10.1 Social and Economic Effects of Computers Changes in Environment Retraining
10.1.1 explain the uses of computer and its effects on society
Uses of Computer
Computers are, perhaps, the best invention by man so far. To understand their impact on society, we will first have to understand the meaning of 'computer'.
A computer does not necessarily mean a monitor, keyboard, mouse, and a CPU. It is any machine or device that can compute and execute instructions given to it in the form of programs. So technically, even a cell phone is a computer. And so are desktops, laptops, tablet PCs, and PDAs. Anything that can perform a series of operations on its own is a computer. This gives us an idea as to how wide and deep their roles are in our lives. We need a computer for virtually everything.
There are listed some uses of computer in today’s society:
Application in Science
One of the most important advantages of computers is in the field of science for research and development. The computers have played a major role in most of what we know about ourselves and the universe. The satellites, the telescopes and almost all the research tools make use of computers in some or the other way. The huge calculations required for space science, safe communication between scientists, storage of all the gathered information are some of the computer uses in science and technology.
Application in Medical Field
Research and Development mark significant presence of computers in medical field. The high-end machines used for diagnosis and cure of many diseases are nothing but computers. For example, the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), CT scan, ultrasound devices, etc are amongst the most ubiquitous uses of computers in hospitals. Even many surgical procedures, known as laparoscopic surgeries, need the help of computers. Web conferencing helps doctors treat people remotely. There are fully computer based software systems which help to store and manage the data about patients and medicine repository etc. very easily.
Application in Education
Computer uses in the field of education are infinite. The Internet is a huge source of information. There are online universities that deliver online degrees and distance learning is spreading far and wide. Many schools and colleges have started making use of audio-visual ways of imparting knowledge. A collection of tools that need a computer, help students in many ways. For instance, a MS word, Excel, PowerPoint etc.
Application in Banking
The banking sector has improved on fronts such as security, ease of use, etc. with the help of computers. Most of the banking operations can be done online, known as Internet banking, and you don't have to walk up to the bank for virtually anything.
You can withdraw money from ATMs and deposit money in any branch, thanks to the networking affected by the use of computers. The complete banking experience has also become safer.
Application in Crime Investigation
High-end computer devices have ensured that justice is more effective. CCTV cameras and other computer operated security systems have reduced the amount of crime. And if it still happens there are many ways to track down the criminal in no time.
The field of entertainment has been revolutionized by computers. Animation, graphic image manipulation etc has made the entertainment experience hundred times better. Computer gaming is achieving new landmarks in terms of technology. Movie making, editing, music composition etc everything needs computers.
People have access to a wealth of knowledge on computers, without having to drive to the library for research. The Internet contains online dictionaries, encyclopedias and a wide variety of games and software for learning math, reading science and history. Many online videos teach skills, such as learning a language.
Positive impacts on Social Behavior
Computers offer many opportunities to meet new people. There are many social networking sites that let people connect with others. People can communicate in a variety of ways and reconnect with old friends and classmates. The Internet can help people find others with common interests, form bonds with strangers and expand their social network.
Positive impact of on Professional Life
Job Work faster
Easier access to information
Meetings at a company are reduced
Manage payroll, accounts receivable, taxes
A high percentage of people sit at their computer far too long and some people lose reality as far as social activities and learning social skills.
Not to mention packing on the weight and the lack of exercise that will haunt them further on down the road.
Sitting behind a computer all day is hard on the eyes.
More crime is committed through the Internet.
More misinformation by SOME people on the Internet can cause problems for the younger generation.
Spammers are annoying & Hackers can ruin your computer system.
10.2.2 describe the hardware and software which make it possible to access the internet;
For connecting computer to the Internet four basic things are required. These are:
Web Browsing Software
Internet Service Provider (ISP).
Computer is a digital machine; any information which a computer handles must be expressed in digits or numbers. Telephone lines are designed to carry analog signals but if computer wants to send data to another computer through the telephone wire then it will not be possible because computer will send data in the form of digital signals. For solving this problem modem is used. Modem converts the analog signals into digital signals and digital signal into analog signal.
