7 teenagers are killed



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Module 4 Topic 1
1. Driving Risk is the potential that a chosen action (e.g., speeding, texting, etc.,) may lead to an undesirable outcome. An average of 7 teenagers are killed in crashes EVERY DAY.


  1. Minimize Risk:



3. To properly assess a specific risk, you need to have some idea of the potential outcomes.

  1. For example, if you are a distracted driver, your potential for being involved in a crash increases 4 to 9 times.


4. Factors that increase risk:



5. Actions have consequences:

  1. Taking unnecessary risks may result in property damage, injury or death, and other losses

  2. Injury to you or others - permanent or life-threatening,

  3. Damage to personal property, and

  4. Loss such as financial loss, loss of license, loss of convenience, loss of time, and other losses.


6. Driver actions that cause crashes in Virginia:

  1. Speeding - #1

  2. Failure to yield the right of way - #2

  3. Driving while intoxicated - #3

  4. Disregarding a traffic sign or signal -#4

  5. Following too closely - #5

  6. Improper turns

  7. Unsafe passing


7. Other factors that increase risk:

  1. Worn or bald tires, poorly adjusted and/or worn brakes, broken headlights, worn windshield wiper blades, dirty windshield

  2. Road Design

  3. Weather conditions

  4. Road surface – wet, snow, ice, gravel


8. How can you reduce your risk?

Module 4: Topic 2



Components of the Space Management System
1. Drivers use SEEiT to reduce risks:

  1. Drivers need visibility, space, and time to avoid conflicts and perform safe driving maneuvers

  2. Good seeing habits and the ability to manage space on the roadway are essential ingredients for low-risk driving

  3. Developing space management HABITS can reduce driving risks




What are some things you would be searching for?
2. Space around your vehicle:

  1. Drivers must manage all six zones around the vehicle, and adjust position to maintain a safe margin of space that provides room to steer in an emergency


3. A Zone can be Open, Closed or Changing

  1. OPEN — An open zone is a space where you can drive without restriction

  2. CLOSED — The space or area is not available in the vehicle’s path of travel

  3. CHANGING — An open zone changes to a closed zone or a closed zone becomes an open zone


Think about a traffic light:

A RED light would be a CLOSED zone.

A YELLOW light would be a CHANGING zone.

A GREEN light would be an OPEN zone.

5. Following Intervals:

  1. Drivers have the most control over the space directly in front of the vehicle

  2. 2-Second - Following Distance is effective at speeds under 35 mph

  3. 3-Second - Following Distance may provide enough time for evasive steering maneuver on dry surfaces or to brake at speeds up to 45 mph

  4. 4-Second - Following Distance provides time to steer out of a problem on dry surfaces and brake out of a problem at speeds up to 70 mph



Traffic is moving at 30 MPH

5-6 SECONDS

to cross a two lane roadway (vehicles need to be at least a block away)

7-8 SECONDS

to cross a four lane intersection

7-8 SECONDS

to turn left (vehicles need to be more than a block away or length of a football field.


6-7 SECONDS

to turn right (vehicles need to be at least a block away)


4-6 SECONDS

to change lanes into traffic from parked position


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