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Version History Last revision date for this specific page: 18 October 2014
Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated with the latest developments in the field. The viewer may observe other versions of the tree on the Web. Email Alice Fairhurst if the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page.
LINKS:Main PageY-DNA Tree TrunkSNP IndexPapers/Presentations CitedGlossaryListing Criteria
SNP SYMBOLS: Not on 2013 tree Confirmed within subcladeProvisionalPrivateInvestigation
The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing one in multiple labs, and/or being found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.
SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.
Contact people for Haplogroup R: R1a Contact: Lawrence Mayka R1b-U106 and Subclades Contact: Charles Moore R1b-P312 and Subclades Contacts: Alice Fairhurst or Mark Jost R1b-P312->DF27 Contact: Stephen Parrish R1b-P312->L21->DF21 Contact: Charles Fueston R1b-P312->L21->DF49 Contact: David Stedman R1b-P312->L21->CTS4466 Contact: Kathleen Kerwin R2 and Subclades Contact: Abdulaziz Ali Remainder of R Tree Contact: Bob May
Link to Haplogroup R Frequently Mutating SNPs, Private SNPs, Notes and References (Papers)
Link to Haplogroup R Private SNPs, Notes and References (Papers)
Y-DNA haplogroup R-M207 is believed to have arisen approximately 27,000 years ago in Asia. The two currently defined subclades are R1 and R2.
R1-M173 is estimated to have arisen during the height of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), about 18,500 years ago, most likely in southwestern Asia. The two most common descendant clades of R1 are R1a and R1b.
R1a-M420 is believed to have arisen on the Eurasian Steppe or the Indus Valley, and today is most frequently observed in eastern Europe and in western and central Asia. R1a1a1g-M458 is found at frequencies approaching or exceeding 30% in Eastern Europe.
R1b-M343 is believed to have arisen in southwest Asia and today its sublcades are bound in various distributions across Eurasia and Africa.
Paragroup R1b1* and R1b1c-V88 are found most frequently in SW Asia and Africa. The African examples are almost entirely within R1b1c and are associated with the spread of Chadic languages.
R1b1a-P297 is found throughout Eurasia. R1b1a1-M73 is observed most frequently in Asia, with low frequency of observation in Europe. R1b1a2-M269 is observed most frequently in Europe, especially western Europe, but with notable frequency in southwest Asia.
R1b1a2-M269 is estimated to have arisen approximately 4,000 to 8,000 years ago in southwest Asia and to have spread into Europe from there. The Atlantic Modal Haplotype, or AMH, is the most common STR haplotype in R1b1a2a1a-L11/PF6539/S127 and most European R1b1a2 belongs to R1b1a2a1a1-M405/S21/U106 or R1b1a2a1a2-P312/PF6547/S116.
R2-M479 is most often observed in Asia, especially on the Indian sub-continent and in central Asia.
Additional Resources: (Projects arranged in the order that they appear on the tree.)
ISOGG Wiki - What you need to know about Genetic Genealogy.
Y-Haplogroup R* DNA Project, Vincent Vizacherro.
R-Arabia Y-DNA Project.
R1* Haplogroup Project, Vincent Vizacherro.
R1a International Y-DNA Project.
R1a1a and Subclades Y-DNA Project, Lukasz Lapinski, Lawrence Mayka, Marius Wilkoszewski, A. J. Levin, Anne M. Berge, Michal Milewski.
R1a WTY Project, Cyndi Rutledge.
Ashkenazi-Levite DNA Project (R1a1).
Y-DNA Haplogroup R1b - FTDNA vs. ISOGG Haplotrees, Diana Gale Matthiesen.
Kerchner's R1b and Subclades YDNA Haplogroup Project, Tibor Fehér and Vincent Tilroe.
The Jewish R1b Project, Elise Friedman, Sean Silver, Itzhak Epstein, Gil Bardige.
R1b1(xP297) DNA Project, Vincent Vizacherro, Peter Hrechdakian.
R1b1b1 (R1b1a1) Haplogroup Project (M73), Vincent Vizacherro.
