1960 Coup- military want to fix the democracy

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1960 Coup- Military want to fix the democracy

On 27 may 1960, at midnight 3 oclock turkish army ad taken a coup detat to Adnan menderes government. Alparslan Türkeş anounced the military coup on radia anddeclaration emphasized the non partisan character of the coup. The aim is to fix the democracy of the republic since it was in a trouble due to autocrathic rule of Adnan menderes.

The actors of the coup was young millitary officers and they need a commander to succes their coup and the retired commander cemal gürsel accept their offer.

Later the millitary officers and cemal gürsel found a committee named National Unity commitee and they anounced that the power was now in thhe hands of the Commitee.

The commitee summoned the İstanbul University proffesors to prepeare a new constitution which is more democratic and can avoid autochracy.The proffer Siddik Sami Onar was the head of the group which work on the new constitution.

The NUC declear that DP was acted unconstitutionaly and it made DP illegal, on 31 august DP suspended and it disolved on 29 September.

The NUC shaped and change the Universities and army after the coup d’etat.

The coup was did not gone in a hiearchical way, because the officers was young and they did not obey the commanders but later the old commanders which did not support the this young officers retired by NUC.

But it can be said that NUC did not want to hand power for a long period they just found the new instutitions and counstitution for a strong democracy and the second republic began after 2 years.

The new parliement had 2 chambers , the upper chamber was senate which handed by NUC and the lower chamber had 272 seats for political parties. And legislation would have to pass both chambers (but two thirds majority in the assembly can be enough also.)

The new constitution’s aim was to prevent monopoly, autocracy and tyranny by new founded instutitions.

An independent constitutional court was introduced which could check the legislation.

The proportional represantation was introduced which will prevent the majority in assembly( There was another system before 1960 for example DP won 408 seats in assembly with %55 votes but RPP won 69 seats with %40 votes it was not proportional )

The military had a constitutional role with the foundation of National Security Council ( Milli Güvenlik Kurulu)

The new constitution was accepted by refarandum with the 61.7 per cent of the votes.

A parlimentary elections held on 15 October 1961 RPP won the elections by the 36.7 per cent (173 seats) , Justice Party ( 34.7 per cent 158 seats) , The new turkey party 13 per cent and conservative RPNP 13.4 per cent.

There was a trial for old regime.NUC set up a court to judge DP. The court was selected by NUC. According to DP was illegal and illegimate. Party since it act unconstitutionally and aoutocratic, Celal Bayar was over 60 years old and he was an important figure in Turkish politics also he played impotant role in the indepedence war the NUC did not allow that penalty of him but the other DP members Menderes Zorlu and Polatkan hanged in September 1981. According to article 146: DP attempted to alter theTurkish constitution by force and silence the national assembly.

After the coup of 1960 there was a polyphonic assembly in turkey . RPP and İsmet İnönü had the majoritiy but their majoritiy is not strong enough. The second party was JP which was the successor of the DP’S votes and politics.

On 13th February 1965 İsmet İnönü resigned when he failed to get his budget opproved in parliement and A caretaker cabinet ruled the country until parliementary elections of October 1965

1965 elections

JP won the election with the 52.9 percent of the votes.Now there is a majority of a one party in parliement again. RPP was down to 28.7 and there were other parties they could not gained more than 7 percent.

DP and JP

JP was the succesor of the DP on the eye of voters but the chairman of the JP was a new man called Süleyman Demirel and he was not related much with the DP. And the old DP cadres did not respect to his legitimacy as a successor also the old DP members are blocked by law and could not act in Politics.

Also JP was a coalition of industrialists ,small traders and artisans, peasants and large landowner, religious reacttionary and western oriented liberals. There is a little ideological coherence in JP.

In August 1966 the block for old dp memb ers cancelled and their political rights given back to them.And the old cadres of DP found a group named Bizim Ev and make pressure to Süleyman Demirel to influence the policies of JP

Demirels power was limited rahter than Menderes. Thre is a checks and balances in the new constitution which written after 1960 coup. And the independent judiciary and constitution courty did its job of pretecting the rights of individiuals and prevent the government to became autochratic. The pres was more free and univerties were independent.

