The country of Algeria unfortunately still deals with issues of child labor. Although the government has attempted to prevent child labor throughout the country, minimal advancements have been made. The Government’s Intersectoral Commission Relative to the Prevention of and Fight against Child Labor recently attempted to draft a law which would protect children from working in hazardous situations. However, the government has not adopted it yet.
The problem with Algerian law is that it does not clarify 18 as the minimum age for dangerous job conditions. There is also no law against children participating in other various dangerous activities. In 2012, the government of Algeria, for the first time, issued prosecutions for human trafficking, and made sure there were guaranteed benefits for victims, but that did not include children.
Although Alergia lacks adequate statistics, we know from many sources that Algeria has perhaps the worst forms of child labor out there today. Many children face sexual and physical abuse in the home, especially those who work as domestic servants. Other jobs children perform include working in agriculture, construction, and mechanics.
Sweatshops are also a form of illegal Algerian child labor. Algeria has done just as little trying to put an end to sweatshops as it’s done with other forms of child labor. Laws and acts have been attempted, but for whatever reason, we as a country, cannot get it done.
To solve at least part of this problem, we, Algeria, as a government need to officially adopt the law that will protect children from working in such dangerous situations.
“Algeria.” US Department of Labor. N.p.: n.p., n.d. 1-4. US Department of Labor. Web. 11 Feb. 2015. .
Perkins, Francis. “Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor.” United States Department of Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs, n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2015. .
Submitted by: Colombia Delegates: Madeline Howarth and Lina
The issues of child labor and sweatshops saw their beginnings in the industrial revolution, especially where it pertains to Europe and the United States. The reason for such exploitation was the same then as it is now: utilizing the labor of children, who are often powerless to fend for themselves, is often far cheaper and more profitable for companies than hiring adults who have the ability to protest. These human rights violations are perpetuated by poverty; many families have little choice but to place their children in the workforce. This is demonstrated by the fact that the highest amount of child laborers in Colombia is seen in the poorer, rural areas; also, 37.3% of the 1,050,147 child laborers in Colombia work in an agricultural setting (Colombia Reports). Furthermore, some 800,000 children, while not officially classified as “laborers” because they do not get paid, perform 15 hours or more per week of household labors (Colombia Reports). Furthering these abuses is the fact that over 74.1 % of Colombia’s young girls and 63.4% of its young boys are not compensated monetarily for their work. Another major legacy of the labor abuses in the Industrial Revolution is the sweatshop. While best known for their prevalence in the clothing industry, these abusive workplaces (defined by Merriam Webster as “a shop or factory in which employees work for long hours at low wages and under unhealthy conditions) can be found in many other industries. An example is Colombia’s flower industry, which employs about 70% women and 20% children (International Labor Rights Fund) at the minimum wage in a toxic environment where fumigation from pesticides and repetitive motion injuries are commonplace. Because of these abuses, these two major societal issues must be a top priority.
Most recently on the international stage, Colombia has ratified the agreements drawn up at both the Minimum Age Convention (138) and the Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention (182) (ILO). Each of these two resolutions work to ease the pressure on child laborers in all industries-manufacturing, agriculture, service, etc.-and to eventually eradicate this abuse. The Minimum Age Convention set the general minimum age of labor for any ratifying country at fifteen years of age unless it falls into the category of “a Member whose economy and educational facilities are insufficiently developed,” in which case said age may be lowered to the age of fourteen. While this resolution has been effective in the countries that have ratified it, mainly by establishing laws that deter employers from utilizing child labor, it’s main downfall has been a lack of ratification from the areas that presumably need it most, for example Asia (Center for European Economic Research). The Worst Forms of Child Labor Convention mandates that all ratifying countries take immediate and decisive action to prevent child involvement in slavery, forced prostitution, drug trafficking, and jobs likely to harm the health, safety, or morals of the child. The main downfall of this program has been the inability of governments that ratify it to enforce the measures necessary or to pass adequate legislation (ILO). Furthermore, Colombia itself has taken action to prevent such abuses via the Labour and Minors Codes. The Labour Code seeks to assist workers in receiving fair and humanitarian treatment from their respective employers by mandating a minimum wage, labour benefits, vacation, contribution to social security and payroll taxes, and compensation for unjust firing. These laws also allow the formation of unions with bargaining power but require that the employer first be informed. (International Comparative Legal Guides). In contrast, the Minors Code determines the types of hazardous work prohibited to all children under the age of 18 and sets the minimum labor age at 14 years old for normal work and 12 years old for light work. Overall, a lack of trained inspectors has severely detrimented the success of theses institutions, highlighting the need for tighter governmental focus on such areas (Trade Union Advisory Committee). Overall, the laws put into place by the Republic of Colombia, both domestic and international, highlight the nation’s commitment to a more fair labor system; however, the major detriment to this has been an inability to enforce such measures.
