Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

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III. World music

The past 30 years have seen an increase in women's social, economic and political status in many cultures worldwide, as well as increasing opportunities for women to create, perform and control all aspects of their music-making. In addition, scholars in fields such as ethnomusicology, anthropology, folklore and cultural studies have become increasingly interested in understanding the social and political relationships between men and women in a wide variety of cultures that foster or restrict men's and women's participation in diverse musical contexts. This section presents some of the current issues and research devoted to women's music and, more broadly, to music and gender. It centres on areas where (1) women's music is the main focus of study; (2) women are the main cultural informants; or (3) gender is the main context for the discussion of music. It concentrates on a variety of contemporary cultural settings, primarily outside the matrix of the Western classical music system.

For further information on women's music in non-Western cultural traditions, see articles on individual countries.

1. History of research and analysis.

2. Women's music in everyday and ritual life.

3. Music in the court and harem.

4. Popular and commercial music.

5. New research.


Women in music, §III: World music

1. History of research and analysis.

Literature devoted to the study of women's music in world cultures falls into three historical yet overlapping periods, each marked by different research and analytical paradigms. The first (c1910–present) dealt with the near invisibility of women's musical activity in the scholarly literature, concentrating primarily on collecting, documenting and notating women's music, essentially contributing to a more holistic view of the world's musical cultures. The second wave (since c1965), influenced primarily by anthropology and folklore, began to refashion the question of women's music, framing it instead within the broader context of gender relations. Scholars looked at various societies' gender arrangements, ranging from gender hierarchy (where men controlled most aspects of women's public and expressive life) to gender equality (where men and women had equal autonomy). They also examined gender styles – ways in which power and value were negotiated or mediated between men and women, ranging from coercion to collaboration – and looked at music creation and performance as contexts for reinforcing, changing or protesting gender relations. The third wave of literature (since c1985), heavily influenced by postmodern scholarship in feminist theory, cultural and performance studies, semiotics and psychoanalysis, has sought to understand the links between social and musical structures, and how each can be seen as embedded within the other.

A quick glance at the geographical range of the literature shows that not all the world's musical cultures have been equally researched and that much more information is needed on all aspects of women's musical behaviour, especially among the traditional cultures of Central and South America, Africa and Asia. In all the literature, however, one universal exists: nowhere do men and women have equal access to all musical opportunities within a culture. Gender-based restrictions of some sort exist everywhere, from the mildest and most subtle (such as steering a young American boy away from playing the harp in the school orchestra) to the most violent (threats of gang rape against the Mundurucú women of central Brazil who catch sight of men's sacred flutes).

One of the problems facing the study of women's music in world cultures, and of gender issues in music in general, is that the analytical tools and models are largely Western-orientated, concentrating on Western constructs (such as the bi-polarity of the sexes) and a unitary Western conception of music. Although all societies recognize two human biological categories (‘male’ and ‘female’) and use them as a primary basis for the division of labour, gender categories (‘man’ and ‘woman’) are social constructs seen within specific contexts. Each society thus invents gender ideologies (often linked to religious, social, economic and other systems within the culture), which act as models, or templates, for gender-typical behaviours. Gender categories and ideologies are thus fluid, and constantly changing across time and space. There are no societies in which men and women have had total gender equality, that is, equal access to all political, economic and expressive aspects of culture, although there are many where men's and women's separate activities are, for the most part, equally valued or necessary to cultural maintenance. Likewise, although all societies select certain sounds to perform, and value such sounds over others, not all would refer to them as ‘music’, a term associated in many cultures with public, sexual or decadent (Western) values. Thus, it is crucial that future research takes into account indigenous understandings of analytical categories as much as possible.

Women in music, §III: World music

2. Women's music in everyday and ritual life.

In many of the world's cultures, especially those based on traditional agrarian or exchange economies, women are still primarily defined by their biological roles as bearers and nurturers of children, and much of their everyday and ritual activity is either empowered or constrained by these activities. Most of the existing literature on women's music thus reflects this status, focussing on music and life-cycle rituals (those associated with birth, puberty, marriage and death), on women's roles in calendrical rituals and ceremonies, on women's roles in religious systems and on their traditional roles as healers.

In the Americas, for example, a long history of research on Amerindian women concentrates on puberty and initiation rituals, or on ceremonies that celebrate the power of women's fertility and spirituality to sustain tribal life. Similarly, in parts of Africa, especially among the Venda in the south, the central rainforest BaAka, and women in Sudanic Africa, as well as in India, Australia, Peninsular Malaysia, Papua New Guinea and the Pacific Islands, women's powerful and valued status as mothers and nurturers is reflected in studies of childbirth songs, and in celebrations of women's specialized sexual and ritual knowledge. Indeed, in cultures where there is an ideology of gender-equality, women's music is both necessary and sufficient for maintaining social and spiritual balance.

