Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

Wirth, Helmut (Richard Adolf Friedrich Karl)

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Wirth, Helmut (Richard Adolf Friedrich Karl)

(b Kiel, 10 Oct 1912; d Hamburg, 2 Feb 1989). German musicologist. After private composition study under R. Oppel, he studied musicology under Fritz Stein and Friedrich Blume at Kiel University (1932–7), where he took the doctorate in 1937 with a dissertation on Haydn as a dramatist. He began work for Hamburg radio in 1936, and became chief chamber music editor, and was in charge of the Lektorat. He was a visiting lecturer at Hamburg (1949–52) and lecturer in music history at the Schleswig-Holstein Musikakademie, Lübeck (1952–72). A founder-member of the Haydn Institute, Cologne, he edited works for the Haydn-Gesamtausgabe. His research interests concerned the study of individual composers from the 18th century to the 20th, notably Reger. He composed piano music, chamber music and songs.


Joseph Haydn als Dramatiker: sein Bühnenschaffen als Beitrag zur Geschichte der deutschen Oper (diss., U. of Kiel, 1937; Wolfenbüttel, 1940)

‘Max Reger in his Works’, MMR, lxxviii (1948), 143–52

‘J. Chrétien Bach’, La revue internationale de musique, new ser., no.8 (1950), 132–44

‘Mozart et Haydn’, Les influences étrangères dans l'oeuvre de W.A. Mozart: Paris 1956, 49–57

‘Carlo Goldoni und die deutsche Oper’, Hans Albrecht in memoriam, ed. W. Brennecke and H. Haase (Kassel, 1962), 160–67

‘Natur und Märchen in Webers Oberon, Mendelssohns Ein Sommernachtstraum und Nicolais Die lustigen Weiber von Windsor’, Festschrift Friedrich Blume, ed. A.A. Abert and W. Pfannkuch (Kassel, 1963), 389–97

Max Reger in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten (Reinbeck, nr Hamburg, 1973/R)

‘Gluck, Haydn und Mozart: drei Entführungs-Opern’, Opernstudien: Anna Amalie Abert zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. K. Hortschansky (Tutzing, 1975), 25–35


Max Reger: Klavierwerke, Sämtliche Werke, ix (Wiesbaden, 1957)

Joseph Haydn: Werke, xxv/3: Lo speziale [dramma giocoso] (Munich, 1959); xxv/6: L'incontro improvviso [dramma giocoso] (Munich, 1962); xxv/13: Orfeo ed Eurydice [dramma per musica] (Munich, 1973–4)

Franz Schubert: Werke für Klavier und ein Instrument, Neue Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke, vi/5b (Kassel, 1970)


Wirzbięta [Wierzbięta], Maciej

(b Kraków, 1523; d Kraków, 15–17 June 1605). Polish printer and bookseller active in Kraków. He was probably a pupil of Florian Ungler. For the high standards of his publications (which equal those of Januszowski), Wirzbięta received the title ‘Sacrae Maiestatis Regiae chalcographus’. A Calvinist, he became the principal printer for the Reformation in Poland. He published much music, almost entirely consisting of songbooks in which Protestant solo songs are well represented. In Walenty z Brzozowa's Cantional (1569), for example, Wirzbięta reproduced the music partly by type and partly by woodblock.



J. Bugosławska and E. Stankiewicz: ‘Wirzbięta Maciej’, Słownik pracowników książki polskiej [Dictionary of the Polish book trade], ed. I. Treichel (Warsaw, 1972)


Wisconsin, University of, School of Music.

The state university at Madison, which was founded in 1849, began to offer formal music instruction in 1894; in 1916 a course leading to the BM degree was established. Charles H. Mills was the first chairman. The school was one of the first to broadcast radio performances (1919) and the first to establish its own resident string quartet (the Pro Arte, 1940), which is still active. In the 1990s it had over 400 students, including almost 150 postgraduates, and about 50 instructors. The BA, BM, MA and MM are offered, as well as the MS in composition and the PhD in theory, composition, musicology and ethnomusicology. The University of Wisconsin also has a campus in Milwaukee, where undergraduate and postgraduate music degrees are offered through the School of Fine Arts.

The Mills Music Library houses 42,000 scores, books and periodicals, 1000 microfilms and 120,000 recordings, with special collections of 19th- and 20th-century American music, including the Tams-Witmark collection, and field recordings of Wisconsin folk music.


Wisconsin Conservatory of Music.

Conservatory founded in 1878 in Milwaukee.


A term in German metrics, synonymous with Ton. See Ton (i).