In order to provide solvency for these major global issues, the nation of Colombia proposes a plan that will emphasize the achievement of employer-employee communications, a clear enforcement of a minimum working age, and prevention of child exploitation. These are, however, substantial reforms that, for many nations, especially those facing underground operatives or lack of funding, this may not be immediately feasible. It is for that reason that we propose an overarching goal of a reasonable minimum wage, ability to establish peaceful unions willing to collaborate with employers, and a minimum working age of 15 year old (18 in dangerous jobs); however, we propose that, in order to garner more widespread, willing, and productive involvement each nation develop a specific timeline adapted to their nation’s economic and social needs to achieve these goals. This will allow nations with less immediate access to the manpower or funding to achieve these goals without placing unnecessary strains on their domestic economies and government officials. This type of process will ultimately allow for more effective reforms for two reasons: a) the lack of immediate pressure will make the resolution more appealing and achievable for more nations and b) more effective long-term reform resulting from breaking the process of labor rights amendments into smaller, more manageable chunks. However, we do believe that, in any area where the Worst Forms of Child Labor, as determined by the ILO, are a rampant issue, immediate and forceful action must be taken. For these children, a lack of action can result in a life of suffering that no nation should stand for. To enforce this, we propose the usage of a well-trained government agency specifically dedicated to enforcing any and all child labor laws. Due to the complicated nature of the situation, a well-trained force is the only solution that can adequately address the situation. Through reforms such as these, we hope as a nation and as a society to make significant and lasting strides towards a labor force whose rights are respected and in which children are not exploited but rather nurtured into productive and able adults.
Submitted by: Germany
In recent years, the number of child rights violations has significantly decreased in developed countries, allowing for an exponentially better standard of life. However, rights violations in undeveloped countries still pose an unsettling problem to children, particularly those concerning labor. Forced child labor and dubious work condition produce harmful effects on children, whether they be physical or mental, all around the world.
The best solution to eradiating labor rights violations is to present alternatives to child labor. By implementing mandatory education in all societies, children will escape the confinement of sweatshops and factories. Education of the public on the negatives of child labor will also decrease its prevalence. If there is a mass cultural acceptance of the issues of child labor, it will cease to exist. Germany is also in favor of providing alternative employment opportunities for children and their parents so there is not a drop in income for the family. Lastly, we believe that establishing child protective services is essential to providing an extra cushion in conserving children’s rights.
Germany currently requires people employing underaged children in unsuitable jobs to pay a fine. Additionally, child labor complaints are investigated by the Ministry of Labor, Social Affairs, and Family. However, based on the current difficulty involved in detecting these labor violations, strategies must be put in place to increase vigilance. The Delegation of Germany suggests that a hotline be created in order to report suspected transgressors of child labor laws. Additionally, increased border surveillance may allow better protection of migrating child laborers. Germany wishes to see the rights of children preserved, and therefore supports resolutions that limit the extent of children at work.
Submitted by: India
The modern-day economy has made it difficult for corporations to become successful. Because of this, many companies have decided to use unethical tactics in order to achieve full production levels, while saving money. Multiple businesses have resorted to using children as workers because they can be paid lower wages. M.V. Foundation in Andhra Pradesh found nearly 400,000 children toiling for 14-16 hours a day in cottonseed production across the country (childlineindia.org). According to the UN, “India has become the world capital for child labor, employing over 55 million children aged everywhere from 5 to 14.” Poverty, lack of social security, and lack of universal education are the main causes of child labor. The children work long hours, do not go school and are often bonded to the employers by loans (corpwatch.org). Furthermore, many children can be found working in sweatshops. Sweatshops exploit their workers by giving them extremely low wages and no benefits. Big companies practice the abuse of human rights by paying their workers meager wage and forcing them to work in inhumane conditions (gleaner.rutgers.edu). In order to stop children labor in countries such as India, the UN has passed many resolutions. For example, the UN has issued Convention No. 182 in 1999, which requested governments to ban all forms of slavery and the use of children for illicit activities (United Nations). They also established a World Day Against Child Labor in 2002, which provided policy reforms to ensure the elimination of child labor.
Private groups in India are working hard to eliminate child labor and the use of sweatshops. The National Child Labor Project (NCLP) identifies working children under the age of 14, withdraws them from hazardous work, and provides them with education and vocational training. Between April, 2012 and March, 2013, 72,976 children were rescued and rehabilitated into NCLP schools in 266 districts across India. In addition, the Bonded Labor Schemes was used to rescue and rehabilitate child and adult bonded laborers. Each rescued bonded laborer was provided with 20,000 rupees ($325) and was offered additional assistance. Since poverty is a main cause of child labor, the Midday Meal Program gives 5 kg of food grains at subsidized prices every month to families living in poverty (dol.gov). Furthermore, The India Committee of the Netherlands issued a six-point charter of demands to cottonseed companies. This charter states, “Big corporations must begin a plan of action to eliminate all child labor in India and ensure every child goes to school” (corpwatch.org). Indian law is not fully consistent with international standards regarding sweatshops. A government official expressed, “The lack of a national minimum age for employment increases the likelihood that very young children would work in dangerous conditions” (dol.gov). India believes that providing more food for families will stop poverty and the need for child labor.
Many strategies are placed in India to prohibit the use of children as laborers in sweatshops and any other hazardous conditions. In 2013, Labor Law Enforcement agencies conducted 110,821 inspections, which identified 6,877 child labor violations. Around the same time, The Ministry of Home Affairs issued guidelines to all state governments on how to handle cases of child trafficking. These guidelines outline specific steps that police and officials must take when dealing with forced child labor. India believes that this can be taken one step further by including funding for more officers, so they can discover companies who use children as workers. Beyond that, the Government of India placed the Twelfth 5-Year Plan (2012-2017), which provides details on how the government should implant social protection schemes (dol.gov). India hopes that the use of child labor in sweatshops and other facilities is terminated, and that other countries work with India to promote a safe environment for children.
"CHILD Protection & Child Rights » Vulnerable Children » Children's Issues » Child Labour in India." Child Labour in India. Childline India Foundation, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2015.
GLEANER STAFF. "Sweatshops and Child Labor: The Price of Fashion?" The Gleaner. Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 18 Apr. 2012. Web. 17 Feb. 2015.
"India." The Journal of Asian Studies 27.5, Bibliography of Asian Studies 1967 (1968): 264-398. 2 0 1 3 F I N D I N G S O N T H E W O R S T F O R M S O F C H I L D L A B O R. Web. 17 Feb. 2015.
Suhasini. "CorpWatch : INDIA: Multinational Corporations Reap Profits from Child Labor in India's Cottonseed Farms." CorpWatch : INDIA: Multinational Corporations Reap Profits from Child Labor in India's Cottonseed Farms. OneWorld.net, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2015.
Child labor and sweatshops have been a growing problem since the industrial revolution. Something needs to be done about this serious issue that is effecting the youth of the world. If left unattended the problems will only worsen. Iraq, a country full of constant turmoil and economic changes, and home too many factory jobs, enterprising opportunities, and professions in oil rigging, is no exception to the appalling problem of child labor. Child labor can result in many problems especially supporting the ever increasing poverty gap. This is because by putting children into the workforce they face harsh working conditions and long hours they lose their ability to learn and grow safely. This, in turn, creates a bigger population of uneducated adults who can only pursue a career in the unfair jobs they have had since originally entering the workplace.
The first step in ending child labor is to find the cause and stop it before it can becomes a bigger problem. Iraq has already taken many extra steps to help decrease child labor and sweatshop work. This includes a package of benefits that reward families for keeping their children in school. Also, as a country they have taken many steps to put bigger restrictions on companies that employ children workers. However, large factory based companies are not the main culprit; many jobs in street and farm work are high employers of children. Because many families have these jobs as a main source of income the solution becomes more complex.
With a few steps Iraq is sure that the problem of child labor can be solved. First, we must keep children in schools. By making lower education, primary and preschool, more affordable we can get children into school earlier and keep children out of the work force from a younger age. Not only, must lower education be made more affordable but higher education must be affordable and easy to access. If students are able to stay in school cheaply they will gain the skill needed to get jobs in a more high paying and safe workplace. Also, if the price of schooling is made more affordable, children would not have to get jobs to help pay for schooling.
Secondly, and keeping with the schooling solution, families of children in school need to be able to obtain a larger and steadier income. With special government and worldwide programs we can make this a possibility. By having a reward system for families that send and keep their children in school, there will be a decreased need to have an extra worker for family incomes. Also, by having different training programs that can quickly train adults for higher positions in factory and farm work salaries of these workers can increase and, in turn, decrease the need for extra income.
Finally, by tightening regulations and punishments regarding labor, we can reduce the desire to hire child workers. These regulations include, but are not limited to, a minimum work age for certain jobs, special requirements for jobs, and heavy fines on companies that employ children. By following these steps, we are certain that we can decrease, if not stop, the ever growing problem of child labor.
"IRAQ: Child Labour on the Rise as Poverty Increases." IRINnews. N.p., 2014. Web. 07 Feb. 2015.
"Poverty Rates on the Rise in Iraq - Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the Middle East." Al-Monitor. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2015.
"Refworld | 2007 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor - Iraq."Refworld. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2015.
