8. Mittnacht A, Hollinger I. Fast-tracking in pediatric cardiac surgery the current standing. Ann Card Anesth 2010;13: 92-101

Download 124.15 Kb.
Size124.15 Kb.

1. Barash PG, Lescovich F, Katz JD, et al. Early extubation following pediatric cardiothoracic operation: A viable alternative. Ann Thorac Surg 1980;29:228–33.

2. Aps C, Hunter JA, Wiliiams BT. Anaesthetic management and post-operative care of cardiac surgical patients in a general recovery ward. Anaesthesia 1986;41:533–7.

3. Engelman RM, Rousou JA, Flack JE 3rd, et al. Fast-track recovery of the coronary bypass patient. Ann Thorac Surg 1994;58:1742–6.

4. Hickey P, Hansen D. High-dose fentanyl reduces intraoperative ventricular fibrillation in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. J Clin Anesth 1991;3:285–300.

5. Anand KS, Hickey PR. Halothane-morphine compared with high-dose sufentanil for anesthesia and postoperative analgesia in neonatal cardiac surgery N Engl J Med 1992;326:1–9.

6. Duncan H, Clode A, Weir PM et al. Infant stress responses in the pre bypass phase of open heart surgery: a comparison of different fentanyl doses. Br J Anaesth 2000;84:556–65.

7. Gruber E, Laussen P, Casta A, et al. Stress response in infants undergoing cardiac surgery: a randomized study of fentanyl bolus, fentanyl infusion and fentanyl-midazolam infusion. Anesth Analg 2001;92:882–90.

8. Mittnacht A, Hollinger I. Fast-tracking in pediatric cardiac surgery – the current standing. Ann Card Anesth 2010;13:92–101.

9. Alghamdi AA, Singh SK, Hamilton BC, et al. Early extubation after pediatric cardiac surgery: systematic review, meta-analysis, and evidence-based recommendations. J Card Surg 2010;25:586–95.

10. Schuller JL, Bovill JG, Nijveld A, et al. Early extubation of the trachea after open heart surgery for congenital heart disease. A review of 3 years’ experience. Br J Anaesth 1984;56:1101–8.

11. Heard GG, Lamberti JJ Jr, Park SM, et al. Early extubation after surgical repair of congenital heart disease. Crit Care Med 1984;13:830–2.

12. Heinle JS, Diaz LK, Fox LS. Early extubation after cardiac operations in neonates and young infants. J Cardiovasc Surg 1997;114:413–8.

13. Neirotti RA, Jones D, Hackbarth R, et al. Early extubation in congenital heart surgery. Heart Lung Circ, 2002;11:157–61.

14. Morales DL, Carberry KE, JHeinle JS et al. Extubation in the operating room after Fontan's procedure: effect on practice and outcomes. Ann Thorac Surg 2008; 86:576–81.

15. Vida VL, Leon-Wyss J, Rojas M et al. Pulmonary artery hypertension: is it really a contraindicating factor for early extubation in children after cardiac surgery? Ann Thorac Surg, 2006; 81:1460–5.

16. Thammasitboon S, Rosen DA, Lutfi R, et al. An institutional experience with epidural analgesia in children and young adults undergoing cardiac surgery. Paediatr Anaesth 2010;20:720–6.

17. Mittnacht AJ, Thanjan M, Srivastava S, et al. Factors affecting the decision to defer endotracheal extubation after surgery for congenital heart disease: a prospective observational study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2008; 136:88–93.

18. Jenkins KJ, Gauvreau K, Newburger JW, et al. Consensus-based method for risk adjustment for surgery for congenital heart disease. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2002;123:110–8.

19. Kin N, Weismann C, Srivastava S. et al. Factors affecting the decision to defer extubation after surgery for congenital heart disease – A prospective observational study Anesth Analg 2011;113:329–35.

20. Székely A, Sápi E, Király L et al. Intraoperative and postoperative risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation after pediatric cardiac surgery. Paediatr Anaesth 2006;16:1166–75.

21. Davis S, Worley S, Mee RB, et al. Factors associated with early extubation after cardiac surgery in young children. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2004; 5:63–8.

22. Harrison AM, Cox AC, Davis S. et al. Failed extubation after cardiac surgery in young children: Prevalence, pathogenesis, and risk factors. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2002; 3:148–52.

23. Winch PD, Nicholson L, Isaacs J, et al. Predictors of successful early extubation following congenital cardiac surgery in neonates and infants. Heart, Lung Circ 2009;18:271–6.

24. Gorenflo M, Gu H, Xu Z. Peri-operative pulmonary hypertension in paediatric patients: current strategies in children with congenital heart disease. Cardiology. 2010;116:10–7.

25. Carmosino MJ, Friesen RH, Doran A, Ivy DD. Perioperative complications in children with pulmonary hypertension undergoing noncardiac surgery or cardiac catheterization. Anesth Analg 2007;104:521–7.

26. Bando K, Turrentine MW, Sharp TG et al. Pulmonary hypertension after operations for congenital heart disease: analysis of risk factors and management. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1996;112:1600–9.

27. Warner MA, Lunn RJ, O’Leary PW et al. Outcomes of noncardiac surgical procedures in children and adults with congenital heart disease. Mayo Clin Proc 1998;73:728–34.

