Winneberger, Paul Anton.
See Wineberger, Paul Anton.
(b Philadelphia, 11 May 1827; d Philadelphia, 22 Nov 1902). American composer, teacher and publisher. His parents were Joseph Eastburn Winner, a violin maker, and Mary Ann Winner (née Hawthorne), a relative of Nathaniel Hawthorne. Largely self-educated in music, he played and taught several instruments. Around 1845 Winner became a music publisher and opened a music store with his brother Joseph. He was active in Philadelphia’s music circle and was a member of the Musical Fund Society, in whose orchestra he played for five years, the Cecillian Musical Society, and the Philadelphia Brass Band.
Winner wrote many simple and highly popular pieces, arrangements and instruction methods for different instruments. He is best known for his songs issued under the pseudonym Alice Hawthorne, which spawned the genre known as ‘Hawthorne Ballads’. Other pseudonyms were Percy Guyer, Mark Mason and Paul Stenton. Recognition came with How sweet are the roses (1850), followed by What is home without a mother? (1854). Listen to the mocking bird (1855) was an enormous success: within 50 years Americans and Europeans bought around 20 million copies. The tune came from Dick Milburn, a black youth who ran errands at Winner’s store.
In 1862, after General George B. McClellan was discharged as commander of the Army of the Potomac, Winner composed Give us back our old commander: Little Mac, the people’s pride. Winning wide approval, it so provoked Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War, that Union soldiers were forbidden to sing it. Stanton made Winner destroy all unsold copies. When McClellan became the Democratic candidate for president in 1864, the piece was his campaign song. Other favourite songs by Winner include Der Deitcher’s Dog (‘Oh where, oh where ish mine little dog gone’, 1864), Whispering Hope (1868) and Ten Little Injuns (1868). (A number of Winner’s songs appear in R. Jackson, ed.: Popular Songs of Nineteenth-Century America, 1976.)
F.O. Jones, ed.: A Handbook of American Music and Musicians (Canaseraga, NY, 1886/R)
C.E. Claghorn: The Mocking Bird: the Life and Diary of its Author (Philadelphia, 1937)
D. Ewen: All the Years of American Popular Music (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1977), 54, 74, 326
NICHOLAS E. TAWA
City in Canada, capital of Manitoba. Its geographical isolation has been a disadvantage in that more expensive and complicated types of music-making, such as opera, have not become established. However, the Royal Winnipeg Ballet grew from its foundation in the 1930s to a position as one of the leading international travelling companies. The first 40 years of the city’s musical life (1874–1914) consisted mostly of sporadic concerts by amateur or visiting artists and private musical enterprise. A long series of British organists and choirmasters, along with the rapidly expanding activities of the Men’s Musical Club (founded 1915), established a tradition of respect for English music that was not challenged by other music until the mid-20th century. The Winnipeg Male Voice Choir (1916) made several American tours in the 1920s, and the mixed Philharmonic Society (1922), taken over by the Men’s Musical Club in 1929 to form the Philharmonic Choir, helped to make the interwar period particularly notable in terms of public musical participation. This growing involvement of the public was enormously increased by the club’s sponsorship of the Manitoba Musical Competition Festival (from 1919), which subsequently became the largest of its kind in the world. In 1983 it was renamed the Winnipeg Music Competition Festival. Many of its leading competitors have achieved international fame.
An important postwar development was the foundation (1948) of the Winnipeg SO, which developed on a regular subscription basis and cooperated with the Philharmonic Choir in large-scale choral works. The orchestra’s conductors have included Walter Kaufmann (1949–56), Victor Feldbrill (1958–68), Piero Gamba (1970–80) and Bramwell Tovey (from 1989). In 1969 the Manitoba Opera Association was founded and has become Winnipeg’s permanent opera-producing organization, mounting productions of the standard repertory. The Manitoba Chamber Orchestra was founded in 1972 and several chamber groups, the most notable of which is the Festival String Quartet (1968), have become established. Other contributors to musical life are the Women’s Musical Club, active as a concert agency, the University of Manitoba School of Music (1964), the Winnipeg Chamber Music Society, the Winnipeg Singers, MusikBarock (1989) and the CBC’s annual Spring Radio Festival. The annual summer Winnipeg Folk Festival, founded in 1974, features Canadian and international folksingers and folk groups.
(D-Bsb theol.q.290). See Sources of keyboard music to 1660, §2(iii).
Winslade [Winslate], Richard.
See Wynslate, Richard.
Winter, Georg Ludwig
(d Berlin, before 1772). German music printer and publisher. He founded his firm in Berlin in 1750 and introduced Breitkopf’s improved typeface there. He published primarily works by Berlin composers (Quantz, Agricola, C.P.E. Bach) and collections such as Musicalisches Mancherley (1762–3) and Lieder der Deutschen mit Melodien (1767). From June 1772 his widow continued the business; in 1787 J.C.F. Rellstab took over the printed music and Winter’s firm ceased business.
R. Eitner: Buch- und Musikalienhändler, Buch- und Musikaliendrucker nebst Notenstecher (Leipzig, 1904)
A. Potthast: Geschichte der Buchdruckerkunst zu Berlin im Umriss, ed. E. Crous (Berlin, 1926)
R. Elvers: ‘Musikdrucker, Musikalienhändler und Musikverleger in Berlin 1750 bis 1850, eine Übersicht’, Festschrift Walter Gerstenberg, ed. G. von Dadelsen and A. Holschneider (Wolfenbüttel, 1964), 37–44
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