Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56


Wendius [Wend, Wendin, Wendt], Johannes



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Wendius [Wend, Wendin, Wendt], Johannes


(b Moringen, nr Göttingen, last third of the 16th century; d after 1608). German composer. Judging from the prefaces to both parts of his Newe teutsche geistliche Lieder (Hamburg, 1597) he studied theology about this time. Later he became rector of the school at Moringen, and from 1606 he was pastor at Volpriehausen. His songs of 1597 are for three high voices. He took as his formal model for them the villanellas of Jacob Regnart, although the partly polyphonic movement conforms more to older practice. The texts are mostly contrafacta. A collection by Wendius mentioned by Georg Draudius (in his Bibliotheca librorum germanicorum classica, 1625) – Etliche Hochzeit-Lieder, for four and eight voices (Kassel, 1608) – has not come to light. (J.G. Domeier: Die Geschichte der Stadt Moringen, Göttingen, 1753)

HANS-CHRISTIAN MÜLLER


Wendling.


German family of musicians of Alsatian descent, active at the courts of Zweibrücken, Mannheim and Munich.

(1) Johann Baptist Wendling

(2) Franz Anton Wendling

(3) (Maria) Dorothea Wendling (i) [née Spurni]

(4) Elisabeth [Lisl] Augusta Wendling (i) [née Sarselli]

(5) (Johann) Carl Wendling

(6) Elisabeth Augusta [Gustl] Wendling (ii)

(7) (Katharina) Dorothea Wendling (ii)

BIBLIOGRAPHY


BurneyGN

GerberL

GerberNL

LipowskyB

WalterG

Ephemeriden der Litteratur und des Theaters, i (1785), 13

H.P.C. Bossler: Musikalische Real-Zeitung, i (Speyer, 1788/R), 23 only

J.J.W. Heinse: Hildegard von Hohenthal (Berlin, 1795–6) [novel]

K.T. von Traitteur: Sketches towards a History of the Arts and Sciences in Mannheim under Karl Theodor (MS, 1802, D-Mbs)

C.F.D. Schubart: Ideen zu einer Ästhetik der Tonkunst (Vienna, 1806/R)

W. Kipp: Mozart und das Elsass: ein Beitrag zu der elsässischen Musikgeschichte des 18. Jahrhunderts (Colmar, 1941)

K.-H. Bender, ed.: Histoire de ma vie: memoires de Johann Christian von Mannlich (Trier, 1989–93)

B. Pelker: ‘Theateraufführungen und musikalischen Akademien am Hof Carl Theodors in Mannheim: eine Chronik der Jahre 1742–1777’, Die Mannheimer Hofkapelle im Zeitalter Carl Theodors, ed. L. Finscher (Mannheim, 1992), 219–59

EMILY GUNSON

Wendling

(1) Johann Baptist Wendling


(bap. Rappoltsweiler [now Ribeauvillé], 17 June 1723; d Munich, 27 Nov 1797). Flautist and composer. His forebears originated from a region of Alsace with a strong musical tradition of fife playing and both his father and grandfather were musicians. From about 1745 to 1752 Wendling was the flute teacher of Duke Christian IV of Zweibrücken (ruled 1735–75), with whom he travelled to various European centres, achieving international fame; he performed successfully before King Frederick the Great in Berlin in 1749 and at the Concert Spirituel in Paris in 1751. On 9 January 1752 he married the soprano Dorothea Spurni (see (3) Dorothea Wendling (i)), and the couple performed together at the Concert Spirituel on 27 March. In the same year Wendling succeeded M.F. Cannabich as flute teacher to Elector Carl Theodor of the Palatinate; throughout his career at Mannheim he was one of the most highly paid members of the court orchestra, on a salary of 1000 florins by 1776. From April 1771 to May 1772 he was in London, not only performing as a soloist but also collaborating with J.C. Bach in chamber music concerts and in the presentation of Bach's serenata Endimione. He continued to visit Paris and also visited The Hague (1775), Vienna (1776, 1779), Italy and Prague. The extent of Wendling's influence in musical circles is revealed in the Mozart correspondence of 1777–8. He organized the commission from Ferdinand Dejean which resulted in Mozart's Mannheim flute works k285, k285a, k313–15/285ce and possibly kAnh.171/285b and that from the Duke of Guines for the Concerto k299/297c, and in 1777 Mozart orchestrated one of his flute concertos k284e. According to Mozart, he was to have played in a performance of the lost Sinfonia concertante kAnh.9/297b. He became a founding member of the new Masonic lodge in Mannheim at the time of Mozart's visit (1778). Wendling accompanied the Mannheim court in its removal to Munich in 1778 and was first flautist at least until 1790. In his latter years he revisited Mannheim to perform at the Concerts de Mrs les Amateurs.

