Unit 1: Artificial Intelligence



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Unit 1: Artificial Intelligenceai

Artificial intelligence is the mimicking of human thought and cognitive processes to solve complex problems.



Richard Stottler

Today's AI is about new ways of connecting people to computers, people to knowledge, people to the physical world,  and people to people. 



Patrick Winston

WARM-UP

  1. Discuss the following questions.

  • Can machines think?

  • Can machines behave intelligently?

  • What can machines do today?

  1. Work in small groups. Read the definitions of artificial intelligence outlined in different textbooks.

  1. Match the definitions with these categories:

  • Systems that act like humans.

  • Systems that think like humans.

  • Systems that act rationally.

  • Systems that think rationally.

  1. ____________. "The exciting new effort to make computers think . . . machines with minds, in the full and literal sense". (Haugeland, 1985)

"[The automation of] activities that we associate with human thinking, activities such as decision-making, problem solving, learning . . . ". (Bellman, 1978)

  1. ____________. "The study of mental faculties through the use of computational models". (Charniak and McDermott, 1985)

"The study of the computations that make it possible to perceive, reason, and act". (Winston, 1992)

  1. ____________. "The art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people". (Kurzweil, 1990)

"The study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better". (Rich and Knight, 1991)

  1. ____________. "A field of study that seeks to explain and emulate intelligent behavior in terms of computational processes". (Schalkoff, 1990)

"The branch of computer science that is concerned with the automation of intelligent behavior". (Luger and Stubblefield, 1993)

  1. Fill in the gaps in the sentences with letters (A), (B), (C), (D) and words rationality, behavior, performance, reasoning below.

The definitions (___) and (___) are concerned with ____________, whereas (___) and (___) address ____________. The definitions (___) and (___) measure success in terms of human ____________, whereas (___) and (___) measure ideal concept of intelligence called ____________.

  1. What is artificial intelligence? Give your own definition.

  2. Look at the statements below. Which ones do you agree with the most? Tell your partner.

  1. "Artificial intelligence is no match for natural stupidity." Anonymous

  2. "AI is an engineering discipline built on an unfinished science." Matt Ginsberg

  3. "Chess is the Drosophila of artificial intelligence. However, computer chess has developed much as genetics might have if the geneticists had concentrated their efforts starting in 1910 on breeding racing Drosophila. We would have some science, but mainly we would have very fast fruit flies." John McCarthy

  4. "Artificial intelligence is the study of how to make real computers act like the ones in the movies." Anonymous

  5. "Artificial intelligence cannot avoid philosophy. If a computer program is to behave intelligently in the real world, it must be provided with some kind of framework into which to fit particular facts it is told or discovers. This amounts to at least a fragment of philosophy, however naive." John McCarthy

  1. Complete the sentence.

Artificial intelligence has many important links with other fields such as Psychology, ............, ............, ............., ............, .............

  1. Work with a partner or small group. Your topic is "Applications of Artificial Intelligence". List as many ideas as you can in five minutes.

Finance, .........., ................, .............., ..............., ..............., ................

  1. Comment on the pictures.

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_ny5vyg6kaea/ss67ziddxhi/aaaaaaaaacc/zsu1lp8a7xu/s800/reverse+turing80.jpg

https://encrypted-tbn0.google.com/images?q=tbn:and9gcrgvsdm7bxa_a-26ogjcp103ucvxu4njsy-mb0oiwutirglwwohsg

READING

  1. Identify the stressed syllable in each word as in the example. Practise reading.

Efforts, deadline, misplaced, grant-grabbing, hype, visionaries, cheeky-chappy, community, pragmatists, exponent.

  1. Read the text "Artificial intelligence".

  1. Insert missing paragraphs below. They are in jumbled order.

  2. Underline the parts of the article which helped you decide on the missing paragraphs, then compare with a partner.

  3. Think of the other heading to the text.

  4. Find information about Douglas Lenat, Alan Turing, Christian Goldbach, Herbert Simon.

  5. Complete the sentences.

  1. According to the author, the term ‘artificial intelligence’ means ...

  2. Alan Turing is considered to be ...

  3. Turing believed that ...

  4. Today computer scientists ...

  5. The author's view of the Microsoft Paperclip assistant is that ...

  6. The discovery made by Lenat’s computer program ...

  7. According to the author, many mainstream AI researchers think that the most important thing is ...



Today's computer scientists divide into two broad camps on the issue of AI. The pragmatists see AI as a means to creating machines that do for thinking what engines have done for physical labour − taking on tasks we humans would prefer not to do: spending endless hours scouring heaps of market data for trends or scanning piles of medical images for signs of disease.






