Between global market and international and regional cooperation

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Sauve, Pierre (2002) Trade, Education and the GATS: What’s In, What’s Out, What’s All the Fuss About?, paper prepared for the OECD/US Forum on Trade in Educational Services, Washington.

Scott, Peter (2003) Changing Players in a Knowledge Society, en Breton, Gilles & Michel Lambert, Universities and Globalization. Private Linkages, Public Trust, UNESCO/Université Laval, Paris.

Swenson, Craig (2003) New Models for Higher Education – Creating an Adult-Centred Institution, in Breton, Gilles & Michel Lambert. Universities and Globalization. Private Linkages, Public Trust, UNESCO/Université Laval, Paris.

Tavenas, Francois (2003) Universities and Globalization : In Search of a New Balance, en , en Breton, Gilles & Michel Lambert, Universities and Globalization. Privat Linkages, Public Trust, UNESCO/Université Laval, Paris.

The Chonique of Higher Education (2002) Enero 8.

Trow, Marti (1974) "Problems in the Transition from Elite to Mass Higher Education", OECD, Policies for Higher Education, Paris.

UNESCO (1998) Panorama estadístico de la enseñanza superiores el mundo: 1980-1995, Conferencia Mundial de Educación Superior, Paris.

UNESCO (2000) Culture, Trade and Globalization, París.

UNESCO (2004) Guidelines on Quality Provision in Cross-border Higher Education, Paris.

Van Damme, Dirk (2002) Trends and Models in International Quality Assurance and Accreditation in HE in Relation to Trade in Education Services, OECD/Forum on Trade in Educational Services, 23-24 May, Washington.

Van der Wende, Marijk (2002) The Role of US Higher Education in the Global e-Learning Market, Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.

Vlasceanu, Lazar (2002) Coping with Uncertainties in Higher Education: The Clash between Academic Traditions, Markets and GATS, First Global Forum on International Quality Assurance, Accreditation and the Recognition of Qualifications in Higher Education, UNESCO, Paris.

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1 Information taken from reports issued in 1999 state that corporative universities have grown from 400 that existed in 1980 to 1,000 in 1999. There is no doubt, therefore, that it had doubled this figure in the last 5 years.

2 Among the most known corporative universities it is worth mentioning: Motorola, Toyota, General Electric, General Motors, Shell, Coca Cola, Marlboro, McDonalds’, American Express. These organizations are expanding their adult education spectrum by substituting their former capacity and training programs that existed in their departments, hence –aside providing their employees practical and comparative management knowledge-, they are envisioning the new policy –according to those that support it- as a search in amplifying the organization’s competition levels.

3 Regional Seminary: transnational higher education: new challenges in a globalization world, which took place at IESALC/UNESCO in April 2004, in Caracas.

4 The information provided in the reports by the different countries resulted as being quite discrepant one from the other, whereas not all of them contained information on all the rubrics (headings). Therefore, what is presented herewith should be considered rather as tendencies, likely to be revised in time when more precise information is received.

5 Cuba and Brazil are not included. In the case of Cuba, there were no report; and Brazil, though it was a study, it resulted being very heterogeneous and thus making it difficult to include it with the rest.

6 This is not the case as far as enrollments are concerned.

7 Considering that the student follows his/her learning process by enrolling personally -and in general through Internet- it is difficult to identify the activities carried out by those distance education institutions in the different countries.

8 With regard to Brazil, the Pitágoras Faculty originated from the alliance. The project started off with an enrollment figure of approximately 1,000 students, yet they have taken provision in forecasting for the year 2010 to reach at least 100 thousand enrollments within the Brazilian territory.

9 In the year 2000 Sylvan bought 60% of the “Campus Mater S.A.”, a Chilean group which are the original proprietors and founders of the University of the Americas. The academic conduction of the university remained in hands of the Chileans and they made no changes of the personnel. It has around 17.500 students. In 2003, the Sylvan broadened their presence in Chile by associating with the Universidad Nacional Andrés Bello, private and autonomous, acquiring the influx of approximately 14.000 students for about 62 million dollars. (González, 2004).