One of the most celebrated flautists of his day, Wendling was praised especially for his accurate intonation and his full and incisive tone throughout the range of his one-keyed flute; Leopold Mozart described his playing as ‘bewunderungswürdig’. His influence as a performer can be found in music by J.C. Bach and Mozart as well as his Mannheim colleagues; his impact as a teacher was felt in both Germany and Paris.



Wendling composed a significant body of flute music, but earlier assessments of it have been distorted by the misattribution to him of six flute quartets by F.H. Graf (Berlin and Amsterdam, c1775). His published works of the 1760s pioneered a new style of idiomatic flute writing, extending its virtuosity and expressive capabilities, while in his three quartets op.10 (1781) and six trios op.11 (1785) he combined this with a concertante style supported by string figuration in the style of the mature Mannheim School.

WORKS


Thematic catalogue E.J. Gunson: Johann Baptist Wendling (1723–1797): Life, Works, Artistry, and Influence; including a Thematic Catalogue of all his Compositions (diss., U. of W. Australia, 1999) [G]

14 fl concs.: g1, ?1749, D-Bsb, Mbs; g5, 1769, CH-MSbk; g6, 1769, and g7, c1769, D-Rtt; g9, 2 as op.4 (Paris, 1769), lost, MS copy, D-BFb; g11, g12, 1771, lost; g13 (London, 1771), lost, later edn (London, 1783); g18, c1775, BFb; g19 (Paris, 1777); g20, 1778, S-L; g24, 1781, lost; g26, D-KA, ed. P. Anspacher (Zürich, 1989)

3 qts, fl, vn, va, vc, g23, op.10 (Mannheim, 1781); 6, GSupp B: 1 (Spurious by F.H. Graf), A-Wgm, 1 as op.10/6, ed. H. Riemann (Leipzig, 1914), as op.10/4, ed. J. Bopp (Kaarel, 1957)

30 trios, fl, vn, vc: g4, 6 trios (Paris, 1766), lost, MS copy, F-pn; g8, 6 as op.3 (Paris, 1769/R Autographus Musicus, 1995), 1 as op.2/1, ed. F. Nagel (Zürich, 1974); g14, 6 as op.5 (London, 1772); g16, 6 as op.7 (Amsterdam, 1774); g25, 6 as op.11 (Berlin, 1785)

39 duets, 2 fl: g2, 6 as op.1 (Paris, 1760); g10, 12 duets (Paris, 1770); g15, 6 as op.6 (London, 1772), 3 as op.4/1–3, ed. A. Heuwekemeijer (Amsterdam, 1966), as op.4, ed. J. Engelsberg (Wilhelmshaven, 1994); g21, 6 duos from A.-E.-M. Grétry: Zémire et Azor (Paris, 1779); g22, 6 as op.9 (Mannheim, 1781), lost, as op.6 (The Hague, 1781); g27, 3 duets, CH-BEb

12 sonatas, fl, b: g3, 6 as op.1 (Paris, 1762), 1 ed. E. Ade (Stuttgart, 1958); g17, 6 as op.4 (Paris, 1774/R in ECCS, x, 1991), 1 ed. Graf and Heinemann (Munich, 1993); 1 ed. M. Ruf (Mainz, 1998)

Wendling

(2) Franz Anton Wendling


(bap. Rappoltsweiler, 24 Oct 1733; d Munich, 16 May 1786). Violinist, brother of (1) Johann Baptist Wendling. He joined the Mannheim orchestra in 1755 and by 1756 was a first violinist. In 1760 Elector Carl Theodor granted him study leave in Italy, and he spent time in Turin, where G.B. Somis was active. He returned with the soprano Elisabeth Augusta Sarselli (see (4) Elisabeth Augusta Wendling (i)), whom he married on 21 November 1764. In 1778 he moved with the court to Munich, where he also occasionally directed the ballet orchestra. In 1784 he accompanied his daughter (7) Dorothea (ii) to Paris. After his death his valuable old Cremona violin was sold at auction. According to his contemporaries he was universally admired as a violinist.

Wendling

(3) (Maria) Dorothea Wendling (i) [née Spurni]