Without doubt, it is the visionaries who have done most to get AI research on TV shows such as Tomorrow's World. It is the pragmatists, however, who have got AI out of the door and into successful applications: the neural network cooking controls of microwave ovens, for example, or the expert system that vets credit card transactions.






It is one of the most evocative phrases in the lexicon of science: artificial intelligence. "АI" means the creation of machines that can think.






Even so, visionary AI researchers working away from the mainstream have pulled off some striking achievements. Herbert Simon's 1957 prediction that a computer would make a mathematical discovery came to pass 20 years later, when a logic-based program named AM, developed by Douglas Lenat at Stanford University, discovered that every even number greater than four seemed to be the sum of two odd primes. In fact, AM had been pipped to this discovery by the Prussian mathematician Christian Goldbach in the 18th century; nevertheless the rediscovery of 'Goldbach's Conjecture' by AM caused a stir within the AI community.






During the 1930s, Turing showed, in theory at least, that a 'universal machine' could be built, capable of performing all the tasks of any special-purpose computing machine. After war-time work on code-breaking, Turing helped to turn his discovery into the reality of an electronic computer. But he also believed his proof meant that computers could mimic the action of the human mind.




Artificial Intelligence

Robert Matthews

1 ____ https://encrypted-tbn3.google.com/images?q=tbn:and9gcrptubvyt-zxagtqyurpk3r-nve-jtrdc3yjv-wmkuxbkq5xx9ima

For over half a century, computer scientists have been working towards creating such machines, spending billions of pounds in the attempt. And hanging over their efforts has been a challenge set by a British mathematician widely regarded as the father of AI research: Alan Turing.



2 ____

In 1951, Turing published a prediction: by the end of the century, computers would be able to hold a five-minute conversation with humans and fool 30 percent of them into believing they were dealing with another human being.

It is a deadline that has come and gone, along with huge amounts of funding. Yet no computer is remotely close to passing the "Turing Test". What went wrong? Why has no one succeeded in creating Al?

In fact, AI is already here, earning its keep in banks, airports, hospitals, factories − even our own home and car. It may not be quite what many were led to expect, but then the story of real-life AI is one of misplaced dreams, bitter feuds and grant-grabbing hype.



3 ______

Then there are the visionaries, still wedded to Turing's challenge and trying to bring the sci-fi image to life. For them, AI is all about computerised "assistants" that solve your printer problems and cheeky-chappy robots that talk to strangers. There are some who even see AI as the route to understanding the workings of the human mind.



4 ______

When current AI technology is pushed closer to its sci-fi image, the results can be more irritating than impressive: witness Microsoft's Paperclip Assistant, and the AI-based "help-desks" of some high-tech companies. Even now only the bravest customers trust the automated telephone ticketing system at their local cinema.



5 ______

Simon's prediction that a computer would become world chess champion also came to pass − in a manner of speaking − in 1997, when IBM's Deep Blue computer beat Garry Kasparov, the greatest human exponent of the game.



Most likely it will be one of the AI visionaries who finally creates a computer that passes the Turing test. For many in the mainstream AI community, however, beating the Turing Test is viewed as little more than a party trick. They are hard at work addressing far more basic issues in AI − like convincing computers to hand over the cinema tickets you've paid for.

  1. Look through the list of words and phrases and check if you know their Ukrainian equivalents. Use the Mini-Dictionary (Unit 1) if necessary.

    artificial intelligence

    challenge

    to regard

    sci-fi image

    evocative phrases

    high-tech companies

    hype

    odd primes

    to pip

    to cause a stir

    to get AI out of the door

    proof

    special-purpose computing machine

    visionaries and pragmatists

    to work away from the mainstream

    deadline

    to earn one's keep

    camps

    feuds

    to mimic

    to pull off some striking achievements

    to hold a five-minute conversation

    to bring to life

    to come to pass







  2. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases.

