| Unit 3 Overview
The Jeffersonian Republic, 1800–1812
1. “Revolution” of 1800 The election of 1800 was the first between organized political parties and the first of several to be decided on the basis of quirks in the Constitution. Why did Jefferson consider his victory in 1800 over the Federalist John ________ and his own vice-presidential running mate Aaron ________ to be “revolutionary”?
(1) Jefferson’s point:
(2) The authors’ point:
2. Jefferson Jefferson was an aristocrat whose sympathies were with the common man—perhaps like F. D. Roosevelt and J. F. Kennedy in the twentieth century. Although his stump speeches called for a maximum of personal liberty and a minimum of government intervention, cite two examples of how he accepted some Federalist programs and became a moderate in practice:
3. Power to the Supreme Court The details of the case of Marbury v. Madison (1803) are interesting but not nearly as important as the precedent it set. There will always be disputes as to the constitutionality of laws. Remember that Jefferson had made the case in the _________ and ____________ Resolutions that individual states had the right to “nullify” laws they felt were unconstitutional. What extremely important legal principle did Jefferson’s cousin, the Federalist Chief Justice John _____________, establish in this case? Summarize the reasoning of the Court in claiming such power for itself.
4. Louisiana Purchase
a. True to his noninterventionist principles, Jefferson cut back the military forces, even though he did have to confront some Barbary Pirates on the “shores of __________.” But he was willing to abandon his scruples about the limited power of the federal government when the opportunity came to buy Louisiana. What two reasons caused Napoleon to be willing to sell not only New Orleans but all of the Louisiana Territory to U.S. envoys Robert ______________ and James ______________ in 18____ for $____ million?
b. In 18____, Jefferson sent Meriwether _________ and William _________ to explore the northern part of the purchased territory and Zibulon ________ to explore the southern part. Besides the acquisition of territory, list two of the consequences of the Louisiana Purchase that the authors mention at the end of this section.
5. Foreign Policy–Jefferson’s Second Term Again the fragile young nation risked being swallowed up by European conflicts between ___________ and France. The issues involved the rights of U.S. ships to trade with the belligerents (the same issues which precipitated U.S. Involvement in World War I, by the way), and the ____________ of U.S. sailors onto British warships. (Note: You might note later how Jefferson’s policies differed from those of Woodrow Wilson over a century later during World War I over many of these same issues!) To avoid getting sucked into the European wars, Jefferson tried the _____________ Act of 1807, effectively making most U.S. foreign trade illegal. After much opposition, not only from Federalist commercial interests in the Northeast, but also from western and southern farmers who couldn’t ship their cotton and other crops, the Embargo was replaced by the milder ______-_______________ Act of 1809.
6. Madison and War
a. Referring to the 1810 ____________ Bill No. 2 how did the willingness of President Madison to gamble and the craftiness of French Emperor __________ move the U.S. closer to a second conflict with Britain?
b. Representative of the shift in population, power in Congress moved on to more belligerent Southerners and Westerners, dubbed “war ______,” including the young Henry Clay of Kentucky. Their main motivation was to eliminate the European allies of their Indian opponents and perhaps to annex Canada. A key reason why Indian nations had failed to stop white westward expansion was their internal fighting and inability to unite. Shawnee leader Tecumseh was one of the last to attempt an effective intertribal coalition—with a bit of help from British Canada. In 1811, Gen. William Henry ______________ defeated Tecumseh at ______________, in Indiana, thus ending one of the last major Indian coalitions against whites. (Hint to final blank: In 1840, Harrison wins the presidency under the slogan “Tippecanoe and Tyler too!”)
c. The New England states, which had initiated the Revolutionary War, were dead set against going after the British a second time. Ironically, it was the agricultural South and West that pushed for war. List the arguments of the War Hawks from the South and West for going to war with Britain in 1812 and the objections advanced by Federalist New York and New England:
FOR WAR (South and West) AGAINST WAR (East)
The Second War for Independence and
the Upsurge of Nationalism, 1812–1824
1. The War of 1812
a. What is the “supreme lesson” of the War of 1812?
b. For two years, the Americans and British fought to a standstill in Canada. What event in Europe in 1814 allowed the British to concentrate all their forces in America?