Two important genres of music almost universally performed by women and often linked together, especially in societies that are patriarchal and patrilocal, are wedding songs and laments. Young women, on marriage, generally leave the protection of their original homes, families and communities, and many have historically faced hardships in the homes of their husbands or mothers-in-law, frequently dying in childbirth. Women who survive the birth of many children, the death of other family members, and grow into old age, often take on new, important roles as lamenters within their communities and assume the responsibilities of communal mourning and burial.

Collections and other documentation of songs of love, courtship and marriage are found in great numbers in the literature: wedding and other life-cycle songs among Jews and Muslims in Morocco and Israel; wedding songs performed by women in North India, Albania and Canada; love songs composed and performed by Zulu women in Africa and by young, unmarried women, as part of long rituals of courtship, in the Philippines and in Turkey. Studies of lament, or of women's roles in funerary rituals, are found predominantly in the literature on Greek, Finnish and Hungarian women and among the Ga in south-eastern Ghana (see also Lament).

In addition to life-cycle rituals, there are numerous studies that address women's and men's ritual responsibilities during the yearly agrarian cycle of planting, harvesting and preserving. Some of the earliest and most important collections and discussions of folksongs from eastern and southern Europe and the USA, as well as from northern Thailand, for example, document women's songs associated with gender-based work activities, such as sewing, cooking and working bees, and with special ritual contexts accompanying planting and harvesting. Issues of women's identity and work are also addressed in a study of Kpelle women in Liberia.

Most world religious systems are male-dominated, in that men generally control the ritual, legal and expressive aspects of religious activity. Women, though always present, have often been overlooked in this context, and there is a small but growing literature documenting women's musical roles in major religious systems worldwide. The most extensive documentation outside the Western Classical music system (itself largely based on early Christian musical practice) is found in the literature on black American gospel and other church-related musics; Jewish liturgical and para-liturgical musics; and Muslim women in Saudi Arabia, North India and Pakistan. In addition, the ‘feminine spirit’, often seen as crucial to the efficacy of ritual, is frequently celebrated in traditional Amerindian culture, as well as within the Hindu and Buddhist traditions, primarily in Cambodia and Java, as well as elsewhere.

In many societies women take on the role of shaman and often practise outside the sanctioned religious systems of their communities. Part-healer, part-musician, spirit-guide and actor, the shaman is frequently called on to cure individual, family and community illness. Women are often regarded as more powerful than men in this role, as their fertility and perceived psychological openness seem to make them better adapted to mediating between the spirit and human worlds. Nowhere has this tradition been more fully documented than in Korea, with major studies on mudang (female shamans) and the ritual known as kut. Other studies have also appeared documenting female shamans in Siberia, Haiti and the USA.

Women in music, §III: World music

3. Music in the court and harem.

From about 1000 ce to the present day, many societies, especially in Europe, the Middle East, North Africa and Asia, developed intricate religious and politically centralized court systems, where the ruling nobility or élite, usually defended by a warrior class, owned and controlled the land. This socio-economic system proved advantageous for the arts, especially for music, as court rituals and ceremonies required many elaborate performances and a constant stream of musicians and composers. The patronage system that developed in these areas disappeared with the rise of the urban middle class, where musicians, especially in western Europe, often acted as free agents and gained more control over their musical activities. But the legacy of the politico-religious court system still lingers in many of the world's cultures.

Women were frequently drawn from surrounding villages and farming areas to participate as courtesans in court life, as musicians, singers, dancers and composers. Indeed, many of the world's classical music systems developed and grew within court contexts, especially in Europe, India, China and Indonesia. In most societies, however, courtesans (but not courtiers) were viewed with some ambivalence. Contrary to the norm, these women were often highly educated, professional musicians, singers and dancers, who were also viewed as public women, that is, women who publicly performed not only their music but also their sexuality, primarily for male patrons. Courtesan traditions have been fairly well documented, especially in China, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, Egypt, India, Nigeria, Tunisia, Cyprus, and within the medieval Arabo-Islamic courts and the Christian courts of Europe (see Courtesan).

Women in music, §III: World music

4. Popular and commercial music.

The 20th century has seen the unprecedented growth of technology and spread of Western music throughout the world, via the importation of Western styles of teaching and through the commercial recording industry. Thus, it is not uncommon today to see Western-style schools of music in many parts of Africa and Asia, or, even in the most remote villages, to hear the latest hits from American, Asian or European groups on radio, cassette tape or CD. Women, long associated with singing and dancing within the courtesan traditions (if less so as instrumentalists), have often become articulate spokespersons for cultural change and modernization, or for protesting their gender status.

