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4.2 Overview of Risks


Damage and losses (including physical damage, indirect and economic losses, and injuries and deaths) that are associated with hazards result when an event affects areas where people and improved property are located. After hazards are identified, then estimates of how exposed people and property are (how “at-risk”) can be prepared, especially if the hazards can be characterized by areas on a map.
When the full range of possible natural and man-made hazards is reviewed, it becomes apparent that some events occur frequently and some are extremely rare. Some hazards impact large numbers of people to a limited degree, while others may cause very localized but very significant damage. As described in Section 5.1, floods and flash floods have historically caused the most property damage in Pearland.
Between 1950–2002, the City of Pearland area experienced 97 severe thunderstorms (10 of which had greater than 50 knot winds), 33 tornadoes, 9 severe droughts, 76 hail storms (25 of which had greater then 1” diameter hail), 1 hurricane, 5 tropical storms, 6 extreme heat waves, and 41 floods/flash floods. A number of these events caused property damage and loss of life.(Reference NOAA database and “Major and Catastrophic Storms and Flooding in Texas”, by Raymond M. Slade, Jr. and John Patton, U.S.G.S. Open-file Report 03-193).

4.2.1 Weather-Related Deaths


The National Weather Service maintains data on weather-related deaths. Summary statistics for the State of Texas based on those data are provided in Table 4-1. Because the reporting periods are different, percentages, not actual numbers, are provided.


Table 4-1

Texas Weather-Related Deaths

(as percent of all weather-related deaths).



Hazard

Statewide

(1989–2000)

Brazoria County/Pearland

(1989–2002)

Flood/Flash Flood

35%

1%

Tornado

10%

0%

Lightning

8%

1%

Winter Storm/Ice Storm

6%

4%

Extreme Heat

34%

56%

Severe Thunder Storm

4%

1%

Hurricane/Tropical Storm

3%

37%

The following table is an overview of the likelihood of Occurrence and the estimated impact to public health, safety, and property for various hazard types. Table 4-2 was taken directly from the City of Pearland’s Basic Emergency Management Plan approved by Texas DEM in 2003. As indicated in the Sample Planning Notes for the Basic Plan information in this summary is based on a Hazard Analysis conducted by the City of Pearland’s Emergency Management Department. The likelihood of a hazard occurring is categorized as Unlikely, Occasional, Likely, or Highly Likely based on historical data and, in the absence of historical data, estimates.




Table 4-2

Hazard Summary.

Likelihood of Occurrence*

Estimated Impact on

Public Health & Safety

Estimated Impact

on Property

Hazard Type:


(See below)

Limited Moderate Major

Limited Moderate Major

Natural

Drought

Occasional

**

**

Earthquake

Unlikely

N/A

N/A

Flash Flooding

Highly Likely







Flooding (river or tidal)

Highly Likely







Hurricane

Highly Likely







Subsidence

Occasional







Tornado

Occasional







Wildfire

Unlikely

N/A

N/A

Winter Storm

Unlikely

N/A

N/A

Technological

Dam Failure

Unlikely

N/A

N/A

Energy/Fuel Shortage

Unlikely

N/A

N/A

Hazmat/Oil Spill (fixed site)

Highly Likely







Hazmat/Oil Spill (transport)

Highly Likely







Major Structural Fire

Occasional







Nuclear Facility Incident

Unlikely

N/A

N/A

Water System Failure

Unlikely

N/A

N/A

Security

Civil Disorder

Unlikely

N/A

N/A

Enemy Military Attack

Unlikely

N/A

N/A

Terrorism

Unlikely

N/A

N/A

    * Likelihood of Occurrence: Unlikely, Occasional, Likely, or Highly Likely

    ** Note: the estimated impact for drought is focused on crop damage, not building damage






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