Perkins School for the Blind History
In 1826 a young Boston physician named John Dix Fisher had a dream: to create the first American school for the blind. Together with 39 prominent Bostonians, he founded the New England Asylum for the Blind -- The Perkins School of today.
Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe was the school's first director. In 1831, the School's name was changed to the Perkins Institute, after trustee Thomas Handasyd Perkins. The School was growing rapidly, aided by Howe's demonstrations of his students' skills. One of his most celebrated accomplishments was Laura Bridgman who, under Howe's care, became the first deaf-blind child to be educated successfully, a feat praised by Charles Dickens in his American notes.
After 45 years, Howe was succeeded by Michael Anagnos in 1876. While his accomplishments were many, including the first kindergarten for the blind, Anagnos' directorship is noted for two special people who were part of Perkins between 1888 and 1893: Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan.
Anne Sullivan, a Perkins graduate, met Helen in 1887. After only five weeks, she broke through the barriers of silence and sightlessness to teach Helen. In 1888, they arrived at Perkins. With the knowledge she gained here and at schools in New York City and Cambridge, Helen became the first deaf-blind person to receive a degree from Radcliffe.
The Perkins tradition of constant improvements and striving for excellence continued into the twentieth century. Dr. Edward Allen (1907-31) succeeded Anagnos as director. He moved the school to its present Watertown, Massachusetts location. Later, in cooperation with Harvard University, Dr. Allen helped establish the first program for teachers of the blind.
Dr. Gabriel Farrell (1926-51) was Perkins' fourth director. He combined the Lower and Boys & Girls Upper Schools into one and oversaw the establishment of the Deaf-Blind Department. He also helped develop a program at Boston University for teachers of the deaf-blind.
During the tenure of Dr. Edward Waterhouse (1951-71), Perkins began producing the Perkins Brailler, the invention of vocational teacher, David Abraham. Today, the Perkins Brailler, almost identical to the first one, is still produced on campus, and over 180,000 have been distributed world-wide. Perkins also received a Federal grant to operate the New England Regional Center for Deaf-Blind Children.
Benjamin Smith (1971-77) was the first visually impaired man to hold the director's office. He helped develop a career education program and a community residence plan, the first of its kind. The school also began serving a large number of multi-impaired students and clients while maintaining its academic program for high school students.
Under the leadership of Charles Woodcock (1977-1985) the charter was changed to allow the admission of students and clients with multiple disabilities other than blindness, although the revision was designed to assure priority to legally blind and deaf-blind children.
As Perkins has grown, its focus and services have also evolved. These services now extend beyond our campus and into the community, opening a larger world to all of our students and clients. Our present Director, Kevin J. Lessard, was appointed in 1985 and, with the support of the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, has expanded services nationally and internationally. Through sixty-one programs in the U.S. and thirty-four abroad, Perkins has helped thousands of children who are blind or deaf-blind.
Since 1829 Perkins School for the Blind has worked to meet the needs and challenges of our many students, clients and consumers, opening an ever larger world. This fine tradition will continue into the Twenty-First Century.
Perkins School for the Blind
Questions & Answers
Kenneth A. Stuckey 1. Q: What four ships built in the United States during World War II were named after persons associated with Perkiness?
A: Michael Anagnos, Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe, Julia Ward Howe, Laura Bridgman. The Michael Anagnos, a Liberty Ship was launched on September 15, 1944 at South Portland, Maine. "This honor to the second director of Perkins was in recognition of War Bond sales by the Greek Division. The new ship was presented to the Greek government and with a Greek crew assigned to carry supplies to that country. Three other Liberty ships have names associated with Perkins, the Samuel Gridley Howe, named for the first director, Julia Ward Howe, in honor of the wife of Dr. Howe and author of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic and Laura Bridgman ... " The first deaf-blind student at Perkins who taught by Dr. Howe. 2. Q: Who was the major person who started "Mother's Day"?
A: Julia Ward Howe.
Mothers weren't honored in the United States until about 100 years ago. In 1872 Julia Ward Howe tried to start a Mother's Day. She made speeches and wrote letters. She organized the American section of the Woman's International Peace Association. Mrs. Howe's devotion to this cause led her to establish the First Mother's Day as a day dedicated to world peace.
Penny Saver, May 1981
and Doers and Dreamers, Social Reformers of the Nineteenth Century by Lynn Deur, 1972.
3. Q: What is the height of the Perkins Tower?
A: 180 Ft.