Telephone cables are an essential component. We connect one computer's modem to the other computer's modem through a telephone cable.
Web browsing software is a program which let us view and explores information on internet. Examples of web browsing softwares are Internet Explorer, Firefox, and Google Chrome etc.
To access internet from our compute, we need a account with an internet service provider (ISP).
10.3 Virus and Anti-virus
10.3.1 describe a computer virus and its various types and explain its effects on the data;
Computer Viruses are malicious software programs that damage computer program entering into the computer without the permission of the users, and also run against the wishes of the users.
They are replicated by themselves. Viruses are so dangerous and malicious that they can be automatically copied and pasted from memory to memory over and over; the transmitting power is too much quick from network to network that can simply hang smoothly running computer, sometimes damage the important programs of the computer. Viruses are very dangerous program can go on their activities automatically and can do a great loss of the users.
Types of computer virus
It is quite impossible to give the proper information about the types of viruses. The types of viruses are changing day by day. Therefore on the basis of their origin, hiding, damaging types, operating system etc their types as follows:
Boot Sector Virus:Boot sector virus infects the boot sector on floppy disks, hard disks and other bootable media like DVD or CD.
A Boot Sector Virus infects the first sector of the hard drive, where the Master Boot Record (MBR) is stored. The Master Boot Record (MBR) stores the disk's primary partition table and to store bootstrapping instructions which are executed after the computer's BIOS passes execution to machine code. If a computer is infected with Boot Sector Virus, when the computer is turned on, the virus launches immediately and is loaded into memory, enabling it to control the computer.
Macro Virus:Macro viruses are written by using the Macro programming languages like VBA, which is a feature of MS office package. A macro is a way to automate and simplify a task that you perform repeatedly in MS office suit (MS Excel, MS word etc). These macros are usually stored as part of the document or spreadsheet and can travel to other systems when these files are transferred to another computers.
File Deleting Viruses: A File Deleting Virus is designed to delete critical files which are the part of Operating System or data files.
File Infector Virus: This sort of virus infects programs or executable records (records with .EXE or .COM extension). At the same time as one of these programs run, straight or circuitously, the virus is turned on; creating the harmful belongings it is automatic to bear out.
Trojan horses: A Trojan Horse virus gets its name from Homers story of the Trojan war, when the Greek armies besieged the city of Troy by building a giant horse and hiding soldiers inside it. The unsuspecting armies of Troy, thinking the Greeks had retreated leaving a giant horse as an offering to the gods, wheeled the gift inside the city walls. Once the city of Troy was asleep the Greek soldiers climbed out from inside the horse and opened the gates of the city allowing the Greek army to invade and attack.
A Trojan Virus behaves in the same way. It moves silently in on a piece of software or file and once inside takes over the computer.
Worms: A worm virus works by finding parts of your computers operating system that are weak and then gains access to them to infect your computer. Worms are generally designed to replicate and infect other computers on a network.
They come in the form of an email or piece of downloaded software and through these means will slowly creep through the network of computers. Worms, though relatively harmless should not be dismissed.
Some worm viruses have been created with the intent of turning all the computers they have infected into zombies, allowing the author of the virus to take over and perform whatever task they wish. They could delete or encrypt files, making them useless, or send personal information and commit internet crimes remotely though your computer.
Other types of virus include Fat Viruses, Polymorphic viruses; Multipartite Viruses, Direct Action Viruses, Resident Virus, Network viruses, Logic bomb etc.
10.3.2 describe how to combat the viruses with the help of firewalls, and other anti-virus programs;
A firewall is a software program or piece of hardware that helps screen out hackers, viruses, and worms that try to reach your computer over the Internet.
Firewalls can be either hardware or software-based. A router is a good and best example of a hardware device that has a built-in firewall. Most routers can be configured to limit traffic from certain IP addresses or block requests based on other criteria. Software programs that monitor and restrict external access to a computer or network can also serve as firewalls. A network firewall only allows authorized traffic from the Internet to flow in and out of the network.
