Waart, Edo de. 56 Wachmann, Eduard 56


Wang Guangqi [Kuang-chi Wang]



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Wang Guangqi [Kuang-chi Wang]


(b Wenjiang, Sichuan province, 5 Oct 1892; d Bonn, 12 Jan 1936). Chinese musicologist. Having become involved in various social movements in Sichuan from an early age, he studied law at Zhongguo University in Beijing (1914–18). In 1918 he founded the Young China Association (Shaonian Zhongguo xuehui), an influential organization devoted to social reform. He was an influential essayist and journalist in the May Fourth Movement of 1919, and initiated a short-lived utopian movement called Work-Study Mutual Aid Group (Gongdu huzhu tuan), propagating a new style of urban life. Disappointed by the failure of the movement, he went to Germany in 1920 as a journalist to seek new knowledge of social reform. However, he soon became attracted to music, and by 1923 he was writing on the subject. In 1927 he entered Berlin University, studying with Ludwig Schiedermair, Erich Hornbostel, I. Schmitt and Curt Sachs. In 1934 he received his PhD in musicology from the Frederick William University, Bonn. In his numerous writings in the 1920s and 30s for both Chinese and Western readers he was the first scholar systematically to introduce European music to China and Chinese music to Europe. His profound knowledge of traditional Chinese music and his Western training in comparative musicology established him as the founder of comparative musicology in China.

WRITINGS


Ouzhou yinyue jinhua lun [The evolution of European music] (Shanghai, 1924)

Xiyang yinyue yu shige [Music and poetry in the West] (Shanghai, 1924)

Xiyang yinyue yu xiju [Music and drama in the West] (Shanghai, 1925)

Dong Xi yuezhi zhi yanjiu [Study of musical systems of East and West] (Shanghai, 1926)

Dongfang minzu zhi yinyue [Music of the oriental nations] (Shanghai, 1929)

Fanyi qinpu zhi yanjiu [On transcribing qin tablatures] (Shanghai, 1931)

Zhongguo shiciqu zhi qinzhong lü [Metre in Chinese poetry] (Shanghai, 1933)

Die chinesische klassische Oper (Geneva, 1934)

Zhongguo yinyue shi [History of Chinese music] (Shanghai, 1934)

Das gesprochene und das musikalische Drama in China (Berlin, 1935)

Xiyang yinyue shi gangyao [Brief history of Western music] (Shanghai, 1937)

Wang Guangqi yinyue lunwen xuan [Selected essays on music by Wang Guangqi] (Chengdu, 1984)

Wang Guangqi wenji [Writings of Wang Guangqi] (Chengdu, 1992)

BIBLIOGRAPHY


Wang Guangqi xiansheng jinian ce [Commemoration volume for Wang Guangqi] (Shanghai, 1936)

Zhuidao Wang Guangqi xiansheng zhuankan [Special volume in memory of Wang Guangqi] (Chengdu, 1936)

Wang Guangqi yanjiu lunwen ji [Collected essays on Wang Guangqi] (Chengdu, 1985)

Huangzhong liu yun ji: jinian Wang Guangqi xiansheng [Collected essays in memory of Wang Guangqi] (Chengdu, 1993)

SU ZHENG

Wang Lisan


(b Wuhan, Hubei, 24 March 1933). Chinese composer. From 1948 he studied the piano at the Art Institute in Wuhan, becoming a student of composition at the Shanghai Conservatory with Ding Shande, Sang Tong and Arzamanov in 1951. Wang was one of the group of audacious composers who provoked a sharp political response in the 1950s by experimenting with broken or suspended tonality along the lines of Debussy, or even with dissonant harmonies approaching the language of Bartók. Though this newly-explored harmonic territory seemed to complement well the floating nature of Chinese pentatonicism, Western 20th-century music was viewed with suspicion by the communist authorities. In 1957, shortly after completing his playful, transparent Sonatina, Wang was branded a rightist, and in 1959 he was exiled to China’s far north to work on farms. In 1963 he became a teacher of composition at Harbin Normal University, where he resumed his career as a composer after the Cultural Revolution (1966–76). Wang is primarily known as the writer of a small but distinctive number of piano works, in which he freely blends Chinese pentatonicism with mild dissonance and serial techniques, and takes his inspiration from traditional paintings and literature.