c. After American naval successes on Lake Erie under Admiral Oliver H. __________ and then on Lake Champlain, a British force invaded the Chesapeake region and burned the new capital of _____________ to the ground in August 18___. They then were beaten off in the battle at Fort ____________ near Baltimore that inspired Francis Scott ______ to write the Star Spangled Banner. Finally, the victory of Gen. Andrew ___________, over the British at New ___________ in January 18___ gave a boost to national morale, even though, because of slow communications, it was actually fought after the Treaty of ____________ had been signed, officially ending the war. Why do the authors say on p.238 that the Americans, who had wanted to conquer Canada at the outset, were relieved and even happy to settle for a virtual draw?
d. What were the New England demands, as expressed in the 1814 ___________ Convention? When taken together with the end of the war on unexpectedly favorable terms, how did they contribute to the final demise of the Federalist Party?
(1) The New England demands:
(2) End of Federalist Party:
2. Nascent Nationalism “ The American System”
a. Increased security and self-confidence after the war produced a heightened sense of “nationalism” people associating themselves with the nation first and their respective states second. A national literature developed in the works of Washington ___________ and James Fenimore ___________ and in the construction of a new capitol building in _____________. A revived Second Bank of the United States was established in 18____, this time with the ________________ (support or opposition) of the Jeffersonian Republicans. (Note: Modern students can be excused for finding a discussion about tariff policy a bit boring. This section covers the first of many tariff battles throughout the 1800s. Tariffs today are not a big deal because there is a worldwide trend to reduce duties on imports and because the government gets most of its revenue through income taxes. However, there was no income taxation until 1913 and the government therefore depended almost exclusively on tariff duties for its revenue. So it’s important to have a general understanding.)
that the Tariff of 1816 was the first in history “instituted primarily for protection, not revenue.” *** What is a “protective” tariff? What does it protect?
List the three main elements of Henry Clay’s 1824 proposal for an “American System” of federal support for internal development. Republicans considered this proposal unconstitutional.
3. Slavery and the Sectional Balance and the Missouri Compromise
a. The _______ of 1819 was caused largely by over speculation in western lands. (Note that financial panic, or economic depression, is a recurring theme that you will observe occurring every twenty to thirty years or so. Many consider it the “curse of capitalism.” Yet another recurring theme introduced here for the first time is the sectional controversy between North and South over the admission of new states as slave or free— a question which was primarily one of political and economic power, but which increasingly took on a moral character leading to the Civil War.) With its booming population, the North was gaining power in the House of _____________ by 1820, while the South was only able to retain equal power in the __________. New states east of the Mississippi had been admitted alternately slave and free to keep a balance, but Missouri, the first new state to be carved out of the ____________ Purchase, threatened to upset this balance. What were the three elements of the 1820 Missouri Compromise fashioned by Henry _________?
4. John Marshall and Judicial Nationalism Because he was its first major interpreter, the authors call Chief Justice John _________ the principal “Molding Father” of the Constitution. In the case of _______________ v. _________________ (1819), Marshall used Hamilton’s “__________ construction” of the Constitution to declare the Bank of the U.S. constitutional because Congress had the right to do anything “necessary and proper” to carry out its functions. Also, the federal government today influences many aspects of our lives (like meat inspection and product labeling, for example) through a drastic expansion of its constitutional power to control interstate commerce. Marshall first strengthened this interpretation in the 1824 “steamboat” case of _________________ v. _____________.
5. Expansion and the Monroe Doctrine
a. The expansionist President Monroe (1817-1825) and his Secretary of State John Quincy ________ concluded a treaty with _____________ in 1818 which allowed for the joint occupation of the ____________ Territory. With Spanish troops occupied by revolutionary wars to the south, General Andrew _______________ swept across ______________ leading to its ultimate “purchase” by the U.S. in 18___.
b. Worried that other European powers would take the place of Spain in the Western Hemisphere, the now-famous “Monroe Doctrine” was issued in 18___. Its two principles were:
The Rise of Mass Democracy, 1824-1840
1. Transition under John Quincy Adams
a. From the introduction, try to summarize what the authors say about the big changes in the nation’s political life between 1824 and 1840.
b. In the “__________ Bargain” election of 1824, thrown to the House of Representatives because no candidate could poll a majority in the ____________ College, Andrew ___________, the largest popular vote-getter, accused Henry _______ of corruption for throwing his support to the eventual winner, John Quincy _________, in return for political office.
