World Geography Semester Review
1. Continental Drift- the hypothesis that all continents were once joined into a super continents that split apart over millions of year.
2. Erosion-the result of weathering on matter, created by the action of wind, water, ice, or gravity.
3. Climate-The typical weather conditions at a particular location as observed over time.
4. El Nino-A weather pattern created by the warming of the Pacific Ocean. Can cause heavy rains in the Americas or drought conditions in Australia and Asia.
5. Rain Shadow-The land on the leeward side of hills or mountains that gets little rain from the descending dry air.
6. Weather-The condition of the atmosphere at a particular location and time.
7. Cultural Hearth-The heartland or place of origin of a major culture; a site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to other cultures.
8. Push Factor-A factor that causes people to leave their homelands and migrate to another region.
9. Pull Factor-A factor that draws or attracts people to another location.
10. Acculturation-The cultural change that occurs when individuals in a society accept or adopt an innovation.
11. Infant-mortality Rate-The number of deaths among infants under the age of one as measured per thousand live births.
12. Innovation-Taking existing elements of society and creating something new to meet a need.
13. Birthrate-The number of live births per total population, often express per thousand population.
14. Subsistence Agriculture-where almost everything is grown for use by the family or village
15. Commercial Agriculture- where crops are grown on a large scale to sell
16. Cottage Industries- products are made in the home for members of the family/community
17. Commercial Industries- manufacture goods are made on a large scale for sale
18. Democracy-citizens decide who will govern, allows for the will of the people
19. Dictatorship- A leader who rules with absolute authority.
20. Monarchy- One person rules, usually a king or queen. The crown is usually inherited.
21. Totalitarian- One person or a small group of people govern, and the people have no say.
22. Theocracy-a country governed by religious law.
23. More Developed Countries- High life expectancy and literacy rates. Good infrastructure. United States, Canada, Japan
24. Newly Industrialized Countries- Incomes may be rising quickly, People switching from rural life to city life. Mexico, Brazil, Thailand, Malaysia
25. Less Developed Countries- Low life expectancy and literacy rates, Lower standard of living. Africa, Asia, Central America
26. Traditional Economy- Economic decisions are based on customs and traditions. New ideas are discouraged.
27. Free Enterprise System-People may owned their own goods and property. The ability to make a profit drives people to risks their own money to start a business.
28. Communism- All decisions on production, distribution, use of resources and prices are set by government planners. No private property, the government owns all land, factories, farms, and major resources.
29. Socialism- Production, distribution, and use of resources are made by the government. Major industries are owned by the government.
30. Primary Economic Activity-Use natural resources directly. Mining iron from the ground.
31. Secondary Economic Activity-Use raw materials to produce or manufacture something new. Manufacturing steel.
32. Tertiary Economic Activity-Provide services to people and businesses. Car dealership.
33. Quaternary Economic Activity-Process and distribute information. Automotive engineer designing new ways to make more fuel efficient cars.
34. Migration-The movement of people within a country or region.
35. Service Industry-Any kind of economic activity that produces a service rather than a product.
36. Population Pyramids- A graphic device that show gender and age distribution of a population.
37. Mortality Rate-The number of deaths per thousand.
38. Fertility Rate-The average number of children a woman has over her lifetime.
39. Holocaust- The Nazi program of mass murder of European Jews during World War II.
40. Berlin Wall-The wall erected by East Germany in 1961 to cut the capital of Berlin in two, and later dismantled in 1989.
41. Anti-Semitism-Discrimination against Jewish people.
42. Genocide-The deliberate killing of a large group of people based on race, ethnic, or religion.
43. Euro-A common currency used by the European Union for its member nations.
44. The purpose of a Physical Map is to show landforms and bodies of water in a specific area.
45. The purpose of a Political Map is to who man made features like cities, states or countries.
46. Earthquakes usually occur along fault lines or plate boundaries.
47. Wind and ocean currents, latitude, elevation, and topography influence the climate of a region.
48. Four airplanes were hijacked by Arab terrorists. Two planes crashed into the World Trade Center Towers, one plane crashed into the Pentagon, and one plane crashed into a field in Pennsylvania when the passengers tried to take back the plane.
49. Automobiles have make possible the shift of people moving to the suburbs.
50. The levees around New Orleans were sinking and in need of repair.
51. The purpose of the Hurricane Pan scenario was to make sure everyone knew the responsibilities of the local, state, and federal government.
52. Abundant resources, moderate climate, and good waterways are aspects of physical geography that have contributed to the economic growth of the U.S.
53. The settlers of the U.S. and Canada overcame the distance across the continent by using inland waterways, the transcontinental railroad, and roadways.
54. The people of Montreal solved the problem of a severe climate by building restaurants and businesses underground.
55. Air conditioning and irrigation are two innovations that have helped Las Vegas, a desert town, to grow into a major city of the west.
56. The human response to a natural disaster can influence its destructiveness is the lesson learned from the flooding of New Orleans after the Hurricane Katrina in 2005.
57. Being Roman Catholic is one cultural factor that unites the people of Latin America.
58. Finding new economic opportunities is the primary reason for people of Latin America to migrate to the United States over the last three decades.
59. New diseases killed millions of Native Americans brought to the Americas by the Europeans during the 1490’s.
60. The completion of the Panama Canal in 1914 improved trade by allowed a drastically reduced amount of time it took for ocean shipment to travel between Atlantic and Pacific ports.
61. The “New World” are the Americas.
62. The “Old World” is Europe, Africa, and Asia.
63. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain (United Kingdom).
64. The European Union was created after World War II.
65. The first steps of the European Union was to foster economic cooperation.
66. Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin and interchangeable parts.
67. Thomas Edison invented the phonograph and light bulb.
68. Henry Ford invented the Model T Ford and the assembly line.
69. Hitler’s invasion of Poland in September 1939 drove Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany.
70. The Holocaust and the Bosnian Genocide are two genocides that have occurred in Europe.