Real-World Application: Teachers as Promoters of Emotional Competence
WHEN EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOES WRONG
Insights from Extremes: When Children Commit Suicide
Causes of Childhood Depression
Treating Childhood Depression
At the Movies
Define what emotions are, specifically primary and secondary emotions.
Explain why emotions are important.
Understand the different perspectives on emotional development (biological, learning, functional).
Describe the development of primary and secondary emotions.
Explain the difference between reflex and social smiles. Define Duchenne smile and explain when it is more likely to be displayed.
Describe stranger distress or fear of strangers, when in development it emerges, and what factors might affect its display.
Explain what social referencing is and the role it plays in emotional development.
Describe other common fears (e.g., separation anxiety, fear of heights) and explain how cognitive development contributes to fear.
Discuss the development of secondary emotions. Give examples and trace the development of a secondary emotion
Describe individual differences in emotional expressiveness.
Explain why recognizing others’ emotion is important and how it develops.
Define emotional script and describe the development of emotional scripts.
Describe how the understanding of multiple emotions and causes develops.
Define emotion regulation, explain how it develops and its significance for development of social competence
Describe the model of emotional socialization.
Describe how parents, other children, and teachers contribute to the socialization of emotion.
Discuss childhood depression including incidence, differences across gender, and links to suicide.
Understand the biological, cognitive and social causes of depression.
Describe cognitive behavior therapy for treating depression.
Student Handout 5-1
Why Are Emotions Important?
Children communicate their feelings, needs, and wishes to others and regulate other people’s behavior through emotional expressions.
Primary and Secondary Emotions
Biological, learning, and functional theories explain different aspects of emotional development.
Babies begin expressing primary emotions of anger, joy, fear, and sadness early in life.
Smiling begins with the newborn’s reflex smile, which depends on the baby’s internal state. Social smiles appear between 3 and 8 weeks. By 12 weeks, infants smile selectively at familiar faces and voices, depending on the situation. By 4 months, infants begin to laugh. Both laughter and smiling express joy and play a critical role in maintaining the proximity of the caregiver to the baby.
Fear emerges gradually in the first year. Babies tend to be less fearful in a familiar setting and when they feel as if they have some control over the situation. Social referencing helps them know how to behave in unfamiliar situations.
In the second year, children develop secondary or self-conscious emotions such as pride, shame, guilt, jealousy, and empathy. These emotions rely on the development of self-awareness.
Individual Differences in Emotional Expressiveness
Differences in emotional expressiveness are rooted in biology and have important implications for children’s later adjustment.
Development of Emotional Understanding
In the first 6 months of life, infants begin to recognize emotional expressions in other people. They typically recognize positive emotions before negative ones, which has functional value because it strengthens the infants’ bond with caregivers.
As children mature, they develop an understanding of emotion terms. Emotional scripts help them identify the feelings that typically accompany particular situations. They learn that people can experience more than one emotion at a time and two emotions may conflict.
A major challenge for children is to learn how to modify, control, and regulate emotions so they are less frequent and less intense.
By the preschool years, children begin to follow emotional display rules that dictate which emotions to show under what circumstances. Culture affects these rules, and the display of such emotions as anger and shame may be sanctioned in one culture but disapproved of in another.
Socialization of Emotion
Parents influence children’s emotional expressions, understanding, and regulation. They serve as models for emotional displays and by reacting to the child’s emotional expressions encourage or discourage such displays. Children whose parents serve as coaches in helping them understand and manage their emotions are better able to handle emotional upset on their own and are more accepted by their peers. Belittling or dismissing children’s emotions or punishing children for their expression may prevent children from learning how to manage their own feelings and understand other people’s emotions.
Peers and teachers also play a role in the socialization of children’s emotions.
When Emotional Development Goes Wrong
Children sometimes experience extreme anger, fear, phobias, anxiety, or depression.
The prevalence of depression increases in adolescence and is higher in girls than boys. In extreme cases, suicide sometimes occurs, especially among some minority groups.