R1b1a2 (P312- U106-) DNA Project (aka ht35 Project), Vincent Vizacherro, Peter Hrechdakian.
R1b1b2* (R1b1a2*) Project.
YDNA Haplogroup R1b-U106/S21+ Research Group, Charles Moore.
R-U106xL48 WTY Project.
The U198 / S29 Project, John Sloan.
R-L48+ WTY Project, Charles Moore.
R1b-P89.2, Gary Blakely.
R-P312 and Subclades Project, Richard Stevens.
R-M153 The Basque Marker.
R1b - U152 & Subclades Research Project, Tibor Fehér, Steve Gilbert.
U152+/S28+ Data, David Faux.
R-L21 Plus Project, Richard Stevens,
R-DF21 and Subclades, David Reynolds.
R-L21 Walk Through the Y, Kirsten Saxe, Vincent Tilroe, Alex Williamson.
R1b DYS464X=15.3g Subclade, David Reynolds.
R-L21* 11-13 Combo: includes L193+, P314.2+, Adam Bradford.
R-L21 4466 South Irish, Kathleen Kerwin.
R1b-CTS4466 Plus, Elizabeth O'Donoghue/Ross
R-M222 Haplogroup Project (Niall of the 9 Hostages, Ui Neill Clan), David Wilson.
The R-L226 Project - Irish Type III, Dennis O'Brien, Dennis Wright.
The Irish Type III Website (L226) (Dalcassian Clans), Dennis Wright.
The Y-Haplogroup R SRY2627+ and L176.2+ Project, Gareth Henson.
R-L165 (S68) Project, Lori McLeod-Wilke, Alasdair Macdonald, Conrad Terrill, Timothy McLeod.
R-17-14-10 Haplogroup Project (aka L371), Robert Hughes.
R2 Y-Chromosome Haplogroup DNA Project.
Corrections/Additions made since 1 January 2014:
Added S334.1, S340, S351.1, S3334, S3361, S3403, S3595 to tree; added S357, S358 to R1b Investigation on 6 January 2014.
Added PF6057, YSC0000201 to tree on 18 January 2014.
Added PF6410 on 19 January 2014.
Moved L745/S463 to a different subclade on tree; corrected errors to correctly read S275/YSC0000043/Z1, S272/YSC0000049/Z7 and S514/Z344; updated paragraph containing the words "Atlantic Modal Haplotype" on 22 January 2014.
Added CTS8728, L1063, PF6014, PF6475, PF6480, YSC0000269 on 23 January 2014.
Removed David Reynolds as contact person for R-P312 and Subclades on 30 January 2014.
Added PF3499, PF6050, PF6112, PF6223, PF6236, PF6240 to tree; added F820 to R2 Investigation on 30 January 2014.
Added S371, S379, S384/YC000047, S3689, S3787, S4298 to tree; moved CTS6838, CTS7030/S735 from R1b Investigation to tree; added S360, S362, S372, S691/Z13851, S3666, S4247 to Investigation on 31 January 2014.
Added CTS300, CTS6581, S461, S465.2, S470, S487, S497, S498, S499, S511, S4554, S4576, YSC0000050, YSC0000053 to tree; added S453, S482. S637, S640, S641, S651, S653 to R1b Investigation on 1 February 2014.
Added PF6234, S836, S868 to tree; added S883, S893, S8070 to R1b Investigation on 2 February 2014.
Added PF7598 to Investigation on 3 February 2014.
Added PF6636 to Investigation on 4 February 2014.
Removed link to Dal Riadic Migration Y Chromosome DNA Genealogy Page (L21), John McEwan as it is no longer active on 6 February 2014.
Added R1b-CTS4466 Plus to Additional Resources on 6 February 2014.
Added L270.2 to tree; added CTS8358 to R1b Investigation on 6 February 2014.
Changed R1b-P312 contact person to Mark Jost on 6 February 2014.
Added CTS9881 to tree; added R-L21 4466 South Irish to Additional Resources on 13 February 2014.
