Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56

Wanczura, Arnošt [Ernest]. See Vančura, Arnošt. Wand, Günter

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Wanczura, Arnošt [Ernest].

See Vančura, Arnošt.

Wand, Günter

(b Elberfeld, 7 Jan 1912). German conductor. After early music lessons in Wuppertal and at Cologne University, he studied at the Cologne Conservatory and Staatliche Hochschule für Musik under Philipp Jarnach (composition) and Paul Baumgartner (piano); as a conductor he was largely self-taught, although he did receive some instruction from Franz von Hoesslin at the Munich Akademie der Tonkunst. He was first appointed to Wuppertal and Allenstein as répétiteur and conductor, and later became chief conductor in Detmold. In 1939 he was appointed conductor (later first conductor) at the Cologne Opera until its destruction in 1944, when he became conductor of the Salzburg Mozarteum Orchestra until April 1945. After the war he was musical director of the Cologne Opera (1945–8), and in 1946 he was appointed Generalmusikdirecktor at Cologne, making him responsible for both the orchestra and the opera company. He was also conductor of the Gürzenich Orchestra (1947–74), and taught conducting at the Hochschule für Musik, Cologne, where he became professor in 1948. Wand began touring widely as a guest conductor in Europe, the USSR and Japan, and made his British début with the LSO in February 1951, in a Beethoven concert at Covent Garden. His work nevertheless remained centred on Cologne, where he tried to maintain a traditional style of German musical life while also extending his repertory to foster contemporary music, notably works of Ligeti, Varèse and Zimmermann.

In 1974 Wand resigned his Cologne appointment and moved to Switzerland, but then commenced work with the major German radio orchestras. In 1977 he began to record the complete symphonies of Schubert and Bruckner with the Cologne RSO and in 1982 he became chief conductor of the NDR SO in Hamburg. During the 1980s he was also chief guest conductor of the BBC SO. His excitingly direct recordings of the Brahms and Beethoven symphony cycles, released in 1989, and his American début with the Chicago SO in January of the same year generated ecstatic reviews and an instant international following. His performances are eloquent, committed and extremely well rehearsed; for his Chicago début he demanded and got 11 hours of rehearsal for Schubert’s ‘Unfinished’ Symphony and Brahms’s Symphony no.1. Revered as one of the last exponents of a vanishing tradition, he has latterly conducted a limited number of orchestras in Germany (especially Berlin) and London and made live recordings of his core repertory. His compositions include Odi et amo for soprano and chamber orchestra, music for ballet and songs with orchestra. (F. Berger: Günter Wand: Gürzenichkapellmeister 1947–74, Cologne, 1974)


Wangenheim, Volker

(b Berlin, 1 July 1928). German conductor and composer. At the West Berlin Hochschule für Musik (1946–51) he studied conducting with Felix Lederer and Erich Peter, composition with Hermann Grabner, keyboard with Richard Rössler, and the oboe with Fritz Flemming. During his appointment as principal conductor of the Berlin Mozart Orchestra (1950–59), he was also conductor at the Staatstheater, Schwerin (1951–2), and conductor of the Berlin Academy Orchestra (1954–7), of which he became music director in 1957. In 1963 he was appointed Generalmusikdirektor for the city of Bonn. From 1969 to 1984 he was also artistic director of the German National Youth Orchestra and from 1972 to 1993 a professor of conducting at the Hochschule für Musik, Cologne. A frequent guest conductor of the Bournemouth SO and the Bournemouth Sinfonietta from 1970, he was principal conductor of the latter from 1977 to 1980. Wangenheim has also appeared as a guest conductor in most European countries, in North and South America and in Asia. He takes a special interest in contemporary music and has conducted the first performances of works by Erbse, Huber and Kelemen among others. A member of numerous juries, such as that of the Bonn Beethoven Prize, and from 1972 a member of the German Music Council, he was awarded the city of Berlin Artists’ Prize (1954) and the Grosse Verdienstkreuz der Bundesrepublik Deutschland (1972). His works, which include a setting of the Stabat mater (1965), Hymnus choralis for voices and orchestra (1966), an unaccompanied Mass (1968) and Nicodemus Jesum nocte visitat for voices and orchestra (1968–74), are mainly symphonic and choral, written in a freely tonal style; from 1973 he included aleatory and improvisatory elements in graphic notation.


