn’t have to cross that Mississippi River bridge.

16. I - 35 through Des Moines, IA, and Oklahoma City, OK. Check out Bricktown in OKC..


17. I - 80. Sacramento, CA; Salt Lake City, UT; Cheyenne, WY; Lincoln, NE; Des Moines, IA. SGS

Be sure to stop at The Great Platte River Road Archway Monument over I-80 in Kearney, NE!!

A lot of pioneer history here!! www.archway.org I-80 follows much of the original Lincoln Highway in many states. BEAVER COUNTY TIMES students should know something about

this original highway. www.lincolnhighwayassoc.org

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PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY®



Answer Key

October 21, 2007 - Week #7


18. Donner Pass Named from the Donner family and group that died here in a winter storm in 1846-47.

A short report anyone? It would be a gory report. Do you remember this Lake Tahoe area was

devastated by forest fires this past July.
19. Missouri River

20. Pittsburgh Steelers vs. Denver Broncos *** SGS


21. The Allegheny and Monongahela rivers come together at the Golden Triangle. BEAVER COUNTY TIMES students had better know this!!! You DAILY SENTINEL students in Grand Junction know all about confluences. But, compared to Pittsburgh, is it such a grand junction? Marti, be nice now. SGS How often do you TRIBUNE-REVIEW students get down to the Golden Triangle?
22. Arkansas River You students in Ft. Smith better give the correct answer.

23. Tennessee River

24. Harrisburg, PA

25. Soap Box Derby. A young man from St. Johns, Michigan, won the Derby this year. Did any of you

Michigan students enter locally or go to the national?
26. Lake Tahoe This area was devastated by forest fires this past summer.
* H-O-M-E-S is an acronym to remember the names of the Great Lakes. Four lakes have a common border with Canada. Lake Michigan does not. SGS

Lake Superior, 1,333 ft. deep, is the largest body of fresh water in the world.

Lake Michigan, 923 ft. deep, is the only one wholly within the U.S.

Lake Ontario, 802 ft. deep, is the smallest.

Lake Huron, 750 ft. deep.

Lake Erie, 210 ft. deep, has its waters plunge 193 ft. over Niagara Falls to feed Lake Ontario. Ships get around Niagara Falls by going through the 27 mile Welland Canal.
Lake Erie is 326 ft. higher than Lake Ontario, so eight locks take ships from one lake to the other.
Is this trivia or facts you need? Lake Huron is the second-largest in area, but Lake Michigan is second in volume. www.cruisingthegreatlakes.org

You students living in the Great Lakes watershed must be informed about the Great Lakes Water Resource Compact.

continued

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PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY®

Answer Key

October 21, 2007 - Week #7

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC magazine, “Down the Drain?-The Incredible Shrinking Great Lakes”, September 2002, pages 34 - 51.

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, “The Great Lakes’ Troubled Waters”, July 1987, pages 2 - 31.


Viral hemorrhagic septicemia(VHS), a deadly virus, is killing fish in the St. Lawrence Seaway, Lake Ontario, Lake, Erie and Lake Huron. The virus was unexpectedly found in the Great Lakes in 2005. It causes fish to hemorrhage like the Ebola virus does to humans in Africa.
Did the virus return in May of 2007, when waters warm to the temperature in which the virus thrives?

40-59 degrees. Might get information from: Great Lakes Fish Health Committee


Disease could be catastrophic to a $4.5 billion commercial and sports fishing industry. Scientists are not sure how VHS entered the Great Lakes, but most suspect it was the dumping of water from an international cargo ship.
** On July 4, 2000, the Navy announced the development of a new generation of destroyers, the

DD-21. Thirty-two are to be built, and the first three are to be delivered in 2010. “In appearance, it hearkens back to the USS Monitor--the ironclad ‘cheesebox on a raft’ of the Civil War.” History teachers--see NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC magazine, July 2002, pages 82-101, on raising the H.L. Hunley,(Secret Weapon of the Confederacy), a submarine used during the Civil War. www.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0207


*** It has been said there is a street in Atlanta where the rainfall that runs down one side of the street

goes to the Atlantic, and the water that runs down the other side goes to the Gulf. Look closely at a map of Atlanta and/or Georgia. From the way the streams flow, it’s easy to see it is on the Eastern Continental Divide. In the Five Points area of Atlanta, water on the east side goes to the Atlantic and west side goes to the Gulf. Source: Street and Sewer Department--City of Atlanta.