A tremendous amount of popular literature exists that chronicles the lives and times of female singers, especially in the West; the scholarly literature, however, is relatively small by comparison. Most work centres on black American blues and jazz singers, especially in the first half of the 20th century when women such as Ma Rainey and Bessie Smith were stars. Blues lyrics, especially, provided a context for women to protest various gender issues, such as infidelity, abandonment and other abuses. Other work on popular female singers includes publications on women-identified (i.e. lesbian) music in the USA, on popular singers in Mali, South Africa and Croatia, and on the great Egyptian singer Umm Kulthum, a powerful icon of Egyptian nationalism and modernization in the first half of the 20th century. See also Popular music, §II.

Women in music, §III: World music

5. New research.

Since about 1985, new, postmodern studies addressing the issue of gender in song lyrics and in musical structure itself have begun to appear, most prominently within the literature on Western classical and popular musics. These studies examine song texts, sound structures and actual performances as materializations of gender relationships and, in openly political ways, try to understand and address the power imbalances found between men and women in virtually all world cultures. Some literature, such as that on the popular performers Madonna, Annie Lennox and other contemporary Western singers and songwriters, focusses on the strategies used by these powerful women to subvert or overthrow male domination by questioning and playing with the bi-polarized constructions of gender in Western culture. Similarly, recent scholarship on rock, rap, blues and American balladry, and on women's musical life stories, openly addresses questions of sexual identity politics within music, the music industry, and within such contexts as the home and the Internet. Outside the USA, scholars working on a number of areas – the Arab Middle East, Jewish communities in Israel, female singers in Ethiopia and Turkey, folksingers in north India, Australia and among the Maori – are examining the ways in which culture-specific constructions of gender and resulting inter-gender relations are actually performed through the musical and sexual body.

Far more research and far more understanding of the wide variety of gendered musical and social behaviours and contexts are needed. Women have always been at least one half of the world's population, yet little of their music or musical performance has been documented within the Western academy, itself a male-dominated institution. This is changing as more women and men become sensitive to the diversity and creativity of both gendered constructs and the varied musical sounds the world offers, but much more research and analysis is needed in order to balance the picture.

Women in music, §III: World music


a: general sources, anthologies

b: north america

c: central and south america, caribbean

d: africa

e: north africa, middle east

f: europe

g: asia

h: australia and the pacific

Women in music, §III: World music, Bibliography

a: general sources, anthologies

H. Cormier, ed.: Women and Folk Music: a Select Bibliography (Washington DC, 1978)

J. Riley: ‘Women and World Music: Straining our Ears to the Silence’, Heresies: A Feminist Publication on Art and Politics, no.10 (New York, 1980)

E. Wood: ‘Women in Music’, Signs, vi/2 (1980), 283–97

J.L. Zaimont, ed.: The Musical Woman: an International Perspective (Westport, CT, 1983)

E. Koskoff, ed.: Women and Music in Cross-Cultural Perspective (Westport, CT, 1987) [incl. C.E. Robertson: ‘Power and Gender in the Musical Experiences of Women’, 225–44]

J. Shepherd: ‘Music and Male Hegemony’, Music and Society: the Politics of Composition, Performance, and Reception, ed. R. Leppert and S. McClary (Cambridge, 1987), 151–72

R. Keeling, ed.: Women in North American Indian Music: Six Essays (Bloomington, IN, 1989)

E. Koskoff: ‘Both In and Between: Women's Musical Roles in Ritual Life’, Music and the Experience of God, ed. M.V. Burnim, M. Collins and D. Power (Edinburgh, 1989), 82–93

C.E. Robertson: ‘Singing Social Boundaries into Place: the Dynamics of Gender and Performance in Two Cultures’, Sonus, x (1989–90), no.1, pp. 59–71; no.2, pp.1–13

M. Herndon and S. Ziegler, eds.: Music, Gender, and Culture (Wilhelmshaven, 1990) [incl. M. Herndon: ‘Biology and Culture: Music, Gender, Power, and Ambiguity’, 11–26]

M. Herndon and S. Ziegler, eds.: ‘Women in Music and Music Research’, World of Music, xxxiii/2 (1991) [whole issue]

L.J. Jones: ‘Women in Non-Western Music’, Women and Music: a History, ed. K. Pendle (Bloomington, IN, 1991), 314–30

B. Lincoln: Emerging from the Chrysalis: Rituals of Women's Initiation (New York, 1991)

S. McClary: Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality (Minneapolis, 1991)

M. Sarkissian: ‘Gender and Music’, Ethnomusicology: an Introduction, ed. H. Myers (New York, 1992), 337–48

K. Marshall, ed.: Rediscovering the Muses: Women's Musical Traditions (Boston, 1993)

C.E. Robertson: ‘The Ethnomusicologist as Midwife’, Musicology and Difference: Gender and Sexuality in Music Scholarship, ed. R. Solie (Berkeley, 1993), 107–24