10 Being an enterprise group, the Sylvan consortium is basically oriented to profit making, any other purpose (activity) is oriented towards the same objective. In the last years they had held a sustained sales gross income that ranges between 10 and 25% (…) Aside the fact that their plans on a medium-term basis (before 2010) is to acquire new institutions foreseeing a total enrollment figure of 200 thousand students and an average income somewhere near one thousand millions dollars per year, which would place this consortium as the main transnational provider of higher education in the world” (Rodríguez, 2004b:33).

11 Latin America Faculty of Social Sciences.

12 Latin America Council of Social Sciences.

13 INCAE was founded in 1964 by governments of the Central American nations with the supervision of Harvard Business School. It is a private, non-profit, multinational, higher-education organization devoted to teaching and research endeavors in the fields of business and economics aimed at training and instructing, from a worldwide perspective, individuals capable of successfully holding top management positions in Latin America.

14 An organization in charge of coordinating post-graduates in Brazil.

15 Among these: 1 Cuban Institution, 10 Spanish ones, 2 French, and 2 Portuguese. This measure only applies to semi-attending not regular courses offered by institutions; it does not affect courses where the same mode is applied but which the rules set forth by the CAPES and are assessed by such institution.

16 The GAO, United Status General Accounting Office, Washington November 21st, 2002 letter. Matter of reference: Purchase of Degrees from Diploma Mills.

17 By order of importance, the countries that at present attract the greatest number of foreign students are: U.S.A., United Kingdom, France, Australia, Japan, Belgium, Canada, Spain, Austria, Switzerland, Italy, Turkey, The Netherlands, Denmark, Norway, Hungary, Ireland, New Zealand, Poland, Finland, Czeck Republic, Republic of Korea.

18 GATS contemplates 12 services, among these, the educational one. It establishes a series of commitments that apply to all members: a) Unconditional obligations: the obligation of the “Most Favoured country” (MFC), implies equal treatment of all partners. b) Conditional obligations: the objective of this obligation is to protect the national objectives. They are only applicable to commitments that figure in the charter for every country, that is, the degree and magnitude of the obligation is determined by each country: -Market Access (MA): Each country will determine restrictions of access to the market corresponding to each sector committed; - National Treatment (NT). It implies the same treatment to national and foreign suppliers.

19 According to Rodríguez (2004), as both agreements are in full process, it is probable that there may be mutual influences; that the negotiations in the frame of the WTO would set up the outlines regarding the definitions derived from the ALCA, and that the letter would operate serving as a mechanism to support the different positions agreeable to the world. So, for example, whatever is actually signed it would surely pass to being a chapter for the ALCA, but whatever is convened with regard to service matters regarding hemisphere agreements will serve to redound (complement) the GATS’ general focus and contents.

20 Scott, 1998; Neave, 2001; Knight & de Wit, 1995

21 In the case of Latin America: MERCOSUR, TLCAN, UNAMAZ, CSUCA, among others.With regard to the academic cooperation programs between Europe and Latin America we could outline mainly the ALFA and COLUMBUS.

22 Understanding the term globalization as a technology flux, knowledge, people, values and ideas that circulate across the frontiers and that it affects each country differently, according to its history, traditions, cultures, and priorities. (Knight, 2003).

23 As has been pointed out by several authors (among them, De Vit, 1995, Scott, 1998), it is necessary to recognize that, though there exists outstanding similarities between both, globalization and internationalization, they are actually two different concepts. Internationalization depends on the existing state-nation model and therefore it tends to reproduce hierarchy and hegemony of the countries; whereas globalization is not attached to the past. It is a force that could even be considered as subversive and therefore may present new agendas, if it is considered that there are different options of the market scenarios.

24 “The wide and dense network of linkages that emerged through cooperation and exchange has provided European universities with the need for coordination and communication and for external positioning”. (Beerkens, 2004:37).

25 In: “Action Plan 2002-2004 for the construction of common spaces for higher education, European Union-Latin America-The Caribbean”.

26 “Those countries that are not able to achieve models that would guarantee quality of their higher educational system are destined to remain in the periphery, that is, outside the new global economic tendency.” (Hayward, 2001).

27 The need of transnational instances that can ensure quality within the globalization context, UNESCO has promoted expert meetings as the “Impact of Globalization on Quality Assurance, Accreditation and the Recognition of Qualifications in Higher Education”, Paris, September 2001.

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