Go to www.epa.gov/adopt. Type in your zip code and you will see the watershed for the area in which you live. Students will find it interesting.

NEXT WEEK: Ohio River forms natural boundary between five states

Unique “Y” bridge in Zanesville, OH

Sonoran Desert of Arizona and Imperial Valley of California

NY Giants and Miami Dolphins going to London

First oil well at Titusville, PA

Liberty dedicated in 1886

Cereal grain producing states

Latitude and longitude An exercise if you want to use it.

Find out if any students or parents are into geocaching for a hobby

Time zones

Harvard University located in Cambridge, MA

Royal Gorge Bridge and the Arkansas River

Sierra Nevada Mountain Range

Half Dome in Yosemite National Park shown on the California quarter


In preparation for Halloween, students might like to read “Carving Cues from a Pumpkin Pro”, THE OLD

FARMER’S ALMANAC-2007, pages 44-50. Pictures of the carvings are impressive.


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PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY®

Answer Key

October 28, 2007 - Week #8


1- New York, Tampa Hope you St. Augustine and Daytona Beach students answer correctly.

2- California

3- Cincinnati Any ENQUIRER students take part in the Purple People Bridge Climb before it closed?
4- WV, KY, OH, IN, IL. Do you students in Maysville know much about the island erosion in the river

going on for the 362 miles between Maysville and the Pennsylvania state line? * SGS


5. The unique “Y” bridge is there over the confluence of the Licking and Muskingum rivers. You might tell students to call the C of C at 800-743-2303 or contact cvb@zanesville.com It’s the only place where you can cross a bridge and still be on the same side of the river. Students should know that Zane Grey was from here. Wonder how he was named? Discuss some Zane Grey stories in an English or literature class.
6- NY Giants and Miami Dolphins

7. Sonoran Desert of Arizona and Imperial Valley ** NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC magazines of

September 1994 and October 2000, have articles about the Sonoran Desert. SGS

Talk to your produce man about what we get from the Imperial Valley


8. Edward L. Drake hit the first oil well in the United States in Titusville.

Do you BEAVER COUNTY TIMES students get to Titusville often?


9. Quaker State and Pennzoil. Wonder where Texaco had its start? On May 27, 1889, the South Penn

Oil Co. was founded, and this later became the Pennzoil Co. Quaker State moved from Oil City,

PA, to Irving, TX, in 1995. They then merged with Pennzoil in 1998, and moved headquarters to Houston, TX. On March 26, 2002, it was announced that Shell Oil would purchase Pennzoil-Quaker State for $1.8 billion. Most of the Texaco stations in Texas have become Shell stations.
10. Buffalo Bills Do you BUFFALO NEWS students acknowledge October 26th in any way?
11. I-94. Corn, wheat, oats, rice, barley. www.kelloggscerealcityusa.org SGS

The word cereal is from Cerealia, the name of ancient Roman ceremonies that honored Ceres, the goddess of grain.

12. The leading ____corn_______ producing state is ___Iowa_________.

The leading ____wheat______ producing state is ___Kansas_______.

The leading ____rice________ producing state is ___Arkansas_____.

The leading ____oats_______ producing state is ___N. Dakota_____.

The leading ____barley_____ producing state is ___Alaska, but ND in the 48 states. ***

Have the students talk to mom and dad, or to the grocer. With so much corn going into ethanol production, by what percentage has the price of your cereal increased in the last 6-12 months?


13- 1886 - Buffalo Bills – 1886 is the year Coca-Cola was invented in Atlanta, and the Daisy BB/airgun

was invented. The Daisy Airgun Museum is in Rogers, AR. www.daisymuseum.com


14. 1:00 in Cleveland ****

15. 10:00 a.m. in Oakland

16. 3:00 in Houston SGS
17. Boston. The university is in Cambridge, but several schools of the university are in Boston. Hope

none of you NIE students in Massachusetts missed this.

continued

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PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY®



Answer Key

October 28, 2007 - Week #8


18. Oakland Raiders. Arkansas River SGS

19. World's highest suspension bridge soars 1,053 ft. above the Arkansas River.

20- CA , NV, UT, CO, KS, MO, KY, TN. The Raiders are flying over Springfield, MO, but this is not the

Springfield in which the Simpsons live.