P. Brett and E. Wood, eds.: Queering the Pitch: the New Gay and Lesbian Musicology (New York, 1994)

S. Cook and J.S. Tsou: Cecilia Reclaimed: Feminist Perspectives on Gender and Music (Urbana, IL, 1994)

E. Koskoff: ‘When Women Play: the Relationship between Musical Instruments and Gender Style’, Canadian University Music Review, xvi/1 (1995), 114–27

W. Washabaugh, ed.: The Passion of Music and Dance: Body, Gender, Sexuality (Oxford, 1998)

B. Diamond and P. Moisala, eds.: Music and Gender: Negotiating Shifting Worlds (Urbana, IL, forthcoming) [incl. M. Herndon: ‘The Place of Gender within Complex Dynamical Musical Systems’]

Women in music, §III: World music, Bibliography

b: north america

F. Densmore: Chippewa Music (Washington, DC, 1910–13)

C.I. Frisbie: Kinaalda: a Study of the Navaho Girl's Puberty Ceremony (Middletown, CT, 1965)

N.H. Saldaña: ‘La Malinche: her Representation in Dances of Mexico and the United States’, EthM, x (1966), 289–309

B.L. Hawes: ‘Folksongs and Function: some Thoughts on the American Lullaby’, Journal of American Folklore, lxxxvii (1974), 140–48

E. Alloy and M. Rogers: Working Women's Music: the Songs and Struggles of Women in the Cotton Mills, Textile Plants, and Needle Trades (Somerville, MA, 1976)

F. Driggs: Women in Jazz: a Survey (New York, 1977)

S. Frith and A. McRobbie: ‘Rock and Sexuality’, Screen Education, xxix (1978), 371–89

G. Kurath: Tutelo Rituals on Six Nations Reserve, Ontario (Ann Arbor, 1981)

J. Vander: ‘The Song Repertoire of Four Shoshone Women: a Reflection of Cultural Movements and Sex Roles’, EthM, xxvi (1982), 73–83

J. Stewart and B. Jones, eds.: For the Ancestors: Autobiographical Memories (Urbana, IL, 1983)

R. Keeling: ‘Contrast of Song Performance Style as a Function of Sex-Role Polarity in the Hupa Brush Dance’, EthM, xxix (1985), 185–212

A.D. Shapiro and I. Talamantez: ‘The Mescalero Apache Girls' Puberty Ceremony: the Role of Music in Structuring Ritual Time’, YIFMC, xviii (1986), 77–90

J. Cohen: ‘‘Ya salió de la mar’: Judeo-Spanish Wedding Songs among Moroccan Jews in Canada’, Women and Music in Cross-Cultural Perspective, ed. E. Koskoff (Westport, CT, 1987), 55–68

M. Jamal: Shape Shifters: Shaman Women in Contemporary Society (New York, 1987)

D. Kodish: ‘Absent Gender, Silent Encounter’, Journal of American Folklore, c (1987), 573–8

K. Petersen: ‘An Investigation into Woman-Identified Music’, Women and Music in Cross-Cultural Perspective, ed. E. Koskoff (Westport, CT, 1987), 203–12

J. Vander: Songprints: the Musical Experience of Five Shoshone Women (Urbana, IL, 1988)

R. Keeling, ed.: Women in North American Indian Music (Bloomington, IN, 1989) [incl. B.D. Cavanagh: ‘Music and Gender in the Sub-Arctic Algonkian Area’, American Indian Music, 55–66; C. Frisbie: ‘Gender and Navajo Music: Unanswered Questions’, 22–38; O.T. Hatton: ‘Gender and Musical Style in Gros Ventre War Expedition songs’, 39–54; R. Keeling: ‘Musical Evidence of Female Spiritual Life among the Yurok’, 67–78; T. Vennum jr.: ‘The Changing Role of Women in Ojibway Music History’, 13–21]

C. Gilkes: ‘Together and in Harness: Women's Traditions in the Sanctified Church’, Black Women in United States History, ed. D.C. Hine (Brooklyn, 1990)

G.D. Goode: Preachers of the Word and Singers of the Gospel: the Ministry of Women among Nineteenth Century African-Americans (Philadelphia, 1990)

J.R. Stuttgen: ‘Kentucky Folksong in Northern Wisconsin: Evolution of the Folksong Tradition in Four Generations of Jacobs Women’, Southern Folklore, xlviii (1991), 275–89