(bap. Stuttgart, 21 March 1736; d Munich, 20 Aug 1811). Singer, wife of (1) Johann Baptist Wendling. She was the daughter of two Stuttgart court musicians, the horn player Franz Spurni and Maria Dorothea (née St Pierre), a lutenist. After her Paris début with her husband in 1752, she was appointed a singer at the Mannheim court; her first role was on 17 January 1753 as Hermione in Galuppi’s Antigona. With her first full-length prima donna role, as Beroe in Holzbauer’s Nitteti (1758), she was established as the leading soprano of the Mannheim stage. J.C. Bach wrote for her the role of Junia in Lucio Silla (1775), which features an extended aria with obbligato flute accompaniment. By 1776 her salary had reached 1500 florins. Mozart admired her singing and in 1778 composed for her a concert aria, k486a/295a. After the court’s removal to Munich in 1778, she continued to work in both Mannheim and Munich; she sang the title role in Holzbauer’s melodrama La morte di Didone at the newly founded Nationaltheater in Mannheim (1779) and created the role of Ilia in Mozart’s Idomeneo (Munich, 1781). She performed again with her husband in Paris (1780) and later in the Concerts de Mrs les Amateurs in Mannheim, but by 1790 she had retired to become a teacher; her daughter (6) Elisabeth Augusta (ii) and niece (7) Dorothea (ii) were among her pupils. She was acknowledged as one of the most expressive singers of her day, and was praised by Heinse as ‘the German Melpomone of the golden age of Mannheim’. Wieland (in a letter to Sophie La Roche, 1777) commented, ‘Her singing excels everything I have ever heard, even from the famous Mara’.

Wendling

(4) Elisabeth [Lisl] Augusta Wendling (i) [née Sarselli]


(bap. Mannheim, 20 Feb 1746; d Munich, 10 Jan 1786). Singer, wife of (2) Franz Anton Wendling. The daughter of two Italian singers at the Mannheim court, Pietro Sarselli and Carolina (née Valvasori), she spent some time in Italy, 1760–61, and was appointed as a singer on her return to Mannheim. She usually sang seconda donna to her sister-in-law (3) Dorothea Wendling (i), making her début in 1762 as Cirene in Traetta’s Sofonisba. Later she occasionally took prima donna roles, notably as Anna in a revival of Holzbauer’s Günther von Schwarzburg (1777). In 1778 she accompanied the court to Munich, where she created the role of Electra in Mozart’s Idomeneo (1781). She was to have sung Zelmira in Alessio Prati’s Armida abbandonata (1785), but ill-health forced her to give up the part to her niece (6) Elisabeth Augusta Wendling (ii).

Wendling

(5) (Johann) Carl Wendling


(b Zweibrücken, 30 March 1750; d Mannheim, 10 Nov 1834). Violinist and conductor, nephew of (1) Johann Baptist Wendling. He was the son of Johann Carl, a chef at Zweibrücken, and is frequently confused with his cousin Carl Theodor (b 6 Oct 1753), a son of (1) J.B. Wendling. He joined the Mannheim orchestra in 1765–6 as an apprentice. When the court moved to Munich in 1778, he remained in Mannheim, where he played in the orchestra of the newly founded Nationaltheater and from 1782–3 also conducted it; he became joint director with Heinrich Ritter in 1793, and in 1802 was listed as a ‘conducting first violinist’.

Wendling

(6) Elisabeth Augusta [Gustl] Wendling (ii)


(bap. Mannheim, 4 Oct 1752; d Munich, 18 Feb 1794). Singer, daughter of (1) Johann Baptist and (3) Dorothea Wendling (i). She first performed on the Mannheim stage at the age of 11 in a non-speaking role in Traetta's Sofonisba, and for the elector's nameday celebrations in 1769 she sang Cecchina in Piccini's La buona figliuola. She also sang in Zweibrücken in Duni's Les deux chasseurs et la laitière. In 1772 J.C. Bach had hoped to marry her but by then she had already been the elector's mistress. In 1777 Mozart praised both her beauty and her singing, and he composed for her the two ariettes (k307/284a and k308/295b). After a period in Vienna, 1782–3, she made her Munich début, to great acclaim, as Juliet in Georg Benda's Romeo und Julie (1784). She later performed with her mother in the Concerts de Mrs les Amateurs in Mannheim. It was her singular physical beauty as much as her voice that impressed her contemporaries; she was described by Schubart as ‘the first beauty of the orchestra’ and was also admired by Wieland and Heinse.

Wendling

(7) (Katharina) Dorothea Wendling (ii)


(bap. Mannheim, 27 Jan 1767; d Munich, 19 May 1839). Singer, daughter of (2) Franz Anton and (4) Elisabeth Augusta Wendling (i). She was a pupil of her aunt (3) Dorothea Wendling (i) and of Anton Raaff. In 1784 she went to Paris to emulate her aunt’s successes at the Concert Spirituel; she was praised in the Mercure de France (18 December 1784) for the ‘sweetness, lightness and facility’ of her voice. She and her father were subsequently involved in a dispute with Legros over payment for this engagement. In 1788 her appointment as ‘virtuosa di camera of the opera seria’ in Munich was announced by Bossler, who described her as ‘Mara and Todi united’. She married the doctor J.M. Güthe (1753–1812) in 1789 and then spent some years in Mannheim; after his death she returned to Munich and succeeded her late aunt as the most highly respected singing teacher there.


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