Added CTS9333/S307, S301, S423, S425, S3025, S3026, S3027, S3028, S3031, S3033, S3034, S3057, S3058 to tree; added S3106 to R1b Investigation; added S3068 to R1b Private; moved S303, S421 from R1b Investigation to R1b Private on 23 February 2014.
Changed subclade names from S3058 and downstream on 25 February 2014.
Added F3105 on 5 March 2014.
Added FGC5496, M1313.2, S588/FGC4108, S658/DF106, S659/DF105, S660/DF109, S661/DF104, S7073/FGC462, S7814 to R1b Investigation on 7 March 2014.
Added Z2355 to R1b Investigation on 13 March 2014.
Moved DF95/S21484 from R1b Investigation to tree on 16 March 2014.
Removed CTS358.2, CTS7275, CTS8127.2, YSC0000081.2 from R1b Investigation on 28 March 2014.
Moved Z334 from R1b Investigation to tree; added Z347 to tree on 29 March 2014.
Added Y6 to tree on 30 March 2014.
Moved S380/Z329 from R1b Investigation to tree; added DF101, DF102, S265/Z304, S504/Z28, S509/Z31, Z21, Z22, Z24, Z25, Z26, Z29, Z325, Z337, Z348, Z351, Z160, Z350 to tree on 31 March 2014.
Added S516, S517 to tree on 4 April 2014.
Added M734 on 26 April 2014.
Added A294, FGC396, FGC918, FGC924, FGC3861, FGC12993, S3933, S5520, S18951, S21728 to tree on 12 May 2014.
Added L525 to tree; moved L128/PF3499 off the tree to Frequently Mutating SNPs on 13 May 2014.
Moved L147 to Frequently Mutating SNPs on 14 May 2014.
Added S12025 to tree on 21 May 2014.
Corrected error in R1; P294 is identical to PF6112 (not PF6014). Corrected on 16 May 2014.
Added M3268.2 to R1b Investigation on 14 August 2014.
Added CTS6889/S1161, CTS7822/Z2110, FGC14877, PF7589/Z2118 to tree on 27 August 2014.
Added Z2572 to R1b Investigation on 12 September 2014.
Added Underhill et al (2014) on 12 September 2014.
Added CTS11824/PF7592 to tree on 14 September 2014.
Added CTS9219 to tree on 18 September 2014.
Added .2 to Z15 in R1b Investigation; added L729.2/M2087.2/Z15.2/Z548.2 to R1b Investigation on 18 September 2014.
Moved L1403 from R1b Investigation to tree on 20 September 2014.
Added .1 and .2 to L297 and L362 and added S312.1, S312.1; added L443.1/L675.1/PF5371.1, Z2552 to tree; added L199.3/L675.3/PF5371.3 to Investigation on 30 September 2014.
Added S5741, Z375, Z378/S5757, ZP1 to tree; moved L729.2/M2087.2/Z15.2/Z548.2 from R1b Investigation to tree on 1 October 2014.
Added Charles Fueston as a Contact person for R1b-P312->DF21 on 1 October 2014.
Added CTS3057, CTS10008, CTS10351, FGC17595/Z17612, FGC17596/ Z17611, FGC17597/Z17613, M10953/S738, S730, S737, S744, S747, S756, S764, S5264, S5280, S5284, S5285, S7370, Z16325 to tree on 2 October 2014.
Added FGC3213, FGC3903/S5201/Y2890, FGC10125, S5488, S7200, Z16327, Z16329, Z16330, Z16330 to tree; moved S691/Z13851 from R1b Investigation to tree on 3 October 2014.
Added Stephen Parrish as a contact person; added BY114/FGC14692, S775, S971/Z3017, S5456, Z16294 to tree on 4 October 2014.
Added S476/Z2976, S6154/Z2980 to tree on 6 October 2014.
Added David Stedman as a contact person on 7 October 2014.
Moved S228/Z198 from Investigation to tree on 8 October 2014.
Added Kathleen Kerwin as a contact person on 8 October 2014.
Added S460/Z292 to tree on 17 October 2014.
Added L943 to tree on 18 October 2014.
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