Weak Syllable Deletion



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Weak Syllable Deletion
- Description: The omission of a weak (unstressed) syllable that either comes before or after a stressed syllable.
- Examples: "telephone" pronounced as "tefone"
"yellow" pronounced as "yell"
"above" pronounced as "bov"
" tomato" pronounced as "may-toe"
"probably" pronounced as "prob-lee"
"paper" pronounced as "pape"

Final Consonant Deletion
- Description: This process occurs when a child reduces a syllable by omitting the final consonant of that syllable.
- Examples: "pot" pronounced as "paw"
"bake" pronounced as "bay"
"nice" pronounced as "nie"
"cat" pronounced as "ca"
"coat" pronounced as "koe"
"phone" pronounced as "foe"

Reduplication
- Description: Reduplication is characterized by the repetition of a syllable. There are two types of reduplication, total reduplication and partial reduplication.
- Examples: "daddy" pronounced as "dada"
"baby" pronounced as "bay-bay"
"movie" pronounced as "moo-moo"
"water" pronounced as "wawa"

Cluster Reduction
- Description: When a consonant is deleted from a consonant cluster the error is referred to as a cluster reduction. If there are three adjacent consonants in the same syllable, one or two of the consonants may be deleted.
- Examples: "snow" pronounced as "no"
" help" pronounced as "hep"
"play" pronounced as "pay"
"stripe" pronounced as "tripe" or "type" or "ripe"
"green" pronounced as "geen"

Stopping
- Description: The substitution of a stop for a fricative or an affricate .
- Examples: "sake" pronounced as "take" (fricative replaces a stop)
"zoo" pronounced as "do" (fricative replaces stop)
"Jane" pronounced as "dane" (affricate replaces stop)

Fronting
- Description: The substitution of a velar consonants and palatal consonants with an alveolar place of articulation .
- Examples: "cat" pronounced as "tat" (velar fronting)
"get" pronounced as "det" (palatal fronting)
"cookie" pronounced as "tootie" (velar fronting)
"match" pronounced as "mat" (palatal fronting)

Deaffrication
- Description: The substitution of a fricative for an affricate.

- Examples: "chip" pronounced as "ship"


"matches" pronounced as "mashes"
"ledge" pronounced as "lez"
"chalk" pronounced as "shock"

Gliding
- Description: Replacing the consonants /l/ and /r/ with the consonants /w/ and /j/.
- Examples: "rabbit" pronounced as "wabbit"
"hello" pronounced as "heyo"
"look" pronounced as "wook"
"carrot" pronounced as "cawet"

Vocalization
- Description: This process is also referred to as "vowelization" because it is the substitution of a vowel for an /l/ or /r/ that follows a vowel. This process is commonly found in words that end in "r" and "el" sounds.
- Examples: "tiger" pronounced as "tie-goo"
"turn" pronounced as "ton"
"third" pronounced as "thud"
"water" pronounced as "wato"

Labial Assimilation
- Description: The production of a nonlabial phoneme with a labial place of articulation. This happens because there is a labial phoneme elsewhere in the word.
- Examples: "book" pronounced as "buhp"
"mad" pronounced as "mab"
"cap" pronounced as "pap"

Velar Assimilation
- Description: This process occurs when a phoneme is produced with a velar place of articulation due to the presence of a velar phoneme elsewhere in the word.
- Examples: "cup" pronounced as 'kuk"
"gone" pronounced as "gong"
"take" pronounced as "kake"
"doggy" pronounced as "goggy"

Alveolar Assimilation
- Description: This process occurs when a phoneme is produced with an alveolar place of articulation due to the presence of an alveolar phoneme elsewhere in the word.
- Examples: "time" pronounced as "tine"
"bat" pronounced as "dat"
"neck" pronounced as "net"
"shut" pronounced as "sut"

Prevocalic Voicing
- Description: When an unvoiced consonant preceding the vowel of a syllable is voiced, it is called prevocalic voicing.
- Examples: "pig" pronounced as "big"
"cup" pronounced as "gup"
"pear" pronounced as "bear"
"train" pronounced as "drain"

Devoicing
- Description: When a syllable-final voiced phoneme that precedes a pause or silence between words is unvoiced, it is called devoicing.
- Examples: "bad" pronounced as "bat"
"led" pronounced as "let"
"card" pronounced as "cart"
"flag" pronounced as "flack"

All information and examples provided in this table were found in Larry H. Small's Fundamentals of Phonetics

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