H. Carby: ‘In Body and Spirit: Representing Black Women Musicians’, Black Music Research Journal, xi:2 (1992), 177–92

L.K. Kivi: Canadian Women Making Music (Toronto, 1992)

E. Koskoff: ‘Miriam Sings her Song: the Self and the Other in Anthropological Discourse’, Musicology and Difference: Gender and Sexuality in Music Scholarship, ed. R. Solie (Berkeley, 1993), 149–63

S.C. Cook and J.S. Tsou, eds.: Cecilia Reclaimed: Feminist Perspective on Gender and Music (Urbana, IL, 1994) [incl. S.C. Cook: ‘“Cursed Was She”: Gender and Power in American Balladry’, 202–24; J.C. Post: ‘Erasing the Boundaries between Public and Private in Women's Performance Traditions’, 35–51]

V. Giglio: Southern Cheyenne Women's Songs (Norman, OK, 1994)

J.A. Jones: ‘Nez Perce Women, Music, and Cultural Change’, Women of Note Quarterly, iii/3 (1995), 6–19

E. Koskoff: ‘The Language of the Heart: Music in Lubavitcher Life’, New World Hasidim: Ethnographic Studies of Hasidic Jews in America, ed. J.S. Belcove-Shalin (Albany, NY, 1995), 87–106

B. Diamond and P. Moisala, eds.: Music and Gender: Negotiating Shifting Worlds (Urbana, IL, forthcoming) [incl. J. Bowers: ‘Writing the Biography of a Black Woman Blues Singer’; B. Diamond: ‘The Interpretation of Gender Issues in Musical Life Stories’]

Women in music, §III: World music, Bibliography

c: central and south america, caribbean

D.Z. Olivella: ‘An Introduction to the Folk Dances of Columbia’, EthM, xi (1) (1967), 91–6

D. Olsen: ‘Japanese Music in Peru’, Asian Music, xi/2 (1980), 41–51

A. Seeger: ‘Sing for your Sister: the Structure and Performance of Suya Akia’, The Ethnography of Musical Performance, ed. N. McLeod and M. Herndon (Norwood, PA, 1980), 7–42; repr. in A Century of Ethnomusicological Thought, ed. K.K. Shelemay (New York, 1990), 269–304

E.B. Basso: ‘Musical Expression and Gender Identity in the Myth and Ritual of the Kalapalo of Central Brazil’, Women and Music in Cross-Cultural Perspective, ed. E. Koskoff (Westport, CT, 1987), 163–76

J.M. Chernela: ‘Gender, Language and Placement in Uanano Songs’, Journal of Latin American Lore, xiv (1988), 193–206

D.P. Hernandez: ‘Cantando la cama vacía: Love, Sexuality and Gender Relationships in Dominican Bachata’, Popular Music, ix (1990), 351–67

B. Seitz: ‘Songs, Identity and Women's Liberation in Nicaragua’, Latin American Music Review, xii/1 (1991), 21–41

F.R. Aparicio: Listening to Salsa: Gender, Latin Popular Music and Puerto Rican Cultures (Middletown, CT, 1997)

W. De Kooning: Sacred Possessions, ed. M.F. Olmos and L. Paravisini-Gebert (New Brunswick, NJ, 1997)

Women in music, §III: World music, Bibliography

d: africa

GEWM, i (‘Pop Music in Africa’, A. Impey)

M. Mackay: ‘The Shantu Music of the Harims of Nigeria’, AfM, i/2 (1955), 56–7

J. Blacking: ‘Songs, Dances, Mimes and Symbolism of Venda Girls' Initiation Schools’, African Studies, xxviii (1969), 3–35, 69–118, 149–99, 215–66

K.A. Gourlay: ‘Trees and Anthills: Songs of the Karimojong Women's Groups’, AfM, iv/4 (1970), 114–21

J.C. DjeDje: Distribution of the One-String Fiddle in West Africa (Los Angeles, 1980)

B. Hampton: ‘Music and Ritual Symbolism in the Ga Funeral’, Yearbook for Traditional Music, xiv (1982), 75–105

C.A. Campbell and C.M. Eastman: ‘Ngoma: Swahili Adult Song Performance in Context’, EthM, xxviii (1984), 467–93

J.C. DjeDje: ‘Women and Music in Sudanic Africa’, More than Drumming, ed. I. Jackson (Westport, CT, 1985), 67–89

R. Joseph: ‘Zulu Women's Bow Songs: Ruminations on Love’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, l (1987), 90–119

L. Monts: ‘Vai Women's Roles in Music, Masking, and Ritual Performance’, African Musicology …: a Festschrift presented to J.H. Kwabena Nketia, i, ed. J.C. DjeDje and W.G. Carter (Los Angeles, 1989), 219–36