28. Simonneau G, Galie N, Rubin LJ et al. Clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;43:5S–12S.

29. Van Albada ME, Berger RM. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in congenital cardiac disease-the need for refinement of the Evian-Venice classification. Cardiol Young 2008;18:10–7.

30. Giglia TM, Humpl T. Preoperative pulmonary hemodynamics and assessment of operability: is there a pulmonary vascular resistance that precludes cardiac operation? Pediatr Crit Care Med 2010;11:S57–69.

31. Cray SH, Holtby HM, Kartha VM, et al. Early tracheal extubation after paediatric cardiac surgery: the use of propofol to supplement low-dose opioid anaesthesia. Pediatric Anesthesia 2001;11:465–71.

32. Preisman S, Lembersky H, Yusim Y et al. A randomized trial of outcomes of anesthetic management directed to very early extubation after cardiac surgery in children. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2009; 23:348–57.

33. Laussen PC, Reid RW, Stene RA et al. Tracheal extubation of children in the operating room after atrial septal defect repair as part of a clinical practice guideline. Anesth Analg 1996;82:988–93.

34. Kloth RL, Baum VC. Very early extubation in children after cardiac surgery. Crit Care Med 2002;30:787–91.

35. Davis P, Wilson A, Siewers R, et al. The effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on remifentanil kinetics in children undergoing atrial septal defect repair. Anesth Analg 1999;89:904–8.

36. Zarate E, Latham P, White PF, et al. Fast-track cardiac anesthesia: use of remifentanil combined with intrathecal morphine as an alternative to sufentanil during desflurane anesthesia. Anesth Analg 2000;91:283–7.

37. Weale N, Rogers C, Cooper R, et al. Effect of remifentanil infusion rate on stress response to the pre-bypass phase of pediatric cardiac surgery. Br J Anaesth 2004;92:1–8.

38. Davis PJ, Galinkin J, McGowan FX, et al. A randomized multicenter study of remifentanil compared with halothane in neonates and infants undergoing pyloromyotomy. I. Emergence and recovery profiles. Anesth Analg 2001; 93:1380–6.

39. Petroz GC, Sikich N, James M, et al. A phase I, two-center study of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dexmedetomidine in children. Anesthesiology 2006;105:1098–110.

40. Tokuhira N, Atagi K, Shimaoka H, et al. Dexmedetomidine sedation for pediatric post-Fontan procedure patients. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2009;10:207–12.

41. Deutsch E, Tobias JD. Hemodynamic and respiratory changes following dexmedetomidine administration during general anesthesia: sevoflurane vs desflurane. Paediatr Anaesth 2007;17:438–44.

42. Mahmoud M, Radhakrishman R, Gunter J, et al. Effect of increasing depth of dexmedetomidine anesthesia on upper airway morphology in children. Paediatr Anaesth 2010;20:506–15.

43. Mukhtar AM, Obayah EM, Hassona AM. The use of dexmedetomidine in pediatric cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 2006;103:52–6.

44. Isik B, Arslan M, Tunga AD, Kurtipek O. Dexmedetomidine decreases emergence agitation in pediatric patients after sevoflurane anesthesia without surgery. Paediatr Anaesth 2006; 16:748–53.

45. Ibacache ME, Munoz HR, Brandes V, Morales AL. Single-dose dexmedetomidine reduces agitation after sevoflurane anesthesia in children. Anesth Analg 2004;98:60–3.

46. Guler G, Akin A, Tosun Z, et al. Single-dose dexmedetomidine reduces agitation and provides smooth extubation after pediatric adenotonsillectomy. Paediatr Anaesth 2005;15:762–6.

47. Chrysostomou C, Sanchez-de-Toledo J, Wearden P, et al. Perioperative use of dexmedetomidine is associated with decreased incidence of ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias after congenital cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg 2011;92:964–72.

48. Lazol JP, Lichtenstein SE, Jooste EH, et al. Effect of dexmedetomidine on pulmonary artery pressure after congenital cardiac surgery: A pilot study. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2010;11:589–92.

49. Mason KP, Lerman J. Review article: dexmedetomidine in children—current knowledge and future applications. Anesth Analg 2011;113:1129–42.

50. Potts AL, Warman GR, Anderson BJ. Dexmedetomidine disposition in children: a population analysis. Paediatr Anaesth 2008;18:722–30.

51. Potts AL, Anderson BJ, Warman GR, et al. Dexmedetomidine pharmacokinetics in pediatric intensive care – a pooled analysis. Paediatr Anaesth 2009;19:1119–29.

52. Hammer GB, Philip BM, Schroeder AR, et al. Prolonged infusion of dexmedetomidine for sedation following tracheal resection. Pediatric Anesthesia, 2005;15: 616–20.

53. Eggum R, Ueland T, Mollnes TE, et al. Effect of perfusion temperature on the inflammatory response during pediatric cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2008;85:611–7.

54. Marianeschi SM, Seddio F, McElhinney DB et al. Fast-track congenital heart operations: a less invasive technique and early extubation. Ann Thorac Surg 2000; 69:872–6.

55. Ali Aydemir N, Harmandar B, Karaci AR, et al. Randomized comparison between mild and moderate hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass for neonatal arterial switch operation.Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2012;41:581–6.

56. Imoto Y, Kado H, Shiokawa Y, et al. Experience with the Norwood procedure without circulatory arrest. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2001;122:879–82.