F. Kaufmann: ‘Die Messe für gemischten Chor a capella von Volker Wangenheim’, Musica sacra [Regensburg], xcii (1972), 54–7

V. Wangenheim: ‘Wangenheim, Volker’, Rheinische Musiker, viii, ed. D. Kämper (Cologne, 1974), 154–5


Wangermée, Robert

(b Lodelinsart, 21 Sept 1920). Belgian musicologist. He studied music with Jean Absil and in 1946 took the doctorate at the Free University of Brussels with a dissertation on musical taste in 19th-century France. He was then successively lecturer (1948–65) and professor (1965–85) at the university, where he set up a centre for the sociology of music in 1965 and was its director until 1975. At the same time he pursued a brilliant career with Belgian radio and television, which he joined in 1946, later becoming director of music (1953) and director-general of French-language broadcasting (1960–84). He was also elected president of the Conseil de la Musique de la Communauté Française in 1980, of the Conseil Supérieur de l’Audiovisuel in 1984 and of the Conseil de l’Education aux Médias in 1994. Wangermée’s main area of research is Belgian music from the Middle Ages to the 20th century. In his many writings on this subject he has studied the music in both its social and cultural context. He has also written on piano virtuosity, improvisation, opera and surrealism in music. In addition to his contributions to the field of musicology, he has published many works that discuss general aspects of radio, television and culture.


Le goût musical en France au XIXe siècle (diss., Free U. of Brussels, 1946)

‘Les premiers concerts historiques à Paris’, Mélanges Ernest Closson (Brussels, 1948), 185–96

‘L’improvisation pianistique au début du XIXe siècle’, Miscellanea musicologica Floris van der Mueren (Ghent, 1950), 227–53

Les maîtres de chant des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles à la Collégiale des SS. Michel et Gudule à Bruxelles (Brussels, 1950)

François-Joseph Fétis, musicologue et compositeur: contribution à l’étude du goût musical au 19e siècle (Brussels, 1951)

‘Lecerf de la Viéville, Bonnet-Bourdelot et “l’Essai sur le bon goust en musique” de Nicolas Grandval’, RBM, v (1951), 132–46

‘Notes sur la vie musicale à Bruxelles au XVe siècle’, Bruxelles au XVme siècle (Brussels, 1953), 301–11

‘Introduction à une sociologie de l’opéra’, RBM, xx (1966), 153–66

‘Tchaïkovsky et le “Kitsch” en musique’, AcM, xliii (1971), 220–24

‘Auditeurs de musique et comportement musical: première approche à partir d'une typologie d'Adorno’, RBM, xxxii–xxxiii (1978–9), 251–8

‘Quelques mystères de la Flûte enchantée’, RBM, xxxiv–xxxv (1980–81), 147–63

with P. Mercier: La musique en Wallonie et à Bruxelles (Brussels, 1980–82)

‘Kandinsky et Schoenberg, Schoenberg et Kandinsky: sur quelques conjonctions peinture-musique’, Académie royale de Belgique: bulletin de la classe des beaux-arts, lxix (1987), 113–37

‘Dada, surréalisme et musique à Bruxelles’, Annales d’histoire de l’art et d’archéologie, x (1988), 133–42

Les malheurs d’Orphée: culture et profit dans l’économie de la musique (Brussels, 1990)

‘Les surréalistes bruxellois et la musique’, Les avant-gardes littéraires en Belgique (Brussels, 1991), 345–53

André Souris et le complexe d’Orphée: entre surréalisme et musique sérielle (Liège, 1995)

Paul Collaer: correspondance avec des amis musiciens (Liège, 1996)


H. Vanhulst and M. Haine, eds.: Musique et société: hommages à Robert Wangermée (Brussels, 1988) [incl. M. Haine: ‘Bibliographie de Robert Wangermée’, 13–22]


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