Demirel s power was limited and he never had the two thirds majority of the assembly to change the constitution. Because of these policies Demirel became unpopular and lose a little of its votes in 1969 elections. RPP could not profit this situation and the vote ratio was JP 46.5 per cent RPP 27.4 per cent.

In February 1970 the right wing of the JP voted with the opositon and forced Demirel to resign.In 1970 41 representatives and senators left the JP and found the Democratic Party (a similiar name of Democrat Party)

1960’s left

TKP Turkey Comunist Party is banned but it have a small group of supporter and known as Moscow cotrolled party. Has an aim to make revolution

1960s Right

RPNP was the party of Alparslan Türkeş , a conservative party later changed name in to NAP (MİLLİYETÇİ HAREKET PARTİSİ) had a ideology written by Alparslan Türkeş named dokuz ışık doktrini a ideology like kemalism but has a conservative and pan turkist nationalism rather than Kemalism.

Found ülkü ocakları as a youth organisation and the members called bozkurtlar. They were anti communist and make violance againts left wing.

RPP in 1965 elections

RPP had gone in to 1965 elections with a new maifesto written by Turhan Fevzioğlu and Bülent Ecevit. RPP Now called ‘’Ortanın Solu’’ more releated with left wing but not socialist, Emphasizasin social Justice and social security without being socialist.

Want to get votes of the Gecekondu’s population and workers . Now their rivals are JP and Workers Party.

JP used the propoganda ‘’ Ortanın solu , Moskova yolu’’ againts RPP’S new manifest.

47 Represantatives and senators were opposed to the new manifest and left party and found the Güven Partisi (Reliance Party) .

1961 constitution offerre oppurtunities for much more political diversity and JP became a centre right rather the RPP center left.

The growth of political radicalism.

The 1960s were years of rapid change, There was a growing industrial proletrait, Modernized RPP could not keep this population. JP is the one party in right but NAP and NOP were an alternative againts Demirel.

Demirels cabinet was weak and cant passed any bil lor eneacted a law fort he solution of country. There was no an efficient legislation

On 12 March 1971 military ask for a memrandum and demand reforms. And if the demands were not met, the army would ‘’exercise its constitutional duty’’ and take over power itself.

At beggining both parties JP and RPP did not support the military action but later JP act a ‘’wait and see ‘’ role and İsmet inönğ started to support it when the generals select Nihat Erim as a PM. Nihar erim was a right wing RPP member but later he left the RPP and found the Güven Partisi. And Bülent Ecevit left the general secratary chair after 12 march, he said this was a coup againts me against new RPP which called ortanın solu.

Erims cabinet consisted largely by technocrats from outside the politics and enact some reforms and laws in social economy.Land reform , Land Tax and reform that led to a nationalization of ecnomy supported by Koç and Eczacıbaşı.

Erim Cabinet changed the 44 articles and set up a undemocratic constitution rather then democratic 61 constitution. But the representatives layer did not accept the military demands anymore and selected the Fahri Korutürk as new president , normally military wanted the Grand chief as president.

The summary of 70s in RPP

Ecevit won the congress election and get the party chairman from İnönü, and ismet inönünü resigned from RPP and retired from politics. Ecevit won the elections but later lost the next elections because of economic crisis.

NAP NOP and AP rule the country by the name of Milliyetçi Cephe againts Bülent Ecevit.

Political Violance in 70s

During the 70s political violaence became a real problem. A number of extremist youth groups on left and the grey wolves fought fort he control of the streets and the campuses and during the Nationalist front (milliyetçi cephe ) the police and the security forces supported the Alparslan turkeş s NAP and its movement Grey Wolves.

NOT 70 lerin son sayfaları eksik 80 darbesi ve onu oluşturan nedenler olduğu için önemli olabilir.

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