To earn one's keep, a five-minute conversation, war-time work, a stir, high-tech companies, a deadline, feuds, trick, to pull off, to bring to life, to come to pass.

  1. Match the adjectives to the nouns to form collocations from the text.



    real-life



    image



    misplaced



    system



    sci-fi



    network



    high-tech



    AI



    neural



    machine



    expert



    intelligence



    special-purpose computing



    dreams



    artificial



    companies

  2. Now, use the collocations to complete the sentences. Use the remaining collocations to make up sentences of your own.

        1. This explains why the field of ... is split into many branches, ranging from pattern recognition to artificial life, including evolutionary computation and planning.

        2. A ... consists of an interconnected group of artificial neurons, and it processes information using a connectionist approach to computation.

        3. ... have been pioneers in the research, development and commercialization of many new and exciting technologies.

        4. ... is a digital or analog computer designed to be especially efficient in a certain class of applications.

        5.  The European Space Agency now hopes to use ... to control future spacecraft.

  1. Match the words and phrases (1-10) from the text with their definitions (a-j).



    visionary



    the doctrine that the content of a concept consists only in its practical applicability



    neural network



    representing the prevalent attitudes, values, and practices of a society or group



    pragmatism



    a bitter quarrel between two parties



    artificial



    having the nature of fantasies or dreams; illusory



    mainstream



    a time limit for any activity



    regard



    excessive publicity and the ensuing commotion



    deadline



    a real or virtual device, modeled after the human brain, in which several interconnected elements process information simultaneously, adapting and learning from past patterns



    feuds



    resembling or making use of highly advanced technology or devices



    hype



    produced by man; not occurring naturally



    high-tech



    to relate or refer to; concern

  2. Fill the cells in the table with the words derived from the given ones.

    Verb

    Noun

    Adjective

    _________

    ......................

    visionary

    _________

    .........., ..........., ..............

    ......., pragmatical

    evocate

    ................

    ............

    pip

    .................

    ___________

    achieve

    ................

    ............., ............

    computerise

    ..........., ...............

    .............

    _________

    ............, .........

    real

  3. Fill in the word derived from the word in bold.

Different people think of AI differently. 1) __ (Intelligent) is concerned mainly with rational action. Ideally, an intelligent agent takes the best possible action in a situation. We will study the problem of building agents that are intelligent in this sense.

Philosophers (going back to 400 B.C.) made AI 2) __ (conceive) by considering the ideas that the mind is in some ways like a machine, that it operates on knowledge encoded in some internal language, and that thought can be used to help arrive at the right actions to take. Mathematicians provided the tools to 3) __ (manipulation) statements of logical certainty as well as uncertain, 4) __ (probable) statements. They also set the groundwork for 5) __ (reason) about algorithms. Psychologists strengthened the idea that humans and other animals can be considered information processing machines. 6) __ (Linguistics) showed that language use fits into this model. Computer engineering provided the artifact that makes Al applications possible. AI programs tend to be large, and they could not work without the great advances in speed and memory that the computer industry has 7) __ (provide).



  1. Rearrange the letters in bold to make words that fit into the gaps.

Symbolic 1) ___ (faiaiicrtl) intelligence systems are designed and programmed, rather than trained or evolved. In nature they are 2) ___ (tgomaihiclr), yet powerful. They work 3) ___ (tfunncio) under rules. Symbolic artificial intelligence systems are typically confined to a narrow task such as 4) ___ (cshes) playing, or theorem proving. Thus, they tend to be very fragile, and rarely are effective outside of their assigned domain; for example, a chess-playing 5) ___ (rmrpoga) would not, if at all, perform as well diagnosing malaria as would a disease diagnosing 6) ___ (eerxpt) system.

  1. Work in small groups. Match 1-6 with a-f to make sentences.



    Computers are fundamentally well suited to



    things get more difficult.



    This allows artificial machines



    specific situations, and adapting to new situations.



    For more complex problems,



    performing mechanical computations, using fixed programmed rules.



    Unlike humans, computers have trouble understanding



    machine behavior in tackling such complex tasks.



    Artificial Intelligence aims to improve




    to perform simple monotonous tasks efficiently and reliably, which humans are ill-suited to.