2. The Ascendency of Jackson
a. The election of Jackson in 18___ symbolized the shift of political power to the West and the increasing participation of the “common man” in the political process. List two major areas where Jackson was radically different from his predecessors:
b. Define “spoils system.”
3. Tariffs and “Nullification”
a. List two reasons, one economic and the other more political (related to slavery), why Southerners took a stand against the very high Tariff of 1828, which they called the “Tariff of ____________.”
(1) Economic objection:
(2) Political objection:
b. What is the essence of the “Nullification Doctrine” put forward in 1828 by John C. _________ in his famous “South Carolina __________________”?
c. Some in the defiant state of South _________ were ready to secede (they were the first to do so in 1861) over their “right to nullify” a new tariff law in 1832. However, President ___________ was ready to use military force to prevent this, and the old conciliator, Henry _________ of Kentucky, negotiated a compromise tariff law that allowed both sides to save face. This was a warning of issues that would flare up again over the next twenty to thirty years, leading to the ________ War.
4. “Trail of Tears”
a. *** If you were one of 125,000 Native Americans confronting 13 million Europeans, would you rather be treated as part of a sovereign nation to be negotiated with or would you rather be called an American citizen like any other? Why?
b. The “Five Civilized Tribes” of the Southeast were forcibly removed to the _____________ territory in the 1830s.
5. The Bank War
a. The Bank of the U.S. was actually a private institution under the leadership of Nicholas __________. List two functions of a national bank:
b. List two reasons why Jackson and his supporters disliked the bank:
c. Jackson vetoed the Bank Re-charter Bill in 1832. After winning re-election against Henry _____ later that year, he then tried to kill the bank by ordering the removal of federal funds, whereupon Biddle contributed to a financial panic by calling in the bank’s own loans. The bank’s charter was finally allowed to expire in 18___. (Note: The country would have to do without a true central bank until the Federal Reserve Act of 1914!)
d. Reflect a bit on the leadership of Andrew Jackson (whose portrait adorns our $___ bill). He is often seen as one of our top presidents. *** What do you see as the pros and cons of Jackson’s presidency?
6. Whigs and Van Buren The current two-party political system begins to take shape during this period. The new anti-Jacksonian ______ Party is described as favoring 1) the more prosperous classes, and 2) making active use of the federal government to achieve national objectives. The Jacksonian _____________ Party is described as favoring 1) the “little guy,” and 2) a small federal government. In 1836, Jackson engineered the election of his successor, Martin ____ __________ of New York, whose term was dominated by the financial Panic of 18____.
7. Texas Prior to 1836, Texas was a northern province of ___________, whose government had encouraged American colonizers in the 1820s under Stephen F. __________. Under the leadership of Sam ___________, Texas declared its independence in 18____ and won the military victory after eventually capturing Mexican General _______ ______. Why was the U.S. government at first unwilling to accept the request of Texas for admission to the Union?
Forging The National Economy, 1790–1860
1. Westward Movement While there was a “heedless exploitation of the West’s natural bounty” going on, Americans “revered nature and admired its beauty.” *** Can these two seemingly contradictory statements be reconciled?
2. The March of the Millions
a. Due to a high birth rate and immigration, the country in 1860 was roughly _____ times bigger than it was in 1790. If the population today is about 275 million, it is approximately _____ times bigger than it was in 1860.
b. Briefly list a few distinctive characteristics of the Irish and the German immigrant groups.
c. Flare-ups of Antiforeignism
The Protestant majority was concerned about the growing influence of __________________ (a religious denomination), which in the 1840s developed its own separate educational system. The American or “_________-_____________” Party began about 1849 centered around the concept of anti foreignism. (Note how America’s love/hate attitude toward immigrants constitutes a recurring theme.)
3. Industry and the Factory System
a. List two reasons that the Industrial Revolution didn’t hit America until the 1830s and 1840s, much later than it did in Britain.
b. How did Eli Whitney give a boost to slavery “and perhaps made inevitable the Civil War” but at the same time “helped factories to flourish in the North,” thus contributing to the ultimate Northern victory?
(1) “…Civil War inevitable”
(2) “…ultimate Northern victory”
c. What is distinctive about the new “limited liability corporations?*** Can you guess why this form of business organization was so important to industrialization?
4. Workers and Women
a. *** What do you think would be the main differences between working in a craft shop and the more efficient factories?