Children in Jordan are forced into child labor in agriculture and in far worse forms of child labor in domestic service as a result of human trafficking. A study by the United States Department of Labor found that 11,255 children ranging from the ages of 5-14 are being put to work (UNESCO 2012). However a census conducted in 2007, has estimates of children who wrestle with school and work at around 41,500 children, a number way higher than that of the survey UNESCO provided in 2012. These jobs range in category from: agricultural, services, industry, and worst forms. As one can see, the amount of children being forced into labor has gone down.
As referenced above, child labor in Jordan is decreasing due to the many policies and programs that are being put into place. There have been around 12 programs/ policies instituted in Jordan to combat child labor. These policies/ programs vary in order to attack child labor in all directions. These 12 programs/ policies aren’t even the start. There are around eight other policies/ programs that have come up in discussion in Jordan. These haven’t been implemented, but just the discussion of them is signs of Jordan wanting to enact change.
"Jordan: Moderate Advancement." US Department of Labor, 2013. Web. 17 Feb. 2015. .
Luxembourg believes that laws on children in the workplace are necessary to prevent children from being exploited. In Luxembourg it is illegal for children under the age of 16 to hold any job. Even at the age of 16 children may train as only as apprentices. The Luxembourgian government limits working hours, gives legal protection and limits continuous working hours for the 16 year olds that are working. These laws were enforced by Luxembourg’s Ministries of Labor and Education.
Luxembourg wishes that other countries would be willing to follow its lead and give a high minimum wage to children and support young children by providing good financial aid. Pushing education is one great way to get better jobs for people in the future resulting in better paying jobs. People with better paying jobs will be able to afford children resulting in no need for children to work.
Just last year over 1100 were placed on welfare financially and Luxembourg has one of the highest amounts of children on welfare for the population. Luxembourg goes out asking poorer families if they want welfare so the children can have a better quality of life.
"Children of Luxembourg." Humanium for Childrens Rights. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2015
Country Reports On Human Rights Practices For 2011, and United States Department Of State • Bureau Of Democracy, Human Rights And. "Luxenburg." LUXEMBOURG EXECUTIVE SUMMARY (n.d.): n. pag. Executive Summary. United States Department of State. Web. 17 Feb. 2.
"Luxembourg." U.S. Department of State. U.S. Department of State, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2015.
Submitted by: Mexico School: Hathaway Brown
While children are the foundation of a world with a thriving future, the involvement of children in armed conflict is a prevalent issue that is a detriment to the lives of countless children around the world. Globally, there are innumerable armed conflicts that involve numerous militant groups and civilians. Due to the evolving nature of these conflicts, there has been an alarming increase in the amount of children in these armed conflicts today. The United Nations defines children in armed conflict as, “Humanitarian access is crucial in situations of armed conflict where civilians including children are in desperate need of assistance. Denial of humanitarian access entails blocking the free passage or timely delivery of humanitarian assistance to persons in need as well as the deliberate attacks against humanitarian workers.” According to the United Nations, there are six grave violations of human rights involving children in armed conflict. These include killing and maiming, child recruitment, sexual violence, attacks on schools and hospitals, denial of humanitarian access, and abductions. Each of these have monumental impacts on the lives of children, both psychologically and physically. The involvement of children in armed conflict makes it difficult for them to be reintegrated into civilian life. The Council on Hemispheric Affairs states that as of 2012, about 300,000 children were involved in armed conflict. Children in armed conflict is an imminent issue that must be resolved in order to have a successful future, for children, and for the world.
Mexico recognizes the immense dilemma that is children in armed conflict today and the implications that it poses. There has been a drastic increase in children participating in armed conflicts for a multitude of reasons. Children are vulnerable and are easily recruited because they live in modern conflict zones or slums with deteriorating social strictures, and are in dire situations with regards to poverty, neglectance from family, and a lack of education. This recruitment has severe effects on not only the child’s physical health, but their mental state as well. Much of the violence in Mexico is due to drugs and cartels. Children are manipulated to join cartels because of their unfavorable situations, or sometimes kidnapped and forced to fight. The United Nations estimates that between 2006 and 2010, about 1,000 children have died in the conflict. They are taken to training camps and given basic weapons and instructions. These children are, however, only seen as cannon fodder, because they are effective, cheap, ignorant, and expendable as well. Furthermore, they are sought after owing to the fact that they can adapt to many circumstances swiftly and can bypass police forces relatively unnoticed. Children are used to smuggle drugs across borders, and as child assassins.A major consequence is that it is beginning to spread and affect children in neighboring countries, such as the United States. Children being recruited by cartels has increased drastically since 2011 because they also have the benefits of citizenship.This growing phenomenon is an immense issue that Mexico hopes and is working to counteract.