Antivirus programs are designed to provide the ultimate protection to any computer system against potential hazards in the form of viruses, Trojans and worms both online and offline.
They identify threats to the computer and even secure the computer against identity theft.
Every antivirus program works in different ways. Some may check every file for malicious codes and replication loops while others may check the files for their license and publisher’s name.
An observation network is established by all antivirus applications that allow each and every file to be scanned. They are separated into low-risk and high-risk files. Every antivirus software application has a database of virus definitions that the developer has to constantly update with new virus releases every day.
10.4 Hacking (Intrusion)
10.4.1 explain the meaning of unwanted access and suggest effective measures to avoid it;
"Access" means to approach, instruct, communicate with, store data in, retrieve data from or otherwise make use of any resource of a computer system or computer network etc.
Unwanted access means to access system without the permission of actual user.
Below is information about helping to secure your computer and prevent any unauthorized access from other people or software programs; helping keep your information safe.
Check for Operating system and software updates
Software updates are made available, often for free, to consumers to help keep a software program and operating systems running properly and secure. If the program you're using does not have any method of checking for updates on its own it is up to you to verify the program is up-to-date. Often this can be done by visiting the web site of the developer who created the program.
Make sure a password has been set on computer. Default passwords such as password, root, admin or no password will allow easy access to your computer or your Internet account.
Change passwords often. It is recommended at least once every few months.
Create a BIOS password.
When creating a password, add numbers or other characters to the password to make it more difficult to guess; for example, 1mypassword23!.
Do not use sticky notes around your computer to write down passwords. Instead use a password manager.
We highly recommend all computer users have a firewall solution. There are two ways a firewall can protect your computer and network.
Hardware firewall - A hardware firewall is a hardware device that is connected to your network. Often many home users who have a home network use their network router as a firewall solution.
Software firewall - A software firewall is a software program that you install on your computer that helps protect that computer from unauthorized incoming and outgoing data. Below is a listing of a few of the more widely used software firewall programs.
Know how to handle e-mails
Today, e-mail is one of the most popular features on the Internet. Being able to identify threats sent through e-mail can help keep your computer and your personal information safe. Below are some of the most common threats you may encounter while using e-mail.
Attachments - Never open or run e-mail attachments. Viruses, spyware, and other malware are commonly distributed through e-mails that have attachments. For example, an e-mail may want you to open an attachment of claiming to be a funny video, when it's really a virus.
Phishing - Phishing or an e-mail phish is an e-mail that appears to be from an official company (such as your bank) indicating you need to log onto the site to check your account settings. However, the e-mails are really sites setup to steal confidential information such as your passwords, credit card information, social security information, etc.
10.5.1 discuss the importance of copyrights and licensing in computer software.
Plagiarism is an act of cheating.
An act or instance of using or closely imitating the language and thoughts of another without authorization and the representation of that author’s work as one’s own, as by not crediting the original author.
To steal and pass off (the idea or words of another) as one’s own
To use (author’s production) without crediting the source
Plagiarism is when you use someone else’s words or ideas and pass them off as your own.
Plagiarism is the expropriation of another writer’s text, findings, or interpretations and presenting it as one’s own.
A copyright is the exclusive legal right that prohibits copying of intellectual property without the permission of the copyright holder. Copyright law protects books, articles, pamphlets, music, art, drawings, movies, and, yes, computer software. Copyright protects the expression of an ideas but not the idea itself.
Software piracy is the unauthorized copying of copyrighted software. One way is to copy a program from one floppy disk to another. Another is to download a program from network and make a copy of it.
Importance of Copyrights and Licensing in Computer Software
Copyright can to apply for any work, it must be an original idea or literature that is put to use. The idea alone cannot be protected by copyright. It is the physical use of that idea, such as a design or a written novel, which is covered under copyright law.