(1) Craft shop:
b. Regimented factory jobs, such as those at the first big water-powered textile mill at _________, Mass., were seen by many single girls as a way to escape the farm. Besides factory work, the “caring professions” open to women included nursing, domestic service, and ______________. Upon marriage, most women left the workforce. Define the “cult of domesticity*** What is your reaction to this view of women’s role in family life?
5. Transportation (Note: In 1800, the biggest obstacle to national development was that people, goods, and even letters could not move faster than animals could walk, rivers could flow, or the wind could blow. Revolutionary developments, primarily the steamboat and railroad, would change that fast.) The first major wagon road west, the National or _____________ Road, was started in 1811. The revolutionary steamboat, invented by Robert __________ in 1807, allowed people and goods to move upstream as well as down. The first big western canal, the _________ Canal, pushed through in 18____ by Governor DeWitt ___________, benefited its Atlantic terminus at _____ ________ City at the expense of cities like Boston. The first American railroad appeared in 18___ and soon superseded the canal system in terms of importance. Look at the railroad map. By 1860, the Midwest was sending its agricultural products and raw materials mostly to the __________ (North or South), enabling that region to specialize in manufacturing and shipping. The South had to continue specializing in its cash crops such as ___________ (its biggest cash crop), which it sent out via its navigable waterways. This new regional specialization will provide a big advantage to the ___________ (North or South) in the eventual Civil War. (Note: Without these new transportation links, the South might have expected closer ties with the Midwest because Midwestern waterways all drain out through New Orleans.)
6. Market Revolution Summarize the drastic change from the home as a self-sufficient economic enterprise to the home as a refuge from more specialized, market-oriented work outside. They also point to the growing gulf between rich and poor that caused class warfare in many European countries. What two reasons do they give for the relative absence of class conflict in America, despite these wide disparities between rich and poor?
Reform And Culture, 1790–1860
1. Religion Note: Try to figure out why waves of “evangelical” religion periodically sweep over the country. The evangelical “religious right” makes up a potent cultural and political force today.
a. How was the Second Great Awakening a “reaction against the growing liberalism in religion”? What ideas were they reacting against?
b. Revival religion stressed personal conversion (as opposed to predestination) and was particularly strong among Methodists and ____________. The evangelist most associated with the religious “Awakening” of the 1820s to the 1840s is Charles Grandison ____________, and the movement was especially strong in western New York along the route of the _________ Canal in what came to be called the __________-___________ District. Evangelical religion tended to appeal to women more than men and women spearheaded moral reform movements including abolitionism. One of the largest new denominations was ____________, founded in upstate New York in 1830 by Joseph __________. Eventually this group migrated to _________ under the leadership of Brigham __________
2. Education and Reform
a. This section covers the growth of tax-supported public education in the mid-1800s, particularly the work of reformers such as Horace _________. Emma _________ and Mary ________ led efforts to increase educational opportunities for women. Reformers tackled many issues. The reformers included Dorothea _____, who successfully fought to change criminal codes and treatment of the mentally ill.
b. The American _____________ Society, formed in Boston in 1826, was part of this reform spirit. (Note that alcohol intake was then something like three times what it is today and it’s still a big problem today!)
3. Women’s Rights and Utopian Movements
a. What three examples to support the argument that women were “legally regarded as perpetual minors”?
c. The three early feminist leaders mentioned here are Lucretia ________, Elizabeth Cady ____________, and Susan B. _____________. Two of these women were _____________, one of the earliest religious denominations to stress full equality. The Woman’s Rights Convention, commonly considered to mark the beginning of the modern feminist movement, was held in ____________ _________, New York in 18____. The Declaration of _____________, issued at the end of this convention, was modeled on the American Declaration of ______________, but it declared that “All men and ________ are created equal.” Many women at this convention and later argued against including a demand for the right to vote.
d. Perhaps as a forerunner of the hippies of the 1960s (or of certain “cults” today), a variety of noble but largely unsuccessful “communalistic” utopian societies sprang up in this individualistic and anti-authoritarian age including New __________ in Indiana, _________ Farm in Massachusetts, and the __________ Community in New York.
4. Science and Art
a. *** What was the state of health and medicine in the mid-nineteenth century?
b. This period of art is not overly complimentary about American contributions but does have Thomas _____________ in the field of architecture and the _________ _________ school of landscape painters influenced by the upsurge of nationalism after the War of 1812.
