Units 6, 7, and 8: Antebellum, Civil War, and Reconstruction

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Units 6, 7, and 8: Antebellum, Civil War, and Reconstruction

Page Numbers – Textbook (p. 228-316) Coach (p. 86-109) CRCT Prep (70-93)

I. Antebellum Georgia

  1. _________________________ Agreement between northern and southern states; admitted California as a

free state and New Mexico and Utah could vote on slavery.

  1. _________________________ New political party that opposed slavery; created prior to the Civil War

  1. _________________________ One of the major causes of the American Civil War; belief that the interests

of a state take precedence over the national government.

  1. _________________________ Forced labor; provided most of the labor in the south during Antebellum

  1. _________________________ People who worked/fought to get rid of slavery

  1. _________________________ Legal theory that states had the right to invalidate (not follow) any law they

believed to be unconstitutional

  1. _________________________ Slave whose case went to the U.S. Supreme Court; argued that he was free

because he had lived in a free state; U.S. Supreme Court decided in favor of

the owner ruling that slaves were property

  1. _________________________ American President during the Civil War; elected President in 1860

  1. _________________________ Main way that the people in the North made money (Def.: Manufacturing

activity whose purpose is to create, or make, something useful)

  1. _________________________ Main agricultural (farming) product produced in the South; the economy of

the south was based on this product

II. The Civil War

  1. _________________________ Northern war strategy; close off southern ports to keep the south from

exporting and importing goods

  1. _________________________ Document issued by Abraham Lincoln that declared freedom for all slaves

in states that were still in rebellion against the Union if they did not

surrender; took effect on January 1, 1863

  1. _________________________ Civil War battle near Sharpsburg, Maryland, on September 17, 1862;

bloodiest single day battle of the American Civil War

  1. _________________________ Main Confederate general (Commander of the Confederate Army); led the

Army of Northern Virginia in the battles of Gettysburg and Antietam;

surrendered to the Union at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865

  1. _________________________ Union general that led the March to the Sea and the burning of Atlanta

  1. _________________________ Confederate Civil War prison where thousands of Union soldiers died from

dehydration, starvation, and/or disease

  1. _________________________ Civil War battle where the Union won control of an important railroad

center near Chattanooga, Tennessee

  1. _________________________ Civil War battle over three days (July 1 to July 3, 1863); Union won

while suffering 23,000 casualties; Confederacy suffered 28,000 casualties

III. Reconstruction

  1. _________________________ Colleges, such as Morehouse College, began through the work of this

organization which was created to help freed slaves after the Civil War

  1. _________________________ Constitutional amendment that abolished slavery

  1. _________________________ One of the first black men to win election to Georgia’s General Assembly in

the election of 1867

  1. _________________________ Period of time, after the Civil War, when the South was required to undergo

political, social, and economic change in order to reenter the United States

  1. _________________________ Constitutional amendment that granted citizenship to freedmen; required

freedmen to be given “equal protection under the law”

  1. _________________________ Secret organization that was created after the Civil War; terrorized blacks to

try and keep them from voting

  1. _________________________ Constitutional amendment that gave all males the right to vote regardless of


What students should know:

  • Southern states wanted slavery; Northern states wanted to abolish slavery

  • Southern states supported state’s rights allowing states to rule themselves; Northern states believed in a strong national government.

  • Southern states believed that states could “nullify” or declare invalid, any law they deemed unconstitutional.

  • The Missouri Compromise of 1820 prohibited slavery north of the 36 latitude line. This agreement kept the balance of power between free and slave states in the Senate.

  • The Compromise of 1850 occurred when California wanted to enter the US as a free state thus upsetting the balance of free and slave states. Henry Clay convinced both sides to compromise by giving concessions to both the North and South.

  • The Georgia Platform, adopted in 1850, showed Georgians support of the Compromise of 1850.

  • In 1854, the Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed for popular sovereignty thus giving territories the right to allow citizens to vote on the issue of slavery upon becoming a state.

  • Dred Scott was slave who traveled with his master to a free state. Upon his return to the slave state of Missouri, Scott was arrested. He later filed a lawsuit claiming his freedom because he lived in a free state of Wisconsin. The US Supreme Court ruled that Scott could not sue because slaves were not citizens but property.

  • In the election of 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected president. The Southern states were afraid Lincoln would end slavery. Thus beginning in secession movement.

  • After Lincoln’s election, Georgia legislature met to discuss secession. Alexander Stephens spoke out against secession. However, after much discussion, Georgia voted to secede from the United States on January 19, 1861.

  • Antietam was the bloodiest one day battle in American history.

  • The Emancipation Proclamation issued by Abraham Lincoln in 1862 freed

the slaves in the Confederate States of America.

  • Gettysburg is the turning point of the Civil War. It was a Union victory with over 50,000 casualties. It led to Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address.

  • The Emancipation Proclamation issued by Abraham Lincoln in 1862

freed the slaves in the Confederate States of America.

Confederate victory.

  • The Union blockade of Georgia’s coast was a successful wartime strategy for the North.

  • Sherman’s March to the Sea, was the North’s strategy of marching from Atlanta to Savannah, burning and destroying military and civilian targets in its path.

  • Atlanta Campaign led by Gen. Sherman was a series of battles in north Georgia in 1864 which lead to the eventual fall of the city of Atlanta.

  • Andersonville was a Confederate Civil War prison with overcrowded, unsanitary, deplorable conditions.

  • The Freedmen’s Bureau was a federal government organization established in 1865 that helped the newly freed slaves after the Civil War.

  • The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1865, made slavery illegal.

  • The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S Constitution, ratified in 1868, guaranteed all citizens equal protection under the law.

  • The Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1870, extended the right to vote to all males.

  • The Ku Klux Klan was a secret racist organization formed in 1865 that worked to keep the freedmen from voting after the Civil War.

  • Sharecropping was an agricultural system where landless farmers worked the land of a landowner who also supplied a house, farming tools, animals, seed and fertilizer in return for a share of the harvest.

  • Tenant Farming was an agricultural system where landless farmers worked the land of a landowner in exchange for cash or an agreed-upon share of the harvest; tenant farmers usually owned some agricultural equipment and animals.

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