R.C. Okafor: ‘Women in Igbo Musical Culture’, Nigerian Field, liv (1989), 3–4

M. Rorich: ‘Shebeens, Slumyards and Sophiatown: Black Women, Music and Cultural Change in Urban South Africa’, World of Music, xxxi/1 (1989), 78–101

C.E. Schmidt: ‘Womanhood, Work and Song among the Kpelle of Liberia’, African Musicology …: a Festschrift presented to J.H. Kwabena Nketia, i, ed. J.C. DjeDje and W.G. Carter (Los Angeles, 1989), 237–64

R.C. Carlisle: ‘Women Singers in Darfur, Sudan Republic’, A Century of Ethnomusicological Thought, ed. K.K. Shelemay (New York, 1990), 207–24

C. Schmidt: ‘Group Expression and Performance Among Kpelle Women's Associations of Liberia’, Music, Gender and Culture, ed. M. Herndon and S. Ziegler (Wilhelmshaven, 1990), 131–42

W. Bender: ‘Great Female Singers: Mali’, Sweet Mother: Modern African Music (Chicago, 1991), 21–31 [Eng. trans. of Ger. orig., 1985]

D. Dargie: ‘Umngqokolo: Xhosa Overtone Singing and the Song Nondel'ekhaya’, AfM, vii/1 (1991), 32–47

J. Topp Fargion: ‘The Role of Women in taarab in Zanzibar: an Historical Examination of a Process of “Africanization”’, World of Music, xxxv/2 (1993), 109–25

D. Wagner-Glenn: Searching for a Baby's Calabash: a Study of Arusha Maasai Fertility Songs as Crystallized Expression of Central Cultural Values (Affalterbach, 1993)

M. Kisliuk: ‘Performance and Modernity among Ba-Aka Pygmies: a Closer Look at the Mystique of Egalitarian Forgers in the Rainforest’, Music and Gender: Negotiating Shifting Worlds, ed. B. Diamond and P. Moisala (Urbana, IL, forthcoming)

Women in music, §III: World music, Bibliography

e: north africa, middle east

E. Gerson-Kiwi: ‘Wedding Dances and Songs of the Jews of Bokhara’, JIFMC, ii (1950), 17–18

N. McLeod and M. Herndon: ‘The bormliza: Maltese Folksong Style and Women’, Women and Folklore, ed. C.B. Farrer (Austin, TX, 1975), 81–100

K.H. Campbell: ‘Saudi Arabian Women's Music’, Habibi, ix (1985)

Y. Avishur: Women's Folk Songs in Judeao-Arabic from Jews in Iraq (Or Yehud, Israel, 1987)

E. Koskoff, ed.: Women and Music in Cross-Cultural Perspective (Westport, CT, 1987) [incl. L.J. Jones: ‘A Sociohistorical Perspective on Tunisian Women as Professional Musicians’, 69–84; H.L. Sakata: ‘Hazara Women in Afghanistan: Innovators and Preservers of a Musical Tradition’, 85–96]

S.M. Sawa: ‘The Role of Women in Musical Life: the Medieval Arabo-Islamic Courts’, Canadian Women's Studies, viii (1987)

V. Doubleday: Three Women of Herat (London, 1988)

S. Weich-Shahak: Judeo-Spanish Moroccan Song for the Life Cycle: Recordings, Transcriptions and Annotations (Jerusalem, 1989)

M. Herndon and S. Ziegler, eds.: Music, Gender and Culture (Wilhelmshaven, 1990) [incl. E. Brandes: ‘The Relation of Women's Music to Men's Music in Southern Algeria’, 115–30; C.T. Kimberlin: ‘“And Are You Pretty?” Choice, Perception and Reality in Pursuit of Happiness’, 221–40; U. Reinhard: ‘The Veils are Lifted: Music of Turkish Women’, 101–14; S. Ziegler: ‘Gender-Specific Traditional Wedding Music in Southwestern Turkey’, 85–100]

V.L. Danielson: ‘Artists and Entrepreneurs: Female Singers in Cairo during the 1920s’, Women in Middle Eastern History: Shifting Boundaries in Sex and Gender, ed. N.R. Keddie and B. Baron (New Haven, CT, 1991), 292–309

I. Heskes: ‘Miriam's Sisters: Jewish Women and Liturgical Music’, Notes, xlviii (1991–2), 1193–1202

S. Gergis: ‘The Power of Women Musicians in the Ancient and Near East: the Roots of the Prejudice’, British Journal of Music Education, x (1993), 189–96