57. Redlin M, Habazettl H, Boettcher W, et al. Effects of a comprehensive blood-sparing approach using body weight-adjusted miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass circuits on transfusion requirements in pediatric cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012;144:493–9.

58. Kubicki R, Grohmann J, Siepe M, et al. Early prediction of capillary leak syndrome in infants after cardiopulmonary bypass. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2013;44:275–81.

59. Algra SO, Kornmann VN, van der Tweel I, et al. Increasing duration of circulatory arrest, but not antegrade cerebral perfusion, prolongs postoperative recovery after neonatal cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012;143:375–82.

60. Holmes JH 4th, Connolly NC, Paull DL, et al. Magnitude of the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass and its relation to adverse clinical outcomes. Inflamm Res 2002;51:579–86.

61. Nakanishi K, Matsushita S, Kawasaki S, et al. Safety advantage of modified minimally invasive cardiac surgery for pediatric patients. Pediatr Cardiol 2013;34:525–9.

62. Bacha E, Kalfa D. Minimally invasive paediatric cardiac surgery. Nat Rev Cardiol 2014;11:24–34.

63. Gundry SR, Shattuck OH, Razzouk AJ et al. Facile minimally invasive cardiac surgery via ministernotomy. Ann Thorac Surg 1998; 65:1100–4.

64. Lin K, Zhu D, Tao K, et al. Minimally invasive perventricular device closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect without cardiopulmonary bypass: multicenter experience and mid-term follow-up. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2013;82:E225–32.

65. Nguyen K, Chin C, Lee DS, et al. The axillary incision: a cosmetic approach in congenital cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007;134:1358–60.

66. Karamlou T, Schultz JM, Silliman C, et al. Using a miniaturized circuit and an asanguineous prime to reduce neutrophil-mediated organ dysfunction following infant cardiopulmonary bypass. Ann Thorac Surg 2005;80:6–13.

67. Chen L, Hao J, Ma RY, et al. The application of on-pump beating-heart surgery for partial atrioventricular septal defect: a report of 87 cases. Heart Surg Forum 2013;16:E257–63.

68. Karaci AR, Sasmazel A, Aydemir NA, et al. Comparison of parameters for detection of splanchnic hypoxia in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass with pulsatile versus nonpulsatile normothermia or hypothermia during congenital heart surgeries. Artif Organs 2011;35:1010–7.

69. Turek JW, Hanfland RA, Davenport TL, et al. Norwood reconstruction using continuous coronary perfusion: a safe and translatable technique. Ann Thorac Surg 2013;96:219–23.

70. Mahmoud AB, Burhani MS, Hannef AA, et al. Effect of modified ultrafiltration on pulmonary function after cardiopulmonary bypass. Chest 2005;128:3447–53.

71. Ricci Z, Polito A, Netto R, et al. Assessment of modified ultrafiltration hemodynamic impact by pressure recording analytical method during pediatric cardiac surgery. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2013;14:390–5.

72. Naik SK, Knight A, Elliott M: A prospective randomized study of a modified technique of ultrafiltration during pediatric open-heart surgery. Circulation 1991;84:422–31.

73. Dodgen AL, Dodgen AC, Swearingen CJ, et al. Characteristics and hemodynamic effects of extubation failure in children undergoing complete repair for tetralogy of Fallot. Pediatr cardiol 2013;34:1455–62.

74. Gupta P, McDonald R, Gossett JM, et al. A single-center experience of extubation failure in infants undergoing the Norwood operation. Ann Thorac Surg 2012;94:1262–8.

75. Peterson K, DeCampli WM, Pike NA, et al. A report of two hundred twenty cases of regional anesthesia in pediatric cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 2000;90:1014–9.

76. Vricella LA, Dearani JA, Gundry SR, et al. Ultra fast track in elective congenital cardiac surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2000;69:865–71.

77. Thiagarajan RR, Bratton SL, Martin LD, et al. Predictors of successful extubation in children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160:1562–6.

78. Venkataraman ST, Khan N, Brown A. Validation of predictors of extubation success and failure in mechanically ventilated infants and children. Crit Care Med 2000;28:2991–6.

79. Shi S, Zhao Z, Liu X, et al. Perioperative risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation following cardiac surgery in neonates and young infants. Chest 2008;134:768–74.

80. Bandla HP, Hopkins RL, Beckerman RC, Gozal D. Pulmonary risk factors compromising postoperative recovery after surgical repair for congenital heart disease. Chest 1999;116:740–7.

81. Tóth R, Szántó P, Prodán Z, et al. Down syndrome and postoperative complications after paediatric cardiac surgery: a propensity-matched analysis. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2013;17:691–7.

82. Hamilton BC, Honjo O, Alghamdi AA, et al. Efficacy of evolving early-extubation strategy on early postoperative functional recovery in pediatric open-heart surgery: a matched case-control study. Semin Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2014;18:290–6.

83. Lofland GK. The enhancement of hemodynamic performance in Fontan circulation using pain free spontaneous ventilation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2001; 20:114–8.

84. Kurihara Y, Shime N, Miyazaki T, et al. Clinical and hemodynamic factors associated with the outcome of early extubation attempts after right heart bypass surgery. Int Cardiovas ThoracSurg;2009;8:624–8.

85. Schuller JL, Sebel PS, Bovill JG, and Marcelletti C. Early extubation after Fontan operation. A clinical report. Br J Anaesth 1980;52:999–1004.