5. Blossoming of a National Literature
a. What was distinctive about “Knickerbocker Group” writers such as Washington _________, James Fenimore ___________, and William Cullen ____________?
b. How do you summarize the “transcendentalist” philosophy of Ralph Waldo ____________ and how did Henry David ____________ implement that philosophy with his Waldon Pond experiences?
Manifest Destiny, 1841–1848
1. Politics of the 1840s The key theme of the 1840s is the growing urge for territorial expansion. The first Whig Party president, ex-General William Henry __________, died shortly after taking office in 1841. The new president was John ___________, an ex-Democrat from ____________, who disliked Andrew Jackson personally but supported many of the Democratic states-rights positions. America, despite having used British capital extensively to build its roads and canals, was at odds with ____________ during this period. Successful diplomacy, however, between Britain’s Lord _____________ and Secretary of State Daniel ____________ resolved a sticky dispute over the northern border of the state of __________ in 1842.
2. Texas and Oregon
a. Whether or not to annex the Republic of Texas (which, remember, became independent of Mexico in 1836 and was looking for allies in Europe if it couldn’t unite with the U.S.) became a big issue in the election of 1844. Democrat James K. ________ wanted expansion but the Whigs, who nominated Henry _________, resisted not wanting to stir up the debate about admitting a new slave state. The expansionists won, so President Tyler, as his last act in office, shepherded through the admission of Texas in early 18___. This greatly angered ____________, which had not given up its own claim to Texas.
b. The British had long traded in the Pacific Northwest while, in the 1840s, Americans were streaming into the southern part of that territory over the _________ Trail. Americans claimed that part of the Oregon Territory north to the ____ parallel (the present border with Canada) while Britain claimed territory south to the _____________ River (the present Washington-Oregon border).
3. Polk and Manifest Destiny
a. Note the gung-ho creed of “Manifest Destiny”—i.e., taking over new territory to gain riches and to spread America’s “uplifting and ennobling democratic institutions.” *** What do you think was the real mix of “greed and ideals—‘empire’ and ‘liberty’” in this philosophy?
b. Although James K. ______ had won but a narrow victory in the election of 1844, it was seen by many as a mandate for expansion. Expansionist Democrats wanted Polk to carry out his campaign pledge to fight Britain if necessary to extend the border of the Oregon Territory as far north as the latitude __________ (the present southern border of Alaska). But Polk, a Southerner more concerned with Texas and California, agreed with Britain in 1846 to accept the present boundary with Canada at latitude _______. While this was America’s original objective, why did some in the Northwest and some antislavery forces call the agreement a “base betrayal by the South” ?
4. War with Mexico, 1846–1848
a. Remembering how Texas gained its independence and then applied for admission to the U.S., what do they mean when they say that, to gain California (his real objective), Polk thought he might be able to “play the Texas Game” ?
b. *** After the Texas boundary dispute, the aborted mission of John __________ to try to buy California from Mexico, the military mission of General Zachary __________ to the disputed area between the Rio Grande River and the ___________ (means “nuts” in Spanish!) River; and Polk’s war message to Congress, what is your response to the question posed by the authors on. Did Polk provoke war with Mexico? Explain.
c. During the ensuing war with Mexico (which was led by Gen. Santa ________), U.S. General Stephen W. __________ and Captain John C. ______________ helped secure California, General Zachery ___________ won a big battle in Northern Mexico at __________ __________ in early 1847, and the main force under General Winfield __________ landed at Vera Cruz and successfully captured the Mexican capital of ___________ ________ in late 1847.
5. Consequences of the Mexican War
a. The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe ____________ ending the Mexican War was negotiated for the U.S. by Nicholas P. _______. The treaty confirmed American title to __________ and turned over to the U.S. all territory to the west, including the coveted _____________, in return for the payment to Mexico of $____________. *** What do you think of this outcome? If the U.S. won the war, why pay Mexico anything? If American troops had captured the Mexican capital, why do you think the U.S. didn’t press to annex all of Mexico?
b. What impact do the authors say the Mexican War had on each of the following?
(1) American lives lost:
(2) American military preparedness:
(3) Latin American relations:
c. What was the Wilmot Proviso and what was its significance? Why (although it was never adopted) does the proviso illustrate the fact that the war “re-aroused the snarling dog of the slavery issue”?
Share with your friends: