(b ?Wells, 1672; dSalisbury, 16 Jan 1718). English cathedral musician. He appears to have come from Wells where he was probably a chorister, and where two older generations of men by this name had served in the choir. He was admitted organist, informator choristarum and lay vicar at Salisbury Cathedral on 1 August 1700, remaining as such until his death ‘aged 45’. Three services and 13 anthems by him are known. The morning services in E and A survive in score (GB-Lbl and Ob), and the service in F in parts. These works, along with the anthem O Lord, thou hast searched me out, which also survives complete, exhibit modest competence.
Morning Service, A (TeD, Jub), 4vv, GB-Ob; Morning Service, E (TeD, Jub; To Mr Wise’s Evening Service), 4vv, Lbl, Y; Whole Service, F (TeD, Jub, San, Ky, Cr, Mag, Nunc), 4vv, DRc (inc.), Ob, Och
If the Lord himself, verse, GB-EXcl (inc.), Lcm (inc.); In the trouble, Lcm (inc.); O Lord thou hast searched me out, verse, 4vv, EIRE-Dcc, GB-Cu, EXcl (inc.), H (inc.), LF (inc.), Ob, WB (inc.); O sing to the Lord, Lcm (inc.); Unto thee will I cry, O Lord my strength, verse, Ob
Lost: Arise, shine, for thy light is come, verse; I said in the cutting off, verse; Lord I will praise thee, verse; Lord thou art become gracious, verse; O God the heathen are come, full; O how amiable are thy dwellings, verse; O praise God in his holiness, verse; Save me, O God, for thy name’s sake, full
To the loud trumpets martiall breath (London, c1700)
H.W.Shaw: The Succession of Organists of the Chapel Royal and the Cathedrals of England and Wales from c.1538 (Oxford, 1991), 264
I.Spink: Restoration Cathedral Music 1660–1714 (Oxford, 1995), 346–8
English firm of organ builders. Joseph William Walker (b London, 17 Jan 1803; d London, 1 Feb 1870) was reputedly ‘parlour apprentice’ to G.P. England (seeEngland (ii)) in London; he worked with W.A.A. Nicholls (England's successor) and then set up business as a pipe maker. He built his first organ in 1827. Joseph Walker's instruments are notable for their full-toned diapasons and bright upperwork; most had one or two manuals but he built larger organs for the Exeter Hall (1839), Highfield Chapel, Huddersfield (1854), and the International Exhibition of 1862. Under his son, James John Walker (b 21 Aug 1846; d 19 Sept 1922), the firm secured a series of prestigious contracts including Holy Trinity, Sloane Square, London (1891), St Margaret's, Westminster (1898), and York Minster (1903). All these instruments were characterized by a restrained opulence in which fully developed flue choruses co-existed with strings, orchestral reeds and bright flutes.
The firm played a significant part in the reform of English organ-building after 1945. Influenced by collaborations with Ralph Downes at Buckfast Abbey, Devon (1952), and Brompton Oratory (1954), the typical Walker organ of the period had a neo-classical tonal scheme and electro-pneumatic action. Examples include the Italian Church, Hatton Garden, London (1959), Corpus Christi, Osmondthorpe (1962), Ampleforth Abbey (1963), Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral (1967) and Blackburn Cathedral (1969).
In 1975 the firm, reconstituted, moved its premises from Ruislip, Middlesex, to Brandon, Suffolk, since when it has increasingly concentrated on the building of new mechanical-action instruments (Albert Hall, Bolton, 1985; St Martin-in-the-Fields, London, 1990; St Chad's Cathedral, Birmingham, 1993).
Surviving organs from the earlier phase of the firm's history include those at St Mary's, Bermondsey (1853), Romsey Abbey (1857 and 1888), St Cross Hospital, Winchester (1863 and 1907), St Mary's, Portsea (1891), Bristol Cathedral (1907) and the Church of the Sacred Heart, Wimbledon (1912 and 1935).
C.Clutton and A. Niland: The British Organ (London, 1963/R, 2/1982)
R.Downes: Baroque Tricks (Oxford, 1983)
N.J.Thistlethwaite: The Making of the Victorian Organ (Cambridge, 1990)
Walker, Aaron Thibeaux.
See Walker, T-Bone.
(b Scunthorpe, 6 April 1930). English musicologist, active in Canada. He studied at the GSM (ARCM 1949), at Durham University (BMus 1956, DMus 1965) and privately with Hans Keller (1958–60). After teaching as professor of harmony and counterpoint at the GSM (1958–61) he was a producer for the BBC music division (1961–71) and produced a complete Liszt cycle for Radio 3. He subsequently became chairman and professor in the music department at McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (1971–95). His chief areas of research are Romantic music, musical aesthetics, and criticism. He has edited useful anthologies on the life and works of Schumann, Chopin and Liszt, and produced two books on the creation and perception of music (A Study in Musical Analysis and An Anatomy of Musical Criticism). In both he argued that the underlying unity of a work is unconsciously formulated by the composer and is apprehended intuitively by the listener, ideas which are closely related to those of Hans Keller, to whom A Study in Musical Analysis is dedicated. His major achievement, however, is the magnificent three-volume biography of Liszt (1883–96), which dominated his work for a quarter of a century and which is the first mongraph to comprehend the scope and complexity of Liszt’s own life and work. With its critical approach to the many Liszt sources, its wide cultural grasp and its accessible style it set new standards for Liszt scholarship. Walker’s personal archive of several thousand letters to musicians was placed in the library of McMaster University in 1997. He is the recipient of a Festschrift in honour of his 65th birthday (New Light on Liszt and his Music: Essays in Honor of Alan Walker, ed. M. Saffle and J. Deaville, Stuyvesant, NY, 1997).
‘Schoenberg's Classical Background’, MR, xix (1958), 283–9
‘Aesthetics versus Acoustics’, The Score, no.27 (1960), 46–50
‘Back to Schönberg’, MR, xxi (1960), 140–47
A Study in Musical Analysis (London, 1962)
An Anatomy of Musical Criticism (London, 1966)
ed.: Frédéric Chopin: Profiles of the Man and the Musician (London, 1966, 2/1973 as The Chopin Companion incl. ‘Chopin and Musical Structure: an Analytical Approach’, 227–57)
ed.: Franz Liszt: the Man and his Music (London, 1970, 2/1976) [incl. ‘Liszt's Musical Background’, 36–78; ‘Liszt and the Twentieth Century’, 350–64]
‘Liszt and the Beethoven Symphonies’, MR, xxxi (1970), 302–14
Liszt (London, 1971)
ed.: Robert Schumann: the Man and his Music (London, 1972, 2/1976) [incl. ‘Schumann and his Background’, 1–40]
‘Liszt's Duo Sonata’, MT, cxvi (1975), 620–21
Schumann (London, 1976)
‘Schumann, Liszt and the C major Fantasie, op.17: a Declining Relationship’, ML, lx (1979), 156–65
‘Liszt and the Schubert Song Transcriptions’, MQ, lxvii (1981), 50–63; lxxv (1991), 248–62
Franz Liszt (London and New York, 1983–96, vols.i–ii rev. 2/1988–93; Fr. trans. of vols.i–ii, 1989–90; Hung. trans. of vols.i–ii, 1986–94)