Mexico, having signed the Convention on the Rights of the Child, realizes that children should not be working or doing anything hazardous to their health, or their physical, mental, spiritual, moral, or social development, according to Article 32 of the Convention. Children associated with these horrendous situations are susceptible to manipulation. The involvement of children in armed conflict is a violation of the inherent human rights. Providing financial support to families in areas affected by conflict or poverty is a key step in counteracting the growing problem. Furthermore, children should have ready access to education, especially relating to these conflicts. Orphaned children should have a guardian, decreasing their susceptibility. Mexico requires financial assistance to fund these policies. As stated by Donald Steinberg, the Deputy President of the International Crisis Group, “Young boys and girls kidnapped or coerced into joining armed forces must be freed to live the rest of their lives without the stigma or trauma of those early years shadowing their futures. All children must be able to view the ground as a place to run and play, not as a source of every-present danger from the presence of landmines and unexploded ordnance.” It is Mexico’s expressed hope that through these possible solutions, the children of today and of the future can be saved from these appalling conflicts.
Submitted by: Spain
Over 200 million children, ages five to fourteen, are being abused by child labor. These children are working in hazardous conditions, even within sweatshops. The children are also under paid for their usefulness. Since factories have an advanced notice, they are able to hide the children, and tell the adults what to say or how to act in front of the inspectors. Another violation is, work environments are unsanitary and unsafe for workers, especially children. Workers are working long hours and are paid very low wages.
The UN has issued Convention No.182, which bans all forms of slavery, and the use of children for illicit activities, like drug trafficking. The UN has also established “World Day Against Child Labor” which in effect they were able to make it both law and practice. Programs are wanted to help remove and prevent the worst forms of child labor. The government needs to grant free education to those children. It’s also required for the legislation to pass a law for an employment age (15) and a minimum wage.
Spain has decided to make a suggestion as to prevent these violations. This is not a good thing, because then no one knows what is really going on. Spain suggests the United Nations contribute more representatives to conduct inspections randomly, without notice. A UN rights inspector can have the ability to randomly inspect companies, schools, and even homes, to ensure that underage children are not being put to work. Sanctions can be held against companies who go against the laws of child labor. The process should be done this way, because it will be too late to hide any kind of evidence. Spain also wants the United Nations to offer schooling for these children and high-level security to ensure the children’s safety and that they get to school, but especially to prevent any more child violations; like trafficking and overworking. Money collected from child labor violations can be used to fund these schools.
Submitted by: Republic of Haiti
At no given time should any child, affluent or impoverished, be exploited as laborers in harsh conditions in order to receive a weightier company profit. The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund is established in order to prevent this very exploitation, yet, 246 million children are currently employed in child labor and 171 million of them are subjected to hazardous conditions each and every day (United Nations). The UNICEF committee yearns to eradicate any conditions proving detrimental to the welfare of children in the workplace. Currently, article thirty-three states that all measures should be put into action to ensure that no child will engage in the process of manufacturing or distributing illegal narcotics (Hodgkin, Rachel, and Peter Newell). Forthcoming legislation will progressively enhance the protection of young people in their home countries from labor abuse.
The Republic of Haiti is involved in much recent legislation pertaining to the child labor laws, especially article thirty-three. Every age and gender is susceptible to becoming restaveks-- forced domestic servants-- but children especially suffer from this captivity and the United Nations is working together with the Republic of Haiti to prevent further prostitution and human-trafficking. The CIA states, “Haiti does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so” (“The World Factbook Central America and Caribbean: Haiti"). Moreover, the Global Action Program on Child Labor Issues is attempting to expunge “the worst forms of child labor by 2016” (Department of Labor). This program’s midterm findings reported that Haiti was on pace to meet the goal originally stated by the GAP, unlike many other countries who are not progressing as prominently. According to the midterm results, twenty-seven percent of the planned child labor reduction is already complete and sixty-four percent continues to progress. Evidently, Haiti is progressing satisfactorily to ultimately extirpate the issues at hand.
In order to meet the quota expected by the GAP and other legislations, Haiti believes it would be most beneficial to diminish the area of influence of each resolution in order to enhance the focus of intensive interventions. Furthermore, Haiti deems it absolutely necessary to publish a resolution that will limit migration out of the country in order to counteract the human-trafficking problem that is so prominent today.
“External Interim Evaluation of the Global Action Program on Child Labor- GAP 11.” Bureau of International Labor Affairs. United States Department of Labor, Apr. 2014. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.
“Factsheet: Child Labour.” UNICEF. United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, n.d. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.
Hodgkin, Rachel, and Peter Newell. "Children and Drug Abuse." Implementation Handbook for the Convention on the Rights of the Child. New York: UNICEF, 2007. 503-12. UNICEF. United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund, 8 Apr. 2011. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.
"The World Factbook Central America and Caribbean: Haiti." Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency, 22 June 2014. Web. 18 Feb. 2015.