BIBLIOGRAPHY


Pu Fang: ‘Shilun Wang Lisan de gangqin chuangzuo’ [Wang’s piano works], Yinyue yishu (1989), no.1, pp.67–75

Wang Yuhe: ‘Wang Lisan: wei Zhongguo gangqin yinyue kaituo xin jingjie’ [Wang: opening up new realms of Chinese piano music], Renmin yinyue (1996), no.3, pp.2–6

FRANK KOUWENHOVEN


Wangnick, Johannes.


See Wanning, Johannes.

Wanhal [Wanhal, Wanhall], Johann Baptist.


See Vanhal, Johann Baptist.

Waningus Campensis.


See Wanning, Johannes.

Waniura [Wanjura], Česlav.


See Vaňura, Česlav.

Wanless, Thomas


(d York, bur. 2 Feb 1712). English organist and composer. Many musicians with the name Wanless (or Wanlesse, Wanlass, Wanlasse, Wandles, Wansley etc.) are to be found in the cathedral records of Durham, Lincoln, Ripon and York during the 17th century, with Henry, John and Thomas the most common Christian names. Shaw suspected they originated from Durham. The only one with any reputation as a composer was Thomas Wanless, organist of York from 1691 to 1712 and Master of the Choristers from 1692 to 1698. His father was probably John Wanless, organist of Lincoln before and after the Civil War; Thomas was admitted as one of the Burghersh chanters on 2 April 1677. He married Mary Harrison of Holtby on 10 February 1698.

Later that year he took the Cambridge MusB, with the verse anthem Awake up my glory as his exercise (GB-Lbl Harl.7341). It is a rather empty, though competent, piece. A total of 18 anthems by him are known, 14 of which are lost. His litany was no doubt in use at York Minster (Y M. 8. S, with copies elsewhere); likewise a simple, homophonic burial service (Lbl Add.17820). In 1702 he published The Metre Psalm-Tunes, intended for use in the parish church of St Michael-le-Belfrey, York. It is unusual for the time in that the tunes are in the treble rather than the tenor. He also published two editions of a wordbook of Full Anthems and Verse Anthems as they aresung in the Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of St Peter’s in York (York, 1703, 2/1705).


WORKS


Burial Service, full, 4vv, GB-Lbl, LF (inc.), LI (inc.), Y

Litany (‘as perform’d at York’), 4vv, Ckc, Cu, DRc (inc.), Lcm, Lsp (inc.), LF (inc.), Y

4 anthems: Awake up my glory, verse, 4vv, 2 vn, Lbl, LI (inc.), Ob, Y; I will arise and go to my father, verse, Lbl (inc.), LI (inc.); Not unto us, O Lord, verse, Mp; Save me, O God, DRc (inc.)

Chants in b, D, G, Lsp (inc.), Y

The Metre Psalm-Tunes … Compos’d for the Use of the Parish-Church of St. Michael’s of Belfrey’s in York, 4vv (London, 1702)

 

Lost verse anthems: Behold I bring you glad tidings; Behold thou hast made my days; Glory be to God on high; I heard a great voice; I will magnify thee, O God my king; Lord how are they increased; O be joyful in God; O clap your hands; O come let us sing unto the Lord; O praise the Lord; Put me not to rebuke; The earth is the Lord’s; This is the day; Turn thou unto me, O Lord

BIBLIOGRAPHY


H.W. Shaw: The Succession of Organists of the Chapel Royal and the Cathedrals of England and Wales from c.1538 (Oxford, 1991), 158–9, 318

I. Spink: Restoration Cathedral Music 1660–1714 (Oxford, 1995), 401

IAN SPINK




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