Copyright is given to the author according to the law, as soon as he completes his work.
In order to protect your own work and idea you need to register the work in the copyright office.
The act of unauthorized uploading of a copyright works for others to download may attract civil or even criminal sanctions. Unauthorized downloading of copyright works leads to civil liability.
Software licensing protects the copyright by placing restrictions on the end user in relation to the product duplication for purposes other than backup, installation on more than one computer, editing the code, or changing the program in any way is usually forbidden. Software licenses might also restrict reverse engineering and bypassing controls intended to cut down on pirating.
Aside from restrictive uses of the software, software licensing functions as a kind of disclaimer. Most EULAs (End User License Agreement) include statements to the effect that the publisher will not be held liable for any unexpected circumstances that might arise as a result of using the software. This could refer to anything from a computer crash to loss of data, time or income.
Software licensing differs among types of software. Freeware licensing is less restrictive than retail or shareware, in that it allows unlimited copying and distribution while still forbidding any changes to the program. Public domain software is the one type of software licensing that has no restrictions, as the software belongs to the public.
10.6.1 describe the use of automata e.g. robots used in the automobile industry;
Robots have been keeping things moving in the automotive industry for 30 years: the cost-intensive models of the past have meanwhile made way for versatile and reliable high-tech robots. With the development of each new model, robots have gradually become more profitable. Today, they pay for themselves faster than ever before.
Typically prime targets for robot automation in automobile manufacturing are welding, assembly of body, motor and gear-box, and painting and coating.
Advantages of Using ROBOTS
A robot can work twenty-four hours a day without a break, and continuously perform the same routine tasks over and over again virtually non-stop.
Without any computer errors, robots will almost always get the job done quicker and more efficiently than a human possibly could.
Robots are able to withstand exposure to extreme heat, chemicals in the air, and general physical contact with parts and structures.
Robots are able to be programmed to perform precise intricate ties at much faster speeds than any human could be expected to.
Robots are not limited like humans when it comes to performing many assembly jobs like painting, finishing, welding, riveting, and installation. Robots also don't have restrictions with moving heavy objects or issues of fatigue.
10.6.2 describe the uses of artificial intelligent in defense industry and weather forecast.
Uses in defense industry
Some current uses of artificial intelligence by the military include systems in non-combat roles. Training simulators are being developed that incorporate A.I. The U.S. Air Force is working with private industry to develop systems for faster collection and examination of information. The goal is to improve reaction and decision-making time to implement more effective military actions. Like many of the military's uses of A.I., it involves information management and decision making.
There are some ethical concerns about the use of A.I. based systems in war. Some have raised concerns about the role of A.I. in war. Using these systems for support and managerial roles is one thing but having non-human combatants (fighters) is another. Professor Noel Sharkey, of the University of Sheffield, discusses the potential problems of mechanical warriors. He said robots could not fulfill two basic tenants of war. One is the ability to distinguish between friend and foe, which is sometimes difficult for humans to do them during modern war. The other tenant is that of proportionality. This is the decision about the amount of force considered reasonable in a given situation. Another concern is that humans could be moved from the position of decision making to that of monitoring decisions made by computers.
Uses in weather forecast
The artificial intelligence based systems used for weather forecast combines satellite data and computer weather models with cutting-edge artificial intelligence techniques to identify and predict rapidly evolving storms and other potential areas of turbulence. The system is developed to alert pilots and air traffic controllers about storms.
Meteorologists analyze large volumes of data in order to predict the weather, and even the most experienced weatherman isn't always accurate. Soon, scientists may be able to predict the weather better by using artificial intelligence software, which can sift through complex data and spot patterns missed by the human eye. When this software sees a big storm coming, it will automatically issue alerts to warn residents and the media, and this may help save lives.
By increasing the accuracy of weather predictions, artificial intelligence software may also offer important benefits in crop development, forestry and agriculture. NASA is even working on programs that will guide aircraft around potential storms and danger spots, even in remote areas, which could increase the safety of air travel in the near future.