Submitted by: Republic of Kenya School: ARCHERS
Around the world, the issue of child labor persists and Kenya is no exception. Though Section 56 of Kenya’s employment act prohibits children under the age of 13 to be employed, desperate families still allow their young children to work. Children 13-16 are cleared for light work, but the Act does not define “light work”. The definition is left to the judgment of the employer. The Act also does not offer protection for these children. The minimum age limit for industrial work is 16 and is confined to the hours of 6:30 a.m. to 6:30 p.m. Kenya’s ability to enforce the employment act is limited for several reasons. Currently Kenya’s workforce for catching violators of the Act is understaffed, underfunded and relies heavily on volunteers. Kenyan law currently allows for the prosecution of employers who are caught violating the employment act by fining and up to one year imprisonment. Unfortunately, the current inspectors are lacking the authority to fine or imprison employers when they discover a violation. This leaves the children who are being exploited without real protection.
The solution to this problem is to crack down on the companies’ instigating child labor and force them to pay heavy fines. UNICEF trained inspectors will be sent at random times with no advance warning to ensure that the companies using illegal child labor will be caught and fined. These inspectors will be given the ability to enforce these critical laws and regulations. In the beginning, the UNICEF Inspectors will be funded by UNICEF’s new “branding” project and quickly and smoothly transition into using the funds collected in fines from rebellious employers. Also, using the funds collected by UNICEF Inspectors, Kenya believes that schools would have an excellent effect on eradicating child labor by providing more educational opportunities for young Kenyans and other countries battling this issue as well. The Kenyan government provides free education, but it is unavailable to children who are attempting to support their impoverished family. The average income for a child is $35 a month. If a fair wage is paid to children who are legally allowed to work, the hours spent working would still allow for them to continue their education.
If this plan is put into action Kenya believes that corrupt companies and employers will halt their deplorable behavior. Historically, Kenya has made efforts to limit child labor to the best of our ability; However, without assistance from the United Nations, Kenya fears that our children will continue to be exploited. Together, with the successful implementation of this proposal we can work together to eradicate child labor in the country of Kenya and the world.
Kenya. United States Department of Labor. Feb. 15 2015. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/child-labor/findings/2013TDA/kenya.pdf
Submitted by: Romania
Child labor risk is rising all over the world. In the year 2012 child labor violations jumped to 10%. Many of the countries that do use child labor are third world countries or still developing. Child labor is also mainly use in Africa and Asia.
As a result of the overthrow of the Ceaucescu regime in 1989 Romania changed toward a market economy and democracy. This movement brought drastic changes in the economy, social and political environment of Romania. These rapid changes caused unemployment and poverty levels to increase, forcing many Romanians to migrate. There was a direct impact on children. The number of children who did not go to school and did not receive any social services increased and thousands were left in the care of government institutions. Child labor became a major problem in Romania. Many countries also use child labor since they don’t have to pay them as much. Romania is trying to get the UN to fund schools so that Romania can get children out of work and into a good education. Romania is committed to ensuring better life opportunities for all children.
Romania has 170,000 abandoned children. 18,000 are abandoned every year. Few people are willing to work in the state run orphanages because of poor pay, understaffing, commuting costs and the lack of training from the state. In 2011 Brasov, a city in Romania had 454 children living in orphanages. In 1999 the ILO Yearbook of Labour Statistics (1999) cited that 490,631 teenagers between fifteen and nineteen years of age were economically working. In 2000 the ILO Yearbook of Labour Statistics (2001) cited that the number of teens between the ages of fifteen and nineteen who were working had decreased to 427,861.
The Romanian government takes child labor seriously. The Romanian Government and International Labor Organization has signed a Memorandum of Understanding on the elimination of child labor for a 5 year period of time in June 2002 setting the framework to progressively prohibit, restrict, and eliminate child labor in Romania. Romania ratified ILO Convention No. 182 on worst forms of child labor in 2002. A law preventing and combating trafficking was passed in 2001 conforming to European and International Law. A child labor monitoring system was established in 2002 and was applied at the national level. Romania extended the period of compulsory education to ten years in 2003. In 2004, the Government established a National Steering Committee on Child Labor incorporating social partners and approved a national plan of action. In 2005 child labor was included for the first time in national law. The Law on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of the Child. A child labor unit was identified within the nation. In 2009 the hazardous work list was updated.
The UN Convention against Trans-national Organized Crime is the most recent international convention covering trafficking and together with the Palmero Protocol, are intended to prevent, suppress, and punish trafficking. Romania has ratified and translated all these international agreements into national legislation.