K. Van Nieuwkerk: “A Trade Like Any Other”: Female Singers and Dancers in Egypt (Austin, TX, 1995)

V.L. Danielson: The Voice of Egypt: Umm Kulthūm, Arabic Song, and Egyptian Society in the Twentieth Century (Chicago, 1997)

I. El-Mallah: The Role of Women in Omani Musical Life (Tutzing, 1997)

S. Zuhur, ed.: Images of Enchantment: Visual and Performing Arts in the Middle East (Cairo, 1998)

V. Doubleday: ‘The Frame Drum in the Middle East: Women, Musical Instruments, and Power’, EthM, xliii/i (1999), 101–34

V.L. Danielson: ‘Moving into Public Space: Women and Musical Performance in 20th Century Egypt’, Hermeneutics and Honor: Negotiating Female ‘Public’ Space in Islamic Societies, ed. A. Afsaruddin (Cambridge, MA, forthcoming)

B. Diamond and P. Moisala, eds.: Music and Gender: Negotiating Shifting Worlds (Urbana, IL, forthcoming) [incl. C.T. Kimberlin: ‘Women, Music and Chains of the Mind: Eritrea and the Tigre Region of Ethiopia’; U. Reinhard: ‘The Image of Woman in Turkish Ballad Poetry and Music’]

Women in music, §III: World music, Bibliography

f: europe

B. Bartók and A. Lord: Serbo-Croatian Folk Songs (New York, 1951)

P. Szirmai: ‘A Csángó-Hungarian Lament’, EthM, xi (1967), 310–25

I. Markoff: ‘Two-Part Singing from the Razlog District of Southwestern Bulgaria’, YIFMC, vii (1975), 134–44

M.P. Coote: ‘Women's Songs in Serbo-Croatian’, Journal of American Folklore, xc (1977), 331–8

A. Caraveli-Chaves: ‘Bridge between Worlds: the Greek Women's Lament as Communicative Event’, Journal of American Folklore, xciii (1980), 129–57

T. Rice: ‘A Macedonian Sobor: Anatomy of a Celebration’, Journal of American Folklore, xciii (1980)

A. Giurchescu: ‘Power and Charm: Interaction of Adolescent Men and Women in Traditional Settings of Transylvania’, Yearbook of Traditional Music, xviii (1986), 37–46

E. Koskoff, ed.: Women and Music in Cross-Cultural Perspective (Westport, CT, 1987) [incl. S. Auerbach: ‘From Singing to Lamenting: Women's Musical Role in a Greek Village’, 25–44; P. Shehan: ‘Balkan Women as Preservers of Traditional Music and Culture’, 45–54]

J.C. Sugarman: ‘The Nightingale and the Partridge: Singing and Gender among Prespa Albanians’, EthM, xxxiii (1989), 191–216

M. Herndon and S. Ziegler, eds.: Music, Gender and Culture (Wilhelmshaven, 1990) [incl. A. Czekanowska: ‘Towards a Concept of Slavonic Women's Repertoire’, 57–70; A. Johnson: ‘The Sprite in the Water and the Siren of the Woods: on Swedish Folk Music and Gender’, 27–40; A. Petrovic: ‘Women in the Music Creation Process in the Dinaric Cultural Zone of Yugoslavia’, 71–84; E. Tolbert: ‘Magico-Religious Power and Gender in the Karelian Lament’, 41–56]

E. Tolbert: ‘Women Cry with Words: Symbolization of Affect in the Karelian Laments’, Yearbook for Traditional Music, xxii (1990), 80–105

M.P. Coote: ‘On the Composition of Women's Songs [in the south Slavic oral tradition]’, Oral Tradition, vii (1992), 332–48

J.C. Sugarman: Engendering Song: Singing and Subjectivity at Prespa Albanian Weddings (Chicago, 1997)

B. Diamond and P. Moisala, eds.: Music and Gender: Negotiating Shifting Worlds (Urbana, IL, forthcoming) [incl. N. Ceribasic: ‘Defining Women/Men in the Context of War: Images in Croatian Popular Music in the 1990s’; H. Jarviluoma: ‘Local Construction of Gender in a Rural Pelimaiuu Musicians' Group’; P. Moisala: ‘Gender Negotiation of Composer Kaija Saariaho in Finland: Woman Composer as Nomadic Subject’; M. Meyers: ‘Searching for Data About European Ladies' Orchestras, 1870–1950’; I. Runtel: ‘Past and Present Gender Roles in the Traditional Community on Kihnu Island in Estonia’]

Women in music, §III: World music, Bibliography

g: asia

J.O. Becker: ‘Music of the Pwo Karen of Northern Thailand’, EthM, viii (1964), 137–53

Soedarsono: ‘Classical Javanese Dance: History and Characterization’, EthM, xiii (1969), 498–506

