1. Fibrous Joints (Synarthorses) : Bones connected by fibrous connective tissue. Movement is very limited

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Joint Classification!

    • Types

      • Syndesmosis: Considerable space between bones—Sheet of fibrous connective tissue bridging space.

        • i.e. Radioulnar Joint

      • Suture: Bones closely adjacent—interlocking

        • i.e. flat bones of skull

      • Gomphosis: Peg in hole

  • 2. Cartilaginous Joints (Amphiarthroses): Bones united by cartilage. Movement is limited but significant

    • Types

      • Symphysis: Fibrocartilage disc-- Function: weight-bearing, shock absorption

        • i.e. symphsis pubis

      • Synchondrosis: Hyaline Cartilage—Function: non-weight bearing, allows stability and mobility

        • i.e. sternocostal joint

  • 3. Synovial Joints (Diarthroses): Bones united by a fibrous joint capsule.

    • Types

      • Uniaxial: motion in one plane

        • Ginglymus: Hinge Joint

          • i.e. elbow

        • Trochoid: Pivot Joint

          • i.e. atlantoaxial joint, proximal radial ulnar joint

      • Biaxial: motion in two planes

        • Condyloid: Spherical ball and ellipsoidal socket--Concave on convex

          • i.e. metacarpophalangeal joint

        • Ellipsoid: Ellipsoidal ball and ellipsoidal socket

        • Sellar: Saddle joint. Convex/concave surface of one bone with the convex/concave surface of another bone. (Two Pringles together)

          • i.e. Carpometacarpal joint of the thumb

      • Triaxial (Multiaxial): motion in 3+ planes

        • Plane: Two almost flat surfaces.

          • i.e facet jt, adjacent carpal bones

        • Spheroid: Ball and Socket

          • i.e. Shoulder, hip

Stabilizing Structures of a Joint

  • ****If damaged= hypermobility

  • Joint Capsule

  • Antagonistic muscles/tendons

  • Ligaments

  • Certain Accessory Fibrocartilaginous Structures

  • Sensory nerve System (pain receptors0

Mobilizing Structures of a Joint

  • ****If damaged=hypomobility

  • Articular Cartilage

  • Synovial Fluid

  • Bursa

  • Agonistic Muscles

  • Certain Accessory Fibrocartilaginous Structures

  • Motor Nerve Supply

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