Child labor is a major problem in Romania. Most children are living in government camps or are homeless. Romania is still a developing country and does not have the funds to pay for schools to get children better education that what they are currently getting. The US Department of Labor and the Government of Germany have provided funding support. Budgetary assistance is still needed to provide more education to reduce child labor and to help provide better job opportunities for adults. Romania is willing to work with other countries to eliminate child labor.
Web Article: Project Abroad Care Management Plan Romania
Web Article: Combating Child Labour in Romania press release May 2, 2010
ILO Yearbook of Labour Statistics 1999 and 2001
IPEC International Labour Office web article
Web site: UNICEF Romania Trafficking and Child Labor
Web site : http://www.businessinsider.com/countries-worst-child-labor-risks-2012-1?op=1
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
The issue of unlawful child labor is one of the largest and most pressing in the world today. The UNICEF Convention on the Right of the Child (1989) defines child labor as, “…work that children should not be doing because they are too young to work, or – if they are old enough to work – because it is dangerous or otherwise unsuitable for them.” (un.com, “Overview: What is child labor?”) An estimated 150 million children around the globe are involved in child labor, and the number is as high as one in four in developing countries. (unicef.org, “Prevalence of Child Labor”)
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has ratified the Convention on the Right of the Child, and supports it as a domestic law (where it complies with Islamic Law). While our kingdom cites a problem with child labor within our borders, we are taking steps to abolish it completely from our country. (Ali Khan, "Child Labor Becoming a Problem in Saudi Arabia." arabnews.com) In fact, Saudi Arabia has enacted several laws of our own on child labor, setting the minimum working age at 13 for all fields, and stipulating that children under 18 may not work for more than six hours a day, nor for more than five hours in a row or at night.
Saudi Arabia, noting the overall downward trend in child labor globally (Diallo et al., “Global child labour trends 2008 to 2012”), believes that the best course of action would be to continue on the path that the UN has set to abolish child labor. Namely, we believe that making sure every child receives a proper education and support is the key to reducing the number of children in hazardous circumstances such as these. We would also uphold the principle of national sovereignty, and point out that appreciation of different cultural values is needed in the ongoing discussion. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia hopes that the world can look forward to a brighter future for all children, and continues to work in their interests.
"Child Labor." UN News Center. United Nations, 2008. Web. 11 Feb. 2015. .
Ali Khan, Ghazanfar. "Child Labor Becoming a Problem in Saudi Arabia." Arab News. Arab News, 6 Sept. 2008. Web. 11 Feb. 2015.
Diallo, Yacouba, Alex Etienne, and Farhad Mehran. Global Child Labour Trends 2008-2012. Rep. International Labour Organization, 2013. Web. 11 Feb. 2015.
Submitted by: Somalia
Somalia has been known to engage in the worst forms of child labor violations in the world. As a country we are proud to announce that thanks to programs like the Go-2-School Initiative the amount of labor violations is going down in overwhelmingly positive numbers. Our national army has made many efforts to prevent the recruitment of children participating in war activities, and screening every single one of their soldiers before paying them. Unfortunately, our country lacks many of the important resources needed to completely diminish the use of children in armed forces. In fact the use of child labor in general isn’t completely diminished, and although we are moving in the right direction to abolish the use of child labor, we do still have children shining shoes and working at car washes and markets. Child labor is still eminent all over the country and unfortunately it is the parents who are sending their kids to work. As a committee we need to start informing parents on how truly important it is to have our children sent to school rather than work in low wage jobs, and the benefits of getting a good education.
In Somalia it is estimated that up to half of children aged 5-14 are working. That is about 1,012,863 children. In 2013, Somalia made a minimal advancement in efforts to eliminate the worst forms of child labor. The Go-2-School Initiative program’s goal was to enroll one million children into school within the next 3 years. Somalia’s National Army has also made efforts to stop the recruitment of young soldiers. The terrorist organization Al-Shabaab is the main prospect for child labor. They use children in the most brutal ways to fight in their wars and other forms of labor such as agriculture. Although the National Army tried to make efforts to stop the recruiting of children, they eventually started to use children in their armies again. Somalia tried to stop harsh child labor, but failed. We could not stick to the laws and failed to effectively address the laws and regulations. Children are forced to do street work, including begging, shining shoes, washing cars, conducting minibuses, and selling cigarettes. In war, they are recruited to plant explosive devices, operate checkpoints, serve as human shields and suicide bombers, conduct assassinations, and transport weapons. Somalia believes that no children should have to do these tasks at such a young age, but we are not doing enough to put it to a stop.
As of now, Somalia does not have any solutions for future problems. We are sticking with the same laws hoping to regulate them.