B.C. Wade: ‘Songs of Traditional Wedding Ceremonies in North India’, Yearbook for Inter-American Music Research, iv (1972), 57–65

U.H. Cadar: ‘The Role of Kulintang Music in Maranao Society’, EthM, xvii (1973), 243–49

M.J. Kartomi: ‘Music and Trance in Central Java’, EthM, xvii(2) (1973), 163–208

B.W. Lee: ‘Evolution of the Role and Status of Korean Professional Entertainers (Kisaeng)’, World of Music, xxi/2 (1979), 75–84

H.P. Huhm: Kut: Korean Shamanist Rituals (Elizabeth, NJ, 1980)

R.B. Qureshi: ‘Islamic Music in an Indian Environment: the Shi‘a Majlis’, EthM, xxv (1981), 41–71

A. Catlin: ‘Speech Surrogate Systems of the Hmong: from Singing Voices to Talking Reeds’, The Hmong in the West: Observations and Reports, ed. B.T. Downing and D.P. Olney (Minneapolis, 1982)

L. Kendall: Shamans, Housewives and other Restless Spirits: Women in Korean Ritual Life (Honolulu, 1985)

A. Catlin: ‘Apsaras and other Goddesses in Khmer Music, Dance and Ritual’, Apsara: the Feminine in Cambodian Arts (Los Angeles, 1987), 28–36

E. Koskoff, ed.: Women and Music in Cross-Cultural Perspective (Westport, CT, 1987) [incl. A.K. Coaldrake: ‘Female Tayu in the Gidayu Tradition of Japan’, 151–62; J. Post: ‘Professional Women in Indian Music: the Death of the Courtesan Tradition’, 97–110; M. Roseman: ‘Inversion and Conjuncture: Male and Female Performance among the Temiar of Peninsular Malaysia’, 131–50; R.A. Sutton: ‘Identity and Individuality in an Ensemble Tradition: the Female Vocalist in Java’, 111–30]

J. Becker: ‘Earth, Fire, “Sakti” [female power] and Javanese Gamelan’, EthM, xxxii (1988), 385–91

L.G. Tewari: ‘Sohar: Childbirth Songs of Joy’, Asian Folklore Studies, xlvii (1988), 257–6

M. Herndon and S. Ziegler, eds.: Music, Gender and Culture (Wilhelmshaven, 1990) [incl. G. Schwörer-Kohl: ‘Considering Gender Balance in Religion and Ritual Music among the Hmong and Lahu in Northern Thailand’, 143–56; N. Yeh: ‘Wisdom of Ignorance: Women Performers in the Classical Chinese Music Traditions’, 157–72]

I. Srivastava: ‘Woman as Portrayed in Women's Folk Songs of North India’, Asian Folklore Studies, l (1991), 269–310

S. Addiss: ‘Text and Context in Vietnamese Sung Poetry: the Art of “Hát á Dào”’, Selected Reports in Ethnomusicology, ix (1992), 203–34

I. Fritsch: ‘The Social Organization of the “Goze” in Japan: Blind Female Musicians on the Road’, CHIME: Journal of the European Foundation for Chinese Music Research, no.5 (1992), 58–64

S. Weiss: ‘Gender and Gender’, Rediscovering the Muses: Women's Musical Traditions, ed. K. Marshall (Boston, 1993), 21–48

A.K. Coaldrake: Women's Gidayu and the Japanese Theatre Tradition (New York, 1996)

Women in music, §III: World music, Bibliography

h: australia and the pacific

GEWM, ix (‘Music and Gender’, A.L. Kaeppler)

K.A. Gourlay: Sound-Producing Instruments in Traditional Society: a Study of Esoteric Instruments and their Role in Male-Female Relations (Port Moresby, 1975)

L. Barwick: ‘Central Australian Women's Ritual Music: Knowing through Analysis versus Knowing through Performance’, Yearbook for Traditional Music, xxii (1990), 60–79

C.J. Ellis and L. Barwick: ‘Antikirinja Women's Song Knowledge 1963–1972: its Significance in Antikirinja Culture’, Women, Rites and Sites: Aboriginal Women's Cultural Knowledge, ed. P. Brock (Sydney, 1990), 21–40

M. Herndon and S. Ziegler, eds.: Music, Gender and Culture (Wilhelmshaven, 1990) [incl. A.L. Kaeppler: ‘The Production and Reproduction of Social and Cultural Values in the Compositions of Queen Sálote of Tonga’, 191–220; J.M. Rossen: ‘Politics and Songs: a Study in Gender on Mungiki’, 173–90]

M. Orbell: ‘“My Summit where I Sit”: Form and Content in Maori Women's Love Songs’, Oral Tradition, v (1990), 185–204

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