  2. Fill in the correct preposition or adverb.

pull off

  1. to succeed in doing something difficult

  2. to take information from one computer and put it onto another (computing informal)

  1. досягти успіху незважаючи на труднощі

  2. брати інформацію з одного комп'ютера і завантажувати її на інший

succeed in

to do what you have tried to do

досягти успіху в

hand over

to give power or duties to someone or something

передавати

come to pass

to happen

відбуватися, траплятися, статися

bring something to life

to make something exciting and interesting

викликати до життя, зробити щось захоплююче і цікаве

  1. This new book about AI ... the subject ....

  2. Finally, the pragmatists ... convincing the visionaries that they were right.

  3. After failing his Maths test two times, John at last ... it ....

  4. Albert ... the text about AI.

  5. Without experience, do you think such a young man can ... doing such a difficult experiment?

  6. This mathematical discovery ... 10 years ago.

  7. Clear examples ... the classical mathematical theory.

  8. You can ... the files you need ... the Internet.

  1. Fill in the blanks with to wherever necessary.

  1. Computers can ... perform calculations millions or billions of times faster than human beings. 

  2. Let me ... help you with your problem.

  3. We had better ... stop the experiment.

  4. Make him ... practice an hour a day.

  5. You must ... study hard.

  6. She asked me ... finish her research about neural nets.

  7. We heard Jane ... work away from the mainstream.

  8. He was heard ... get AI out of the door.

  9. He was able ... develop ingenious computational ideas ... characterize human psychological processes.

  10. Help me ... solve this problem.

  1. Translate the sentences into English. Use the following constructions: "Objective Infinitive Construction" and "For-to-Infinitive Construction" (see Mini-Grammar, the Infinitive).

  1. Йому легко досягнути вражаючих досягнень незважаючи на труднощі.

  2. Їй дуже важко перекласти цю статтю на англійську мову.

  3. Нам необхідно отримати інформацію про досягнення науковців у галузі штучного інтелекту.

  4. Вони хочуть, щоб ви написали статтю про застосування штучного інтелекту.

  5. Я хочу, щоб його книга про штучний інтелект була опублікована.

  6. Ми хочемо, щоб ви пояснили нам це правило ще раз.

  1. Transform the sentences. Use the Subjective Infinitive Construction. Translate these sentences (see Mini-Grammar, the Infinitive).

e.g. It is considered that he is the best physicist. − He is considered to be the best physicist.

  1. It is known that Alan Turing is a great scientist.

  2. It was expected that the scientists would create new programs.

  3. It is reported that some theories have been disproved.

  4. It is expected that many people will get AI out of the door.

  5. It was reported that AI researchers had pulled off some striking achievements.

  6. It is known that the visionaries have done most to get AI research on TV shows such as Tomorrow's World.

  1. Read and translate the suggested sentences. Underline the Infinitive Constructions.

  1. She wants them to study AI.

  2. They don't allow us to continue this experiment.

  3. It is necessary for him to read about the pioneers of AI.

  4. I saw him finish the experiments.

  5. He wants John to explain this.

  6. Marvin Minsky is known to be the father of AI.

  7. She made them read the theory about AI.

  1. Choose the correct answer.

  1. We can build chess-playing programs that ___ even the highest of chess grand-masters down, but we have yet to create a machine that can talk as proficiently as a human of average intelligence.

    A have taken

    B took

    C will take

    D are taken

  2. MOLGEN, (created by M. Stefik at Stanford University in 1979), is a program that plans scientific experiments ___ molecular geneticists.

    A to help

    B help

    C helped

    D being helped

  3. This is not to say that if something ___ mechanical and "dead" can possess intelligence, then human beings are no longer special.

    A such

    B so

    C such a

    D so as

  4. They are able to adapt ____ certain situations, as well as perform a variety of tasks, very much like human beings.

    A in

    B to

    C at

    D from

  5. If we ___ to build a machine that can emulate human thinking, a Symbolic AI program which operates under a rigid set of rules is definitely not the right approach.

    A had wished

    B wished

    C will wish

    D wish

  6. It is impossible ____ a machine with all the thoughts and concepts that humans possess.

    A endow

    B to endow

    C endowing

    D endowed

  7. If a robot ____ to sweep the floor, it understands if it follows the command, but if not, then it does not understand.