86. Li J, Hoskote A, Hickey C, et al. Effect of carbon dioxide on systemic oxygenation, oxygen consumption, and blood lactate levels after bi-directional superior cavopulmonary anastomosis. Crit Care Med 2005;33:984–9.

87. Fogel MA, Durning S, Wernovsky G, et al. Brain versus lung: hierarchy of feedback loops in single-ventricle patients with superior cavopulmonary connection. Circulation 2004;110:II147–52.

88. Bradley SM, Simsic JM, Mulvihill DM. Hypoventilation improves oxygenation after bi-directional superior cavopulmonary connection. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003;126:1033–9.

89. Hoskote A, Li J, Hickey C, et al. The effects of carbon dioxide on oxygenation and systemic, cerebral, and pulmonary vascular hemodynamics after the bi-directional superior cavopulmonary anastomosis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:1501–9.

90. DiNardo JA. Con: Extubation in the operating room following pediatric cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2011;25:874–6.

91. Cheng DCH, Wall C, Djaiani G, et al. Randomized assessment of resource use in fast-track cardiac surgery 1-year after hospital discharge. Anesthesiology 2003;98:651–7.

92. Myles PS, Daly DJ, Djaiani G, et al. A systemic review of the safety and effectiveness of fast-track cardiac anesthesia. Anesthesiology 2003;99:982–7.

93. Cheng DC, Karski J, Pensiton C, et al. Early tracheal extubation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery reduces costs and improves resource use: A prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Anesthesiology 1996;85:1300–10.

94. Lawrence EJ, Nguyen K, Morris SA, et al. Economic and safety implications of introducing fast tracking in congenital heart surgery. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2013;6:201–7.

95. van Mastrigt GA, Maessen JG, Heijmans J, et al. Does fast-track treatment lead to a decrease of intensive care unit and hospital length of stay in coronary artery bypass patients? A meta-regression of randomized clinical trials. Crit Care Med 2006;34:1624–34.

96. Mittnacht AJ. Pro: early extubation following surgery for congenital heart disease. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2011; 25:874–6.

97. Iodice FG, Thomas M, Walker I, et al. Analgesia in fast-track paediatric cardiac patients Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2011; 40:610–3.

98. United Stated Food and Drug Administration. Available at: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2010/022450lbl.pdf (accessed 24 March, 2014).

99. Cattabriga I, Pacini D, Lamazza G, et al. Intravenous paracetamol as adjunctive treatment for postoperative pain after cardiac surgery: A double blind randomized controlled trial. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2007;32:527–31.

100. Gupta A, Daggett C, Drant S, et al. Prospective randomized trial of ketorolac after congenital heart surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2004;18:454–7.

101. Chrysostomou C, Di Filippo S, Manrique AM, et al. Use of dexmedetomidine in children after cardiac and thoracic surgery. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2006;7:126–31.

102. Chrysostomou C, Sanchez De Toledo J, Avolio T, et al. Dexmedetomidine use in a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit: can we use it in infants after cardiac surgery? Pediatr Crit Care Med 2009;10:654–60.

103. Sasaki T, Nemoto S, Ozawa H, et al. Planned sedation with dexmedetomidine hydrochloride after pediatric cardiac surgery; an institutional experience. Kyobu Geka 2009;62:101–5.

104. Phan H, Nahata MC. Clinical uses of dexmedetomidine in pediatric patients. Paediatr Drugs 2008;10:49–69.

105. Steven JM, McGowan Jr FX. Neuraxial blockade for pediatric cardiac surgery: Lessons yet to be learned. Anesth Analg 2000;90:1011–3.

106. Bösenberg A. Neuraxial blockade and cardiac surgery in children. Pediatric Anesthesia 2003; 13:559–60.

107. Walker SM, Yaksh TL. Neuraxial analgesia in neonates and infants: a review of clinical and preclinical strategies for the development of safety and efficacy data. Anesth Analg 2012;115:638–62.

108. Maitra S, Baidya DK, Pawar DK, et al. Epidural anesthesia and analgesia in the neonate: a review of current evidences. J Anesth 2014;28:768–79.

109. Rojas-Perez E, Castillo-Zamora C, Nava-Ocampo AA. A randomized trial of caudal block with bupivacaine 4 mg/kg (1.8 ml/kg) plus morphine (150 mcg/kg) vs general anaesthesia with fentanyl for cardiac surgery. Paediatr Anaesth 2003; 13:311–7.

110. Bailey BL, Rhondeau S, Schafer PG, et al. Dose-response pharmacology of intrathecal morphine in human volunteers. Anesthesiology 1993; 79:49–59

111. Stoelting RK. Intrathecal morphine – An under used combination for postoperative pain management. Anaesth Analg 1989;68:707–9.

112. Rosen KR, Rosen DA. Caudal epidural morphine for control of pain following open heart surgery in children. Anesthesiology 1989;70:418–21.

113. Rowney DA, Doyle E. Epidural and subarachnoid blockade in children. Anaesthesia 1998; 53:980–1001.

114. Hammer GB, Ramamoorthy C, Cao H, et al. Postoperative analgesia after spinal blockade in infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 2005;100:1283–8.

115. Jones SEF, Beasley JM, Macfarlane DWR, et al. Intrathecal morphine for postoperative pain relief in children. Br J Anaesth, 1984; 56:137–40.