On the issue of labor rights violations, the nation of Syria sees a clear violation of the basic rights and freedoms of all children and laborers that are forced to work in unsafe conditions. 250 million children work for a living in developing countries, nearly half of them full time. At least 60 million children worldwide are exploited under extreme forms of child labor such as debt bondage and prostitution. Child labor is a human rights violation on many different levels. Many children are forced to undergo working conditions that are life-threatening because they have no money to buy food for their family. The Syrian government believes that in order for change, there needs to be an awareness of these conditions. We need a way to enforce the rules set up by governments. Safety should be a number one priority and in most developing countries that is not even a factor.
The UN issued Convention No. 182 is a great way to get start the quest for change in developing countries. This requests all governments to ban slavery, child labor, etc. Another UN sponsored event is the World Day Against Child Labor Day. Since children have no access to education, they seek work anywhere they can find it. The knowledge the children will obtain in school will help to seek better lives and not to be subject to Labor Rights Violations. In order for events like these to take effect, awareness needs to be increased. Each country needs to be aware of the basic rights and freedoms of laborers. It would be undemocratic for nations to ignore the rights of laborers and children. The nation of Syria is excited to work on resolutions with other nations and UNICEF in order to create a better world for everyone.
Submitted by: The Netherlands School: Mentor High
In most developed countries, child labor is not permitted. However, in many developing countries, laws concerning child labor have been made, but they have not been enforced. Sweatshops are an example of this. They can be anywhere and many companies use them for their personal gain. Companies such as Nike, Wal-Mart, J.C. Penney, and Forever 21 are guilty of this. Child labor is used as a cheap alternative than paying adults for what they are worth. Sadly, it seems to be on the rise in certain countries, according to Maplecroft.com.
On May 10th, 2010, the Netherlands hosted a conference called the Hague Global Child Labor Conference. This conference brought 80 governments together to discuss ways of ending the worst forms of child labor. Many were pleased with the Netherlands’ representation, such as Jo Becker, an official at Human Rights Watch. However, they were disappointed that the Netherlands did not do as they preached. Recently, the country introduced a law that stated “Children from the age of 13 can do light, non-industrial work, and those over 14 all kinds of light work.” This has overtaken the nation, as many children are now working in farms and in horticulture. Children are now working illegally - about 50% of all school children now have a job. It is true that the Netherlands has not done what they promise, but they are interested in the movement to end Child Labor. The Netherlands, however, seems unable to help itself with problems concerning these things.
The Netherlands, unfortunately, has some flaws within it’s government and it’s policies. It is willing to work with others to defeat these violations within itself, and in other countries. It proposes stricter laws concerning this topic in each country. This would have the purpose of decreasing labor violations in any setting. The Netherlands hopes that all delegates may reach a solution to defeat this growing problem.
"The Netherlands: Support Global Protection for Child Domestic Workers." The Netherlands: Support Global Protection for Child Domestic Workers. Human Rights Watch, 6 May 2010. Web. 17 Feb. 2015.
Submitted by: The United States of America School: Rocky River H.S.
Globally, between 2002 and 2013, there was a 58 percent reduction in the number of new HIV infections among children. Despite this, more than 240,000 children were infected with HIV during 2013 - 700 new infections every day. In addition, millions more children every year are indirectly affected by the impact of the HIV epidemic on their families and communities. Around the world, HIV/AIDS is shattering lives of millions of people, especially children. Nevertheless, it is children who offer the greatest hope for changing the course of the epidemic. The Convention on the Rights of the Child, ratified by virtually every nation of the world, recognizes: “The right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health” (Article 24). It is this globally acknowledged right, which UNICEF strives to protect in the consideration of defeating HIV/AIDS for all.
The United States has already taken drastic steps to help combat HIV/AIDS with children around the world when we founded the American Foundation for Children with AIDS (AFCA) in 2005. It is already nationally and globally recognized as a leader in AIDS protection: “Since 2005, in collaboration with our in-country partners, we have served tens of thousands of families in underserved and marginalized communities in Africa. Our areas of impact include: medical support, livelihoods, nutrition, educational support and emergency relief. Currently, AFCA is transforming lives in Kenya, Uganda, Zimbabwe, and the Democratic Republic of Congo” (AFCA).
There are almost 3.2 million children living in the world with HIV/AIDS, and 91% of those children live in sub-Saharan Africa. This is clearly a problem and one of, if not the largest epidemic in the world. Almost 200,000 children died last year from AIDS-related illnesses in 2013 alone. It clearly doesn’t impact the United States like many of our African brothers, but that doesn’t make us any less willing or likely to help solve this problem. The United States Delegation is calling for the creation of even more UN funded/operated sub-committees for the prevention of HIV/AIDs as a whole; especially in children. In 2011, about 21% of new infections in the United States came from children ranging from 13-24. WHich means that it is becoming more prevalent in the United States. Education and further medical testing for a cure are clearly the best options for success when it comes to preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS and finally stopping it all together. The United States is willing to extend its plentiful resources to help find a cure and stop this horrific spread.