    A tells

    B was told

    C told

    D is told

  8. ___ robotic agent substitutes cameras and infrared range finders for the sensors and various motors for the effectors.

    A −

    B the

    C a

    D an

  9. ____ accurate the details that are given in the simulation, the more likely it is to be successful.

    A More

    B The more

    C The most

    D Most

  10. Even then, we know so little about our own brains that presently we can do almost _____ in attempting to achieve some form of genuine consciousness.

    A anybody

    B anything

    C nothing

    D nobody

  11. Will there once be a day where our robots will become so evolved that our earth _____ by nothing but robots.

    A has inhabited

    B inhabits

    C will inhabit

    D will be inhabited

  12. With this in mind, we ___ that production systems can do what Turing machines do, including having the ability to compute anything that is computable.

A have proven

B have been proving

C are proved

D are being proved

  1. Correct the mistakes.

  1. Intelligence is required for robots be able to handle such tasks as object manipulation and navigation, with sub-problems of localization (knowing where you are), mapping (learning what is around you) and motion planning (figuring out how to get there).

  2. M. Minsky's "proof" rested on the inability simple neural networks to solve a basic logical problem. 

  3. Attention focused so-called on expert systems, computers whose logic-based programs could supposedly capture human expertise and reason with it. 

  4. Fuzzy logic, is a version of the first-order logic which allows the truth of the statement be represented as a value between 0 and 1, rather than simply True (1) or False (0). 

  5. To the early 1990s, it was clear that expert systems were not the Golden Road to AI either.

  1. Translate into Ukrainian.

AI is not the science of building artificial people. It's not the science of understanding human intelligence. It's not even the science of trying to build artifacts that can imitate human behavior well enough to fool someone that the machine is human, as proposed in the famous Turing test … AI is the science of making machines do tasks that humans can do or try to do … you could argue … that much of computer science and engineering is included in this definition … that's probably right … (but) the field of AI focuses on the more complex things that people do.

James F. Allen

  1. Translate into English.

Ключовим моментом для успіху зусиль по створенню штучного інтелекту Алан Тюрінг у своїй роботі в 1950 році вважав комунікацію. Якщо ви спілкуєтеся онлайн: чи зможете ви відрізнити, коли спілкуєтесь з людиною, а коли з комп’ютером?https://encrypted-tbn0.google.com/images?q=tbn:and9gcsdwilhrhcokelxnhhhq8uoqjz5aabqjouxyl8eqps9earws5u_

Оскільки, ми можемо визначити розумові здібності тієї чи іншої людини у спілкуванні з нею, то якщо комп’ютер зможе видати себе за людину − чи можна сказати, що він має інтелект? Навіть, якщо комп’ютер пройде цей тест, то це ще не означатиме, що він здатний до спілкування.

Нещодавно наді мною провели експеримент, який називається "китайська кімната", розроблений філософом Джоном Сірлом. Цей експеримент кидає виклик ідеї про здатність машини думати. Мене завели у кімнату з інструкцією, яка вказувала правильну відповідь на будь-яку комбінацію китайських ієрогліфів, зображення яких було у тій кімнаті. І хоча я не говорю китайською мовою, все ж мені довели, що я можу мати переконливий діалог з носієм китайської мови − це при тому, що я не розумів нічого зі своїх власних − правильних − відповідей.

Сірл порівняв людину в "китайській кімнаті" з комп’ютером, який читає код. Отже, якщо я не розумів китайської мови, то як комп’ютер може розуміти те, на що він запрограмований? Це сильний аргумент проти доречності тесту Тюрінга. Але знову ж таки, що робить мій розум, коли от зараз я вимовляю, скажімо, слова? Чи не слідую я автоматично якомусь набору готових інструкцій?



SPEAKING

  1. You are particularly interested in Artificial Intelligence. Prepare a report on one of the topics:

  • An Introduction to AI

  • Strong and Weak AI

  • The Applications of AI

  • The History of AI

  • Relationship to Other Disciplines (Philosophy, Mathematics, Psychology, Computer engineering, Linguistics)

  • Areas of AI and their interdependencies

  • Intelligent Agents

  • Expert Systems

  • Fuzzy Logic

  1. The pioneers of AI (Marvin Minsky, Roger Schank, Joseph Weizenbaum, Allen Newell, Craig Reynolds) are some of the brightest philosophers and scientists in the 20th century. Together, they defined the field of AI within only 50 years of time. The development of AI is considered the scientific wonder of the 20th century, parallel with the invention of Genetics Engineering.