21. Sierra Nevada Now you have studied the Sierras, Cascades, Rockies & Appalachians. SGS

22. Half Dome

23. San Diego One almost never hears about the swallows leaving Capistrano because a song was

never written about it. Asked this question to launch a discussion on migration. The purple martin is a type of swallow, and in the week of July 23, 2007, en route to Brazil, they descended upon the Dallas-Ft. Worth area in such numbers that restaurants could not allow patio dining.

24. To be determined
* Students should know the difference between natural and political boundaries. Students should understand man makes political boundaries, and Mother Nature makes natural boundaries.
Discuss the types of boundaries students know but never think much about. School boundaries, family property lines, boundaries used in sports(foul lines, end zone, lane markers). Are there any official or unofficial(unstated)boundaries in your city? For example, railroad tracks, wide streets, rivers, creeks, economic or ethnic boundaries. An example of an unofficial boundary is this quote stating, “Elvis was born on the wrong side of the tracks in Tupelo.”
** Much of the iceberg lettuce you will eat this winter comes from the Imperial Valley and the Gila River around Yuma, AZ. Carrots, too. The Imperial Valley is irrigated by the Colorado. Too much demand, too little water. Are you aware of the recent agreements between cities in CA & AZ, and Imperial Valley farmers over rights to water from the Colorado River? Information on www.doi.gov/water2025 www.r5.fs.fed.us/water_resources. Good site for students in California.
The Colorado River is in deep trouble. Teachers and students in Las Vegas and Grand Junction should tell us more. They are experimenting with de-salting sea water in Yuma, AZ, and

Brownsville, TX, but it is not yet economical to do so. Time will tell. SGS


See: NAT’L GEOG. magazine, “The Colorado: A River Drained Dry”, June 1991, pages 4-34.
*** Have you read “The Breakfast Cereal Gourmet” by David Hoffman? The Trix rabbit is the longest

running ad campaign in TV history---since 1960. Grape Nuts are neither grapes or nuts. They are made from wheat and barley. Lou Gehrig was the first athlete on a Wheaties box. Michael Jordan has appeared more than any athlete---18 times on a Wheaties box.


**** Asked the time zone question because of the game in London. We would consider Greenwich a

suburb of London. On September 25, 1676, Greenwich Mean Time became the standard for England. On November 1, 1884, a 25 nation meeting in Washington, D.C. made it the standard for the world. You might want to use this as an opportunity to inform the students that a.m. is an abbreviation for ante meridian, and p.m. means post meridian as measured from the Greenwich Meridian or prime meridian. Greenwich time is sometime referred to as zulu time.


NEXT WEEK: Mason-Dixon Line - Interstate highways – Florida’s white sand beaches

Permian Basin of Texas – Lake Mead - Diamonds in Arkansas and are igneous

Be a horologist next Saturday with DST ending

33

PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY®


Enjoy this cereal character quiz!

1. Toucan Sam a. Lucky Charms


2. Dig ‘em b. Cocoa Puffs
3. Snap! Crackle! & Pop! c. Frosted Flakes
4. The Rabbit d. Smacks
5. L.C. Leprechaun e. Cookie Crisp
6. Tony the Tiger f. Rice Krispies
7. Cornelius the Rooster g. Trix
8. The Baker h. Honey Nut Cherrios
9. Sonny,--Cuckoo Bird I. Corn Flakes
10. The Cookie Hound j. Cinnamon Toast Crunch
11. BuzzBee k. Froot Loops
12. Sugar Bear l. Golden Crisp