Wise, Michael

(b ?Salisbury, c1647; d Salisbury, 24 Aug 1687). English composer. He was one of the earliest group of choristers of the Chapel Royal following the Restoration of Charles II in 1660. He left the choir on the changing of his voice in September 1663, and from 1665 to 1668 he was a lay clerk of both St George’s Chapel, Windsor, and Eton College. On 29 April 1668 he was admitted as organist, lay vicar and instructor of the choristers of Salisbury Cathedral. He rejoined the Chapel Royal as a Gentleman in January 1676, while retaining his Salisbury appointments. When, following the interruption caused by the Fire of London, the musical establishment of St Paul’s Cathedral began to be set up once more, Wise, on the direct recommendation of James II, was appointed almoner and Master of the Choristers there in January 1687. This would no doubt have eventually involved his resignation from Salisbury, but it seems he lingered on there, since Anthony Wood recorded how a few months later ‘he was knock'd on the head and kill'd downright by the Night watch at Salisbury for giving stubborne and refractory language to them’ on St Bartholomew’s night 1687. His successor at Salisbury, Peter Isaacke, was appointed on 13 September 1687, and his successor at St Paul’s, John Blow, on 19 September. He was buried at St Thomas's Church, Salisbury.

The violence of Wise’s death is in keeping with an evidently awkward personality. In the first months of his time at Salisbury there was trouble between him and one of the lay vicars, and in 1674 he made a sweeping accusation, which he was unable to sustain, that the dean and chapter had wrongly deflected cathedral monies. From the time of his appointment as a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal accusations of his neglect of duty at Salisbury are fairly common, though the cathedral paid for a deputy organist and a substitute instructor of the choristers, while Wise, specifically on account of his skill and compositions, was allowed to retain all his stipend. At the episcopal visitation of 1683 not only negligence was alleged against him but also profanity, drunkenness ‘and other excesses in his life and conversation’. There was some trouble at the Chapel Royal too, for at the coronation of James II in 1685 he was under a suspension and did not take part.

There is only a small amount of secular music by Wise and no instrumental music at all. His significance rests exclusively on his church music. It is known that by 1676 a service and 11 anthems by him were in the Chapel Royal repertory, but despite statements to the contrary there is no example by him of the characteristic Chapel Royal anthem of the period with string symphonies and ritornellos. This is no doubt because his professional life was largely based on the provinces and he held no court appointment as a composer. Nor, unlike Blow, did he cultivate a stile antico as well as a contemporary manner. His verse anthems with organ have a distinct individuality. To a much greater degree than his Chapel Royal contemporaries he wrote for the treble voice, either alone or in ensembles of solo voices, not infrequently in duets with a bass voice. His verse passages, though expressive of the words and displaying a true sense of accent, are truly melodic in their phrasing and are rarely restricted simply to declamatory methods. His pathetic and expressive qualities are considerable, and he is also capable of great charm. Yet sometimes the simplicity of his style makes his music lack character, and he is not alone among English church composers in being relatively unsuccessful with jubilant texts. The anthem Open me the gates of righteousness and the Evening Service in D minor may be regarded as his finest works.


principal sources: EIRE-Dcc, Dpc, GB-Cfm, DRc, GL, H, Lbl, Lcm, LF, LI, Lsp, Ob, Och, WB, WO, WRch

Services, all with org: Morning, Communion and Evening Service, d, 2–4vv; Evening Service, E, 2–3vv; Communion Service, E, 3vv; Communion Service, f, 3vv

Anthems, all with org, for 3vv unless otherwise stated: Arise, O Lord, inc.; Awake, put on thy strength; Awake up, my glory; Behold, how good and joyful; Behold, I bring you glad tidings, inc.; Blessed is he that considereth the poor; Blessed is the man; By the waters of Babylon, 4vv; Christ rising again, ed. M.J. Smith (Borough Green, 1973); Glory be to God; Have pity upon me, 4vv; Hearken, O daughter, inc.; How are the mighty fallen (adapted by H. Aldrich as Thy beauty, O Israel); How long wilt thou forget me, inc.; I charge you, O daughters, 2vv.; I will arise (The Prodigal); I will sing a new song; My song shall be alway, inc.; O be joyful in the Lord, inc.; O give thanks unto the Lord, inc.; O God, when thou wentest, inc.; Open me the gates of righteousness; O praise God in his holiness; Prepare ye the way, 4vv, ed. J.W. Parker, Sacred Minstrelsy (London, 1834); Sing we merrily, 4vv; The days of man, inc.; The Lord is my shepherd, 2vv, ed. M.J. Smith (Borough Green, 1975); The Lord said unto my Lord, inc.; The ways of Sion do mourn, 2vv, ed. C.H. Kitson (London and Glasgow, 1917); Thou, O God, art praised in Sion, 2vv; Thy beauty, O Israel [see How are the mighty fallen]

Songs, catches, etc., in 16854, 16864



M.J. Smith: The Church Music of Michael Wise (diss., U. of Edinburgh, 1970)

M.J. Smith: ‘The Church Music of Michael Wise’, MT, cxiv (1973), 69–73


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