Find information on the Internet about the contribution of these scientists to the field of AI and make a presentation about them.

  1. You have found some information about the Turing Machine (see Further Reading to Unit 1). Share this information with your fellowmates.

  2. You represent the interests of pragmatists, your friend is a proponent of visionaries on the issue of AI. Try to prove your position. Role play a conversation between "visionaries" and "pragmatists".

  3. Examine the AI literature to discover whether or not the following tasks can currently be solved by computers.

  1. Playing a decent game of table tennis (ping-pong).

  2. Driving in the center of Cairo.

  3. Playing a decent game of bridge at a competitive level.

  4. Discovering and proving new mathematical theorems.

  5. Writing an intentionally funny story.

  6. Giving competent legal advice in a specialized area of law.

  7. Translating spoken English into spoken Swedish in real time.

For the currently infeasible tasks, try to find out what the difficulties are and predict when they will be overcome.

  1. Discuss what applications of artificial intelligence you would like to see in future. Think about: education, work, entertainment, medicine, travel, finance.

LISTENING

  1. You are going to listen to some information about Artificial and Natural Intelligence. Before you listen, check if you know the meaning of the words: fake, landslide, agent, external, colony.

  2. Listen and decide whether the facts from the text are true or false.

  1. Artificial intelligence and natural intelligence are not synonyms.

  2. A tsunami caused by exploding a bomb in the ocean is not considered to be an artificial tsunami.

  3. The internal behavior defines intelligence.

  4. The class of organizations is more intelligent than a separate animal.

  5. Human society is the most intelligent agent known.

  1. Complete the sentences.

  1. For any phenomenon, you can distinguish ...

  2. If an agent behaves intelligently, ...

  3. There has been ...

  4. The obvious naturally intelligent agent is ...

  5. Similarly, companies can develop, manufacture, and distribute products where the sum of the skills required is ...

WRITING

  1. Match the collocations with the translation. Use these collocations to make up the sentences connected with artificial intelligence.



    to be pipped on the post



    фантастичний світ



    visionary form



    точний доказ



    visionary world



    нездійснені плани



    visionary schemes



    дійсне становище



    a convincing proof



    зазнати поразки в останню хвилину



    a definite proof



    об'єктивна реальність



    the objective reality



    бути втіленим у життя



    to become a reality



    примара



    the realities of the situation



    переконливий доказ

  2. Write dialogues about AI which develop towards the suggested last line. Act out these dialogues.

A: ___________________________________________________

B: ___________________________________________________

A: ___________________________________________________

B: ___________________________________________________

A: Yet no computer is remotely close to passing the "Turing Test". What went wrong? Why has no one succeeded in creating Al?

  1. Write an abstract (4-6 sentences) in English to the article "Artificial Intelligence". You may use the suggested phrases: the article is devoted to …, this article concentrates on ..., it is shown ..., it is reported ..., it is studied ..., the results show ..., the author pays attention to ..., the author suggests ....

  2. Read the article "Swarm Intelligence" (see Further Reading to Unit 1). Write a short summary of the text (50-60 words). Follow these steps:

  • Read the text.

  • Make notes of the main points of the text.

  • Start your piece of writing with one sentence that summarizes the idea of the whole text.

  • Write your summary, including all the main points. Use your own words.

  • Check your summary is clear, complete and that it makes sense.

  1. Work in teams. Write your story about Artificial Intelligence using words in vertical columns. You should work horizontally and add words of your own. The sentences may be any length but must be grammatically and syntactically correct.

Artificial

of

helping

complex

human-like

Intelligence

science

machines

problems

fashion.

is

which

find

in




a

deals

solution

a




branch

with

to

more




For example, you can start with the following sentences:

Artificial intelligence is an area of study in the field of computer science. One of the most important tasks of AI is helping to solve a complex problem: the development of computers able to engage in human-like thought processes such as learning, reasoning, and self-correction. ...

PROBLEM-SOLVINGartificial.intelligence quiz1

  1. Try to solve the artificial intelligence quiz (see Problem-Solving to Unit 1).


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