Biological, social, and cognitive factors are all potential contributors to the development of depression. Medications, cognitive therapy, and prevention programs are ways of treating child and adolescent depression.
Student Handout 5-2
A mood disorder often manifested in despondent mood and loss of interest in familiar activities but possibly expressed as irritability and crankiness and difficulty concentrating or focusing on tasks.
cognitive behavior therapy
A therapy technique useful for treating depression in adolescents that teaches strategies for dealing with depressive moods and acquiring a more positive outlook.
A smile reflecting genuine pleasure, shown in crinkles around the eyes as well as an upturned mouth.
The managing, monitoring, evaluating, and modifying of emotional reactions to reduce the intensity and duration of emotional arousal.
emotional display rule
An implicit understanding in a culture of how and when an emotion should be expressed.
A scheme that enables a child to identify the emotional reaction likely to accompany a particular event.
A shared emotional response that parallels another person’s feelings.
A feeling that results from the belief that one cannot control the events in one’s world.
Fear, joy, disgust, surprise, sadness, and interest, which emerge early in life and do not require introspection or self-reflection.
An upturned mouth seen in the newborn that is usually spontaneous and appears to depend on some internal stimulus rather than on something external such as another person’s behavior.
secondary or self-conscious emotions
Pride, shame, guilt, jealousy, embarrassment, and empathy, which emerge in the second year of life and depend on a sense of self and the awareness of other people’s reactions.
Fear of being apart from the familiar caregiver (usually the mother or father) which typically peaks at about 15 months of age.
The process of “reading” emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in an uncertain situation.
Which of the following emotions typically emerges first: (a) pride (b) *sadness (c) jealousy (d) guilt
Secondary emotions: (a) emerge in infancy (b) do not require introspection to emerge (c) *depend on an awareness of others’ reactions (d) do not require a sense of self
Emotional expressions: (a) are culture specific (b) involve an objective reaction to something in the environment (c) *are generally accompanied by physiological arousal (d) are evident only in the second half of the first year
Babies smile more at familiar faces than unfamiliar ones at about: (a) 1 year (b) 9 months (c) 6 months (d) *3 months
The process of reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in an uncertain situation is called: (a) using emotional display rules (b) following an emotional script (c) experiencing empathy (d) *social referencing
40. By the time children are 3 years old, solving a problem that is not particularly difficult elicits ______, but succeeding on a difficult task produces ______: (a) joy, sadness (b) joy, anxiety (c) *joy, pride (d) joy, guilt
Cross-cultural research on the timetable of emotional recognition suggests that: (a) compared with children from the U.S., Japanese preschool children are faster at recognizing negative emotions (e.g., anger) and positive emotions (e.g., joy) (b) compared with children from the U.S., Japanese preschool children are faster at recognizing negative emotions (e.g., anger) (c) compared with children from the U.S., Japanese preschool children are faster at recognizing positive emotions (e.g., joy) (d) *children from different cultures follow a similar timetable for recognizing basic emotions
The process of monitoring, managing, and modifying emotional reactions to reduce the intensity and duration of emotional arousal is known as: (a) following an emotional script (b) expressing a secondary emotion (c) knowing emotional display rules (d) *emotional regulation
Compared with younger adults, older adults: (a) distort their memories to make them more emotionally gratifying (b) experience fewer negative emotions (c) are less likely to confront their emotions (d) *all of the above
If parents are positive and provide comfort when interacting with their children, the children are more likely to: (a) know how emotions should be displayed (b) develop constructive reactions to anger (c) regulate their emotions better (d) *all of the above
The PATHS Head Start curriculum designed to facilitate children’s emotional competence shows success at: (a) *increasing emotional vocabulary (b) reducing aggression and attention problems at home (c) increasing reading skills (d) a and b but not c
ESSAY QUESTIONS 1. How is emotional regulation expressed in infancy and in preschool?
2. Discuss the role of social referencing in social development and describe how it changes with development.
3. Give three reasons that emotions are important for children’s social development.