116. Teyin E, Derbent A, Balcioglu T, Cokmez B. The efficacy of caudal morphine or bupivacaine combined with general anesthesia on postoperative pain and neuroendocrine stress response in children. Paediatr Anaesth 2006;16:290–6.

117. Kirnφ K, Friberg P, Grzegorczyk A, et al. Thoracic epidural anesthesia during coronary artery bypass surgery: effects on cardiac sympathetic activity, myocardial blood flow and metabolism, and central hemodynamics. Anesth Analg 1994;79:1075–81.

118. Moore CM, Cross MH, Desborough JP, et al. Hormonal effects of thoracic extradural analgesia for cardiac surgery. Br J Anaesth 1995; 75:387–93.

119. Tenenbein PK, Debrouwere R, Maguire D, et al. Thoracic epidural analgesia improves pulmonary function in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Can J Anaesth 2008;55:344–50.

120. Leyvi G, Taylor DG, Reith E, et al. Caudal anesthesia in pediatric cardiac surgery: Does it affect outcome? J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2005;19:734–8.

121. Finkel JC, Boltz MG, Conran AM, et al. Hemodynamic changes during spinal anesthesia in children undergoing open heart surgery Paediatr Anaesth 2003;13:48–52.

122. Lee JJ, Rubin AP. Comparison of a bupivacaine-clonidine mixture with plain bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in children. Br J Anaesth 1994; 72:258–62.

123. Ivani G, De Negri P, Conio A, et al. Ropivacaine-clonidine combination for caudal blockade in children. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2000; 44:446–9.

124. De Negri P, Ivani G, Visconti C, et al. The dose-response relationship for clonidine added to a postoperative continuous epidural infusion of ropivacaine in children. Anesth Analg 2001; 93:71–6.

125. Nasr DA, Abdelhamid HM. The efficacy of caudal dexmedetomidine on stress response and postoperative pain in pediatric cardiac surgery. Ann Card Anaesth 2013;16:109–14.

126. Singh R, Kumar N, Singh P. Randomized controlled trial comparing morphine or clonidine with bupivacaine for caudal analgesia in children undergoing upper abdominal surgery. Br J Anaesth 2011;106:96–100.

127. Naguib M, Sharif A, Seraj M, et al. Ketamine for caudal analgesia in children: comparison with caudal bupivacaine. Br J Anaesth 1991; 67:559–64.

128. Cook B, Grubb DJ, Aldridge LA, Doyle E. Comparison of the effects of adrenaline, clonidine and ketamine on the duration of caudal analgesia produced by bupivacaine in children. Br J Anaesth 1995;75:698–701.

129. Birbicer H, Doruk N, Cinel I, et al. Could adding magnesium as adjuvant to ropivacaine in caudal anaesthesia improve postoperative pain control? Pediatr Surg Int 2007;23:195–8.

130. Atallah MMM, Saber HI, Mageed NA, et al. Feasibility of adding magnesium to intrathecal fentanyl in pediatric cardiac surgery. Egypt J Anaesth 2011;27:173–80.

131. Bilir A, Gulec S, Erkan A, Ozcelik A. Epidural magnesium reduces postoperative analgesic requirement. Br J Anaesth 2007;98:519–23.

132. Buvanendran A, McCarthy RJ, Kroin JS, et al. Intrathecal magnesium prolongs fentanyl analgesia: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Anesth Analg 2002;95:661–6.

133. Schnabel A, Poepping DM, Pogatzki-Zahn EM, Zahn PK. Efficacy and safety of clonidine as additive for caudal regional anaesthesia: a quantitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Paediatr Anaesth 2011;21:1219–30.

134. Schnabel A, Poepping DM, Kranke P, et al. Efficacy and adverse effects of ketamine as an additive for paediatric caudal anaesthesia: a quantitative systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Br J Anaesth 2011;107:601–11.

135. Rosen DA, Rosen KR, Hammer GB. Pro: Regional anesthesia is an important component of the anesthetic technique for pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2002; 16:374–8.

136. Humphreys N, Bays SM, Parry AJ, et al. Spinal anesthesia with an indwelling catheter reduces the stress response in pediatric open heart surgery. Anesthesiology 2005; 103:1113–20.

137. Hammer GB, Ngo K, Macario A. A retrospective examination of regional plus general anesthesia in children undergoing open heart surgery. Anesth Analg 2000;90:1020–4.

138. Baidya DK, Pawar DK, Dehran M, Gupta AK. Advancement of epidural catheter from lumbar to thoracic space in children: Comparison between 18G and 23Gcatheters. J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol 2012;28:21–7.

139. Shayevitz JR, Merkel S, O’Kelly SW, et al. Lumbar epidural morphine infusions for children undergoing cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth1996; 10:217–24.

140. Bosenberg AT, Bland AR, Schulte-Steinberg O, Downing JW. Thoracic epidural anesthesia via caudal route in infants. Anesthesiology 1988;69:265–9.

141. Tsui BC, Wagner A, Cave D, Kearney R. Thoracic and lumbar epidural analgesia via the caudal approach using electrical stimulation guidance in pediatric patients: a review of 289 patients. Anesthesiology 2004; 100:683–9.

142. Blanco D, Llamazares J, Rincon R, et al. Thoracic epidural anesthesia via the lumbar approach in infants and children. Anesthesiology 1996;84:1312–6.

