(D-Mu, 4° 718). SeeSources of instrumental ensemble music to 1630, §4.
Wemba, Papa [(Jules) Shungu Wembadio]
(b Lubefu, Kasai Occidental Province, Belgian Congo [Democratic Republic of the Congo], 14 June 1949). Congolese singer and songwriter. Wemba's career began in 1970 in the group Zaïko Langa Langa. Zaïko was the most prominent of groupes des jeunes, youth bands that emerged in the late 1960s and early 70s as an alternative to older Congolese rumba bands. Personnel splits took Wemba to new groups, Lokole Isifi (1974), Yoka Lokole (1976) and his own Viva La Musica (1977).
Wemba sings in a strong, clear tenor voice, sometimes ascending to falsetto. His Mère Supérieure won best song honours in a 1977 poll of Kinshasa writers; Analengo (1981) and Evénement (1982) also earned acclaim. A 1986 album, L'Esclave (the slave), departed from the usual musings on love and relationships to attack the exploitation of Africa. Wemba starred in La vie est belle (1987), a film based on Kinshasa life. His penchant for sartorial splendour helped produce the phenomenon of la sape, a fad for designer fashion among Congo youth in the 1980s.
In 1987 Wemba dissolved Viva la Musica to embark on a solo career. Papa Wemba (1988), Le Voyageur (1991) and Emotion (1995), all solo albums, produced a more international sound not recognizable as Congolese rumba. To appeal to fans of his Congolese music, Wemba resurrected Viva La Musica for the albums Foridoles (1994) and Pôle Position (1995).
B.Baruti: Papa Wemba: Viva la Musica (Kinshasa, 1987)
T.Cheyney: ‘The Extraordinary Papa Wemba’, The Beat, viii/6 (1989), 30–32
Y.Sangaré: ‘Papa Wemba: vers la World Music’, Bingo 446 (1990), 39
B.Eyre: ‘Papa Needs a Brand New Bag’, Option 44 (1992), 62–5
Wenck [Wenk], August Heinrich
(b Brüheim, nr Gotha; d Amsterdam, c1814). German composer and glass harmonica player. According to Gerber, he studied the violin with Hataš and the harpsichord and composition with Georg Benda. He went to Paris with the latter in 1778 and stayed there until at least 1792 as an arranger of popular overtures and airs. On his return to Gotha he became honorary ducal secretary, lived on his small estate, made pianos that were much sought after, and worked at perfecting the glass harmonica, with which he toured as a virtuoso. In 1788 he launched a periodical music collection which was intended to appear quarterly but which seems never to have got beyond its first issue: Variétés musicales pour le piano-forte ou clavecin avec accompagnements … mêlées de chant avec paroles italiennes et françaises. In addition he published overtures and airs from favourite operas, mostly for piano or harpsichord with violin accompaniment but in one case for string quartet. He also published a set of Six petites sonates op. 1 (n.d.) and another of Sonates et pièces op.2 (four of each) for keyboard with violin ad libitum, as well as a Ier simphonie op.3 for the same combination. These last two were advertised in 1783; the simphonie, in the style of a piano reduction of orchestral textures, was to have been the first of six. In addition, Gerber reported three violin trios and a bassoon concerto in manuscript. In 1798 Wenck made improvements to the metronome of Sauveur and Duclos, which he described in Beschreibung eines Chronometers (Magdeburg, 1798) and which he sold in quantity. In 1806 he moved to Holland, settling in Amsterdam, where he was still living in 1810.
F.A.Drechsel: ‘Zur Geschichte des Taktmessers’, ZI, xlvi (1925–6), 947–50
Wenckel, Johann Friedrich Wilhelm.
SeeWenkel, Johann Friedrich Wilhelm.
Wender, Johann Friedrich
(b Dörna, nr Mühlhausen, bap. 6 Dec 1655; d Mühlhausen, 13 June 1729). German organ builder. He rebuilt the organ at Divi-Blasii-Kirche, Mühlhausen, in 1687–91 (to a plan by J.G. Ahle); he built an organ at Seligenstadt Abbey, 1695; one at the Neue Kirche, Arnstadt, 1701–3 (tested and played by Bach), and he enlarged the organ at Divi-Blasii, Mühlhausen, in 1708 (to a plan by Bach). He also built an organ at the Maria Magdalen-Kirche, Mühlhausen, in 1702 (today preserved in Dörna), and at the Severikirche, Erfurt, in 1714 (the case survives); enlarged one at Merseburg Cathedral in 1714–16 and built one at the Kaufmannskirche, Erfurt, in 1728–9. His work was much in demand; among those who had a high opinion of it were Bach, Kuhnau and Mattheson (who ranked him with Gottfried Silbermann).
In his Principal choruses Wender aimed at the classical arrangement (8', 4', 22/3', 2', Mixtur, Zimbel, on the Hauptwerk; 4', 2', 11/3', Sesquialtera, Zimbel, on the Positive – even his Pedal upperwork normally included a Mixtur). He also included other flute stops of various kinds (16', 8', 4' on the Hauptwerk; 8', 4', 2' on the Positive); reeds were restricted to 8' Trompete on the Great, with 16' Posaune and 8' Trompete on the Pedal, where he often added (in the older style) higher stops, such as 2' Cornett and 1' Rohrflöte.
One of Wender’s pupils was Johann Christian Dauphin, who later moved to Kleinheubach am Main, and another may have been his son-in-law Johann Nikolaus Becker, who later became court organ builder to the Prince of Kassel. Wender’s son, Christian Friedrich Wender (whose dates are unknown) restored the organ at the Marienkirche, Mühlhausen (1735–9). His reputation did not equal his father’s.
MGG1 (D. Grossmann)
W.Meinhold: ‘Der Mühlhäuser Orgelbauer Johann Friedrich Wender und sein Wirken im Bereich des mitteldeutschen barocken Orgelbaues’, Mühlhäuser Beiträge zu Geschichte, Kulturgeschichte, Natur und Umwelt, x (1987), 36–41
H.Fischer and T.Wohnhaas, eds.: Lexikon süddeutscher Orgelbauer (Wilhelmshaven, 1994)
F.Friedrich: Orgelbau in Thüringen: Bibliographie (Kleinblittersdorf, 1994)