1-k, 2-d, 3-f, 4-g, 5-a, 6-c, 7-I, 8-j, 9-b, 10-e, 11-h, 12-L


34

Latitude and Longitude Exercise

ANSWER KEY

Note: Students might enjoy working with www.hometownlocator.com



LATITUDE LONGITUDE

Atlanta 33 degrees 45' N = 34 84 degrees 23' W = 84

Baltimore 39 " 17' N = 39 76 " 36' W = 77

Boston(N.E.) 42 " 21' N = 42 71 " 04' W = 71

Buffalo 42 " 53' N = 43 78 " 53' W = 79

Charlotte(CAR) 35 " 13' N = 35 80 " 50' W = 81

Chicago 41 " 53' N = 42 87 " 38' W = 88

Cincinnati 39 " 06' N = 39 84 " 31' W = 85

Cleveland 41 “ 29’ N = 41 81 “ 41’ W = 82

Dallas 32 " 47' N = 33 96 " 49' W = 97

Denver 39 " 44' N = 40 104 " 59' W = 105

Detroit 42 " 20' N = 42 83 " 03' W = 83

Green Bay 44 " 31' N = 45 88 " 00' W = 88

Houston 29 “ 45’ N = 30 95 “ 21’ W = 95

Indianapolis 39 " 46' N = 40 86 " 09' W = 86

Jacksonville 30 " 19' N = 30 81 " 39' W = 82

Kansas City 39 " 03' N = 39 94 " 30' W = 95

Miami 24 " 47' N = 25 80 " 11' W = 80

Minneapolis(MN) 44 “ 58’ N = 45 93 “ 15’ W = 93

Nashville(TN) 36 “ 09’ N = 36 86 “ 46’ W = 87

New Orleans 29 " 58' N = 30 90 " 04' W = 90

New York 40 " 43' N = 41 74 " 00' W = 74

Oakland 37 " 48' N = 38 122 " 15' W = 122

Philadelphia 39 " 57' N = 40 75 " 09' W = 75

Phoenix(AZ) 33 " 27' N = 33 112 “ 04' W = 112

Pittsburgh 40 " 26' N = 40 79 " 59' W = 80

St. Louis 38 " 37' N = 39 90 " 12' W = 90

San Diego 32 " 43' N = 33 117 " 09' W = 117

San Francisco 37 " 47' N = 38 122 " 25' W = 122

Seattle 47 " 36' N = 48 122 " 20' W = 122

Tampa 27 " 57' N = 28 82 " 27' W = 82

Washington 38 " 55' N = 39 77 " 00' W = 77

35

PIGSKIN GEOGRAPHY®

Answer Key

November 4, 2007 - Week #9


1- Indianapolis

2- Charlotte(CAR) Panthers, Baltimore Ravens

3. Ravens going to Pittsburgh *

4- New York, Pennsylvania


5. Seattle on I-90. Jacksonville on I-10. Washington on I-95. I-90 is the longest Interstate highway in

the United States running from Boston to Seattle. ** La CROSSE TRIBUNE students had better

not miss this I-90 question.
6. White sand You NEWS HERALD students in Panama City can skip this question.
7. Largest man-made lake in the U.S., and one of the largest man-made lakes in the world. Do you

REVIEW-JOURNAL students party down there much?

Oddity: As big as Texas is, there is only one natural lake in the state. SGS
A geography book stated that the Grand Canyon and Lake Mead are at the confluence of three of the four desert ecosystems in North America: Great Basin, Sonoran and Mojave. Know the fourth one is the Chihuahuan Desert around the Big Bend region of Texas. See: NATIONAL

GEOGRAPHIC magazine, “Lush Life in the Sonoran Desert”, September 2006, pages 124-148.


The Chihuahuan Desert is home to one-fourth of the 1,500 cactus species known to science, including many species found nowhere else.
8. Accept Midland, Odessa, Big Springs or any city along I -20 in that area. FYI The area around

Sweetwater and Snyder, TX, is the leading windpower energy producer in America. SGS

On June 22, 2007, there were 1,771 drilling rigs in the United States.
9. You can dig for diamonds. Murfreesboro is where the only public mine in the world is found. ***

Diamonds are igneous. Diamonds found in Africa and Arkansas come from a rock called peridotite, and this type of rock is igneous. On March 10, 2007, 8-year-old twins from Houston, TX, found a 2 1/2 carat diamond at Crater of Diamonds State Park.


10. Little Rock, AR, Charleston, WV

11. It is a pedestrian and bicycle bridge across the Arkansas River claiming to be the longest bridge in

the world serving this sole recreational purpose. www.bigdambridge.com/party/about.aspx
12. “Rubber Capital of the World” Firestone and Goodyear tire companies began here. Every NASCAR

fan should know where Goodyear tires come from.


13. Horology is the science of measuring time and making clocks. You are in charge of setting the clocks back one hour. Standard time will return. Phoenix will be right with its time zones now. http://tycho.usno.navy.mil Europe has horology stores; in the U.S. we have jewelry shops.
* A boundary between Maryland and Pennsylvania. It was popularly known as the dividing line

between the free and slave states, but this was not its purpose. It was the result of a dispute between the Penns of Pennsylvania and the Calverts of Maryland. Milestones brought from England were set along the line. Referred to as “crown stones,” every fifth stone bore the arms of the Baltimore family on one side and the Penn family on the other. This 233-mile line does not extend west of the Ohio River. Can they still be seen anywhere? This line was later used in the


continued

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