143. Gunter JB, Eng CE. Thoracic epidural anesthesia via the caudal approach in children. Anesthesiology 1992; 76:935–8.

144. Suominen PK, Ragg PG, McKinley DF, et al. Intrathecal morphine provides effective and safe analgesia in children after cardiac surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2004;48:875–82.

145. Stuth EA, Berens RJ, Staudt SR, et al. The effect of caudal vs intravenous morphine on early extubation and postoperative analgesic requirements for stage 2 and 3 single-ventricle palliation: a double blind randomized trial. Paediatr Anaesth 2011;21:441–53.

146. Beattie WS, Badner NH, Choi P: Epidural analgesia reduces postoperative myocardial infarction: A meta-analysis. Anesth Analg 2001;93:853.

147. Royse C, Royse A, Soeding P, et al. Prospective randomized trial of high thoracic epidural analgesia for coronary artery bypass surgery. Ann Thorac Surg 2003;75:93–100.

148. Caputo M, Alwair H, Rogers CA, et al. Thoracic epidural Anesthesia improves early outcomes in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. Anesthesiology 2011; 114:380–90.

149. Hansdottir V, Philip J, Olsen MF, et al. Thoracic epidural versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia after cardiac surgery. Anesthesiology 2006;104:142–51.

150. Salvi L, Parolari A, Veglia F, et al. High thoracic epidural anesthesia in coronary artery bypass surgery: A propensity-matched study. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2007;21:810–5.

151. Priestley MC, Cope L, Halliwell R, et al. Thoracic epidural anesthesia for cardiac surgery: The effect on tracheal intubation time and length of hospital stay. Anesth Analg 2002;94:275–82.

152. Bowler I, Djaiani G, Abel R, et al. A combination of intrathecal morphine and remifentanil anesthesia for fast-track cardiac anesthesia and surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2002;16:709–14.

153. Scott NB, Turfrey DJ, Ray DAA, et al. A prospective randomized study of the potential benefits of thoracic epidural anesthesia and analgesia in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Anesth Analg 2001; 93:528–35.

154. Somri M, Matter I, Parisinos CA, et al. The effect of combined spinal-epidural anesthesia versus general anesthesia on the recovery time of intestinal function in young infants undergoing intestinal surgery: a randomized, prospective, controlled trial. J Clin Anesth 2012;24:439–45.

155. Liu SS, Block BM, Wu CL: Effects of perioperative central neuraxial analgesia on outcome after coronary artery bypass surgery. Svircevic V, Passier MM, Nierich AP, van Dijk D, Kalkman CJ, van der Heijden GJ. Epidural analgesia for cardiac surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;6:CD006715.

156. Bracco D, Noiseux N, Ddubois MJ, et al. Epidural anesthesia improves outcome and resource use in cardiac surgery: a single-center study of 1293-patient cohort. Heart Surg Forum 2007;10:E449–458artery bypass surgery: A meta-analysis. Anesthesiology 2004;101:153.

157. Tenebein PK, Debrouwere R, Maguire D. Thoracic epidural analgesia improves pulmonary function in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Can J Anaesth 2008;55:344–50.

158. Svircevic V, Nierich AP, Moons KG, et al. Thoracic epidural anesthesia for cardiac surgery: a randomized trial. Anesthesiology 2011;114:262–70.

159. Svircevic V, Passier MM, Nierich AP, et al. Epidural analgesia for cardiac surgery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013;6:CD006715.

160. Hansodottir V, Philop J, Olsen MF, et al. Thoracic epidural versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia after cardiac surgery. Anesthesiology 2006;104:142–51.

161. Zangrillo A, Bignami E, Biondi-Zoccai GLL, et al. Spinal Analgesia in cardiac surgery: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2009;23:813–21.

162. Salvi L, Parolari A, Veglia F, et al. High thoracic epidural anesthesia in coronary artery bypass surgery: A propensity-matched study. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2007;21:810–5.

163. Pirat A, Akpek E, Arslan G. Intrathecal versus IV fentanyl in pediatric cardiac anesthesia. Anesth Analg 2002; 95:1207–14.

164. Kessler P, Aybek T, Neidhart G, et al. Comparison of three anesthetic techniques for off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting: General anesthesia, combined general and high thoracic epidural anesthesia, or high thoracic anesthesia alone. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2005;19:32–9.

165. Bakhtiary F, Therapidis P, Dzemali O, et al. Impact of high thoracic epidural anesthesia on incidence of perioperative atrial fibrillation in off-pump coronary bypass grafting: a prospective randomized study. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2007;134:460–4.

166. Berendes E, Schmidt C, Van Aken H, et al. Reversible cardiac sympathectomy by high thoracic epidural anesthesia improves regional left ventricular function in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: A randomized trial. Arch Surg 2003;138:1283–90.

167. Crescenzi G, Landoni G, Monaco F, et al. Epidural anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2009;23:807–12.

168. Barrington MJ, Kluger R, Watson R, et al. Epidural anesthesia for coronary artery bypass surgery compared with general anesthesia alone does not reduce biochemical markers of myocardial damage. Anesth Analg 2005;100:921–8.

169. Lee TW, Grocott HP, Schwinn D, et al. High spinal anesthesia for cardiac surgery: Effects on beta-adrenergic receptor function, stress response, and hemodynamics. Anesthesiology 2003;98:499–510.

170. Meissner A, Rolf N, Van Aken H: Thoracic epidural anesthesia and the patient with heart disease: Benefits, risks, and controversies. Anesth Analg 1997;85:517–28.

171. Liem TH, Booij LH, Hasenbos MA, et al. Coronary artery bypass grafting using two different anesthetic techniques. Part I. Hemodynamic results. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1992;6:148–55.

172. Liem TH, Hasenbos MA, Booij LH, et al. Coronary artery bypass grafting using two different anesthetic techniques. Part II. Postoperative outcome. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1992;6:156–61.

173. Liem TH, Booij LH, Gielen MJ, et al. Coronary artery bypass grafting using two different anesthetic techniques. Part III. Adrenergic responses. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1992;6:162–67.

174. Oberlander TF, Berde CB, Lam KH, et al. Infants tolerate spinal anesthesia with minimal overall autonomic changes: analysis of heart rate variability in former premature infants undergoing hernia repair. Anesth Analg 1995;80:20–7.

175. Rose JB, Watcha MF. Postoperative nausea and vomiting in paediatric patients. Br J Anaesth 1999;83:104–17.

176. Jeon Y, Hwang J, Kang J, et al. Effects of epidural naloxone on pruritus induced by epidural morphine: a randomized controlled trial. Intern J Obstet Anesth 2005;14:22–5.

177. Sekiyama H. Dexmedetomidine suppresses morphine-induced scratching behavior and spinal c-Fos expression in mice. Anesthesiology 2006;105:A1458 (Abstract).

178. Liu X, Zhang J, Zhao H, et al. The effect of propofol on intrathecal morphine-induced pruritus and its mechanism.Anesth Analg 2014;118:303–9.

179. Hodgson PS, Neal JM, Pollock JE, Liu SS. The neurotoxicity of drugs given intrathecally (spinal). Anesth Analg 1999;88:797–9.

180. Horlocker TT, Wedel DJ, Rowlingson JC, et al . Executive Summary: Regional anesthesia in the patient receiving antithrombotic or thrombolytic therapy. American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine Evidence-Based Guidelines (Third Edition). Reg Anesth Pain Med 2010;35:102–5.

181. American Society of Regional Anesthesia. Available at: http://www.asra.com/publications-anticoagulation-3rd-edition-2010.php (accessed 5 April, 2014).

182. Weiner MM, Rosenblatt MA, Mittnacht AJ. Neuraxial anesthesia and timing of heparin administration in patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease using cardiopulmonary bypass. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2012; 26:581–4.

183. Rosen DA, Hawkinberry DW 2nd, Rosen KR, et al. An epidural hematoma in an adolescent patient after cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 2004;98:966–9.

184. Chaney MA. Intrathecal and epidural anesthesia and analgesia for cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 2006;102:45–64.

185. Chakravarthy M, Thimmangowda P, Krishnamurthy J, et al. Thoracic epidural anesthesia in cardiac surgical patients: A prospective audit of 2,113 cases. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2005;19:44–8.

186. Jack ES, Scott NB. The risk of vertebral canal complications in 2837 cardiac surgery patients with thoracic epidurals. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2006;51:722–5.

187. Royse CF, Soeding PF, Royse AG. High thoracic epidural analgesia for cardiac surgery: an audit of 874 cases. Anaesth Intensive Care 2007;35:374–7.

188. Pastor MC, Sanchez MJ, Casas MA, et al. Thoracic epidural analgesia in coronary artery bypass graft surgery: Seven years’ experience. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2003;17:154–59.

189. Bang J, Kim JU, Lee YM, et al. Spinal epidural hematoma related to an epidural catheter in a cardiac surgery patient: A case report. Korean J Anesthesiol 2011;61:524–7.

190. UK Medical Protection Society/Advice and publications/Case reports/Vol. 12 no. 3-August 2004/Epidural emergency. Available at: http://www.medicalprotection.org/uk/casebook/august2004/case-reports/epidural-emergency (accessed April 1, 2014).

191. UK Medical Protection Society/Advice and publications/Case reports/Vol. 18 no. 3-September 2010/A bloody epidural. Available at: http://www.medicalprotection.org/uk/case-reports-september-2010/a-bloody-epidural (accessed April 1, 2014).

192. Horlocker TT, Abel MD, Messick JM Jr, Schroeder DR. Small risk of serious neurologic complications related to lumbar epidural catheter placement in anesthetized patients. Anesth Analg 2003; 96:1547–52.

193. Chakravarthy M, Jawali V, Patil TA, et al. High thoracic epidural anesthesia as the sole anesthetic for performing multiple grafts in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2003;17:160–64.

194. Kessler P, Neidhart G, Bremerich DH, et al. High thoracic epidural anesthesia for coronary artery bypass grafting using two different surgical approaches in conscious patients. Anesth Analg 2002;95:791–97.

195. Meininger D, Neidhart G, Bremerich DH, et al. Coronary artery bypass grafting via sternotomy in conscious patients. World J Surg 2003;27:534–8.

196. Karagoz HY, Kurtoglu M, Bakkaloglu B, et al. Coronary artery bypass grafting in the awake patient: Three years’ experience in 137 patients. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2003;125:1401–4.

197. Bracco D, Hemmerling T. Epidural analgesia in cardiac surgery: an updated risk assessment. Heart Surg Forum 2007;10:E334–7.

198. Hemmerling TM, Cyr S, Terrasini N. Epidural catheterization in cardiac surgery: The 2012 risk assessment. Ann Card Anaesth 2013;16:169–77.

199. Ho AM, Chung DC, Joynt GM. Neuraxial blockade and hematoma in cardiac surgery: Estimating the risk of a rare adverse event that has not (yet) occurred. Chest 2000;117:551–5.

200. Tailor J, Dunn IF, Smith E. Conservative treatment of spontaneous epidural hematoma associated with oral anticoagulant in a child. Childs Nrev Syst 2006;22:1643–5.

201. Schoonjans AS, De Dooy J, Kenis S, et al. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma in infancy: review of the literature and the "seventh" case report. Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2013;17:537–42.

202. Meyer MJ, Krane EJ, Goldschneider KR, Klein NJ. Case report: neurological complications associated with epidural analgesia in children: a report of 4 cases of ambiguous etiologies. Anesth Analg 2012;115:1365–70.

203. Polaner DM, Taenzer AH, Walker BJ, et a. Pediatric regional anesthesia network (PRAN): a multi-institutional study of the use and incidence of complications of pediatric regional anesthesia. Anesth Analg 2012;115:1353–64.

204. Berde C, Greco C. Pediatric regional anesthesia: Drawing inferences on safety from prospective registries and case reports. Anesth Analg 2012;115:1259–62.

205. Ecoffey C, Lacroix F, Giaufré E, Orliaguet G, Courrèges P; Association des Anesthésistes Réanimateurs Pédiatriques d'Expression Française (ADARPEF). Epidemiology and morbidity of regional anesthesia in children: a follow-up one-year prospective survey of the French-Language Society of Paediatric Anaesthesiologists (ADARPEF). Paediatr Anaesth 2010;20:1061–9.

206. Llewellyn N, Moriarty A. The national pediatric epidural audit. Paediatr Anaesth 2007;17:520–33.

207. Backer CL, Stewart RD, Kelle AM, Mavroudis C. Use of partial cardiopulmonary bypass for coarctation repair through a left thoracotomy in children without collaterals. Ann Thorac Surg 2006;82:964–72.

208. Karmakar M, Booker P, Franks R, Pozzi M. Continuous extrapleural paravertebral infusion of bupivacaine for post-thoracotomy analgesia in young infants. Br J Anaesthesia 1996;76:811–5.

209. Eng J, Sabanathan S. Continuous paravertebral block for postthroacotomy analgesia in children. J Pediatr Surg 1992; 26:556–7.

210. Semsroth M, Plattner O, Horcher E. Effective pain relief with continuous interpleural bupivacaine after thoracotomy in infants and children. Pediatric Anesthesia 1996;6 303–10.

211. Tobias JD. Application of interpleural analgesia in the pediatric population. Am J Anesth 1999; 26:75–80.

212. Tirotta CF, Munro HM, Salvaggio J, et al. Continuous incisional infusion of local anesthetic in pediatric patients following open heart surgery. Pediatric Anesthesia 2009;19:571–6.

213. Chaudhary V, Chauhan S, Choudhury M, et al. Parasternal intercostal block with ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2012;26:439–42.

214. Hall Burton DM, Boretsky KR. A comparison of paravertebral nerve block catheters and thoracic epidural catheters for postoperative analgesia following the Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum repair. Paediatr Anaesth 2014;24:516–20.

215. El-Morsy GZ, El-Deeb A, El-Desouky T, et al. Can thoracic paravertebral block replace thoracic epidural block in pediatric cardiac surgery? A randomized blinded study. Ann Card Anaesth 2012;15:259–63.

216. Davies R, Myles P, Graham J. A comparison of the analgesic efficacy and side-effects of paravertebral vs epidural blockade for thoracotomy – a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Br J Anaesthesia 2006;96:418–26.

217. Boezaart AP, Lucas SD, Elliott CE. Paravertebral block: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral. Current Opinion in Anesthesiology 2009;22:637–43.

218. Lake CL. Fast tracking the paediatric cardiac surgical patient. Pediatric Anesthesia 2000;10:231–6.

219. Burrows FA, Tayler RH, Hillier SC. Early extubation of the trachea after repair of secundum-type atrial septal defects in children. Can J Anaesth 1992;39:1041–4.

220. Manrique AM, Feingold B, Di Filippo S, et al. Extubation after cardiothoracic surgery in neonates, children, and young adults: one year of institutional experience. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2007;8:552–5.

Directory: legacy -> college
college -> Chapter sm 1 Heat Exchangers for Heating Applications
college -> Appendix recalling a personal best leadership experience
college -> Emotions: thoughts about feelings
college -> Texas in the Progressive Era, 1900-1929
college -> 1. Carbon dating is a technique used to determine the ages of carbon-containing objects that obtain their carbon from contemporary plants. It’s based on a radioactive isotope of carbon, 14C (carbon–14)
college -> Case Notes Schermerhorn/Management 8e Case 1: Apple Computer, Inc.: People and Design Create Apple’s Future
college -> Case study 2 mindset: a mobile Health (mHealth) Management Information Decision-Support Epilepsy Tool Ross Shegog and Charles Begley University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health Acknowledgement
college -> Acknowledgments and Additional Information
college -> Chapter 13 Exercises
college -> -

Download 124.15 Kb.

Share with your friends:

The database is protected by copyright ©ininet.org 2022
send message

    Main page