The architectural style of the new buildings, where the limitations of cost have made it possible to express a style in any consistency, is English collegiate Gothic. The great extent of the buildings made it necessary to choose some particular portion which should be treated with more elaboration than the rest. This portion was naturally the main building whose central tower, 180 feet high, has been made the focus of all the architectural refinement. The tower itself is of concrete for the main portion, so treated that is indistinguishable in appearance from the concrete stone used for molded and other finished portions of the tower, buttresses, tracery and pinnacles.
Boston Weekly Transcript, Friday September 20, 1912.
4. Q: What has May Cottage to do with "Little Women"?
A: Named by Samuel May, Louisa May Alcott's great uncle.
May Cottage is named after Samuel May, long-time Perkins trustee (1834-1861) and president of the Perkins corporation (1861-1869). He was associated with Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe in establishing Perkins. His special interest was in the production of embossed books for the blind. His brother was the maternal grandfather of Louisa May Alcott, author of "Little Women", thus making him her great uncle. 5. Q: Who was the youngest Director of Perkins?
A: Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe (1801-1876)
Dr. Howe, who was born November 10, 1801 became director in 1831. We don't know the actual date except that by November 9, 1831 he was in Paris, France on school business. 6. Q: Can you name the cottages and other buildings named after former Perkins staff members?
A: Howe Building - Dr. Howe; Moulton Cottage - Miss Maria C. Moulton (house parent); Bennett Cottage - Miss Gazella Bennett (former principal of the Girls' School; Abraham Building (Howe Press machine shop) - designer of Perkins Brailler and former head the Industrial Arts Department; Farrell House (near the athletic field where Jack Gleason lives - Dr. Gabriel Farrell, 4th director of Perkins 1931-1951; Hemphill Building (Maintenance) - J. Stephenson Hemphill, former bursar (financial director); Hunt Cottage (house near Beechwood Ave. where Tom Miller lives) - Mary L. Hunt for many years house parent in Potter and Bridgman cottages and Samuel P. Hayes Research Library - Dr. Samuel Perkins Hayes, who pioneered in the development of psychological tests for the blind while at Perkins. These are the ones I know of, maybe you know of others. I listed only buildings and cottages; I did not include such places as the Allen Chapel in the Howe building named in memory of Dr. Edward Allen, third Perkins director (1907-1931). 7. Q: a. The stained glass window in the Allen Chapel is in memory of?
b. What does the window represent?
c. What is the central theme?
d. What do the side lancets or panels represent?
e. What is the meaning of the bottom panels?
f. What year was it put in?
A: a. Francis Henry Appleton, president of the Perkins Corporation 1899-1930 and his wife, Fannie Appleton. The gift is from his son, Francis H. Appleton, Jr. General Appleton often expressed the hope that the chapel could be completed with a stained glass windows.
b. "Light of the World"
c. "Christ the Light of the World"
d. On the right is a representation of "The Good Samaritan" and on the left an incident of the healing of blindness, as recorded in the bible, John IX, 6 "When he had thus spoken, he spat on the ground, and made clay of the spittle, and he anointed the eyes of the blind man with clay."
e. The small medallions symbolize the agricultural interests of Mr. Appleton. On the left is a cow with a farm building in the background, in the center a man sowing by hand, and on the right sheep with a farm building in the background.
f. Christmas of 1941, although I have heard but cannot find in record that it was installed later due to fears of damage in the, early day of World War II. "At this season that Light beams brightly from the halo of the Little Child of Bethlehem. Certainly there is a need of light, not only among the blind, but among all men". Director Gabriel Farrell. The window replaced a plain glass one that was destroyed by a hurricane a few years before. It was noted that the new window "In addition to adding beauty and dignity to the chapel, the richly stained glass will soften the strong light that now enters and is disturbing to the pupils' eyes". 8. Q: a. Who was the first teacher at Perkins, not including Dr. Howe?
b. Who was the first student?
c. Who was the first deaf-blind student?
A: a. Emile Trencheri and John Pringle. Both men were blind. Emile Trencheri who taught academic subjects was from the Institution des Jeunes Aveugles, Paris. John Pringle taught "mechanical" subjects as chair caning and handicrafts. He was from the school for the blind in Edinburgh, Scotland.
b. Sophia and Abigale Cater Two young sisters from Andover, MA.
c. Laura Bridgman She came in 1837 from Hanover, New Hampshire. 9. Q: a. Who was Blaisdell? What was the full name? When were they born? When did they die? What was their bequest to Perkins?
A: a. A former Perkins student (1844-1864) who remembered as a boy at Perkins often "wished he had money to spend as he wished, and determined that if he able he would make sure that the students of Perkins would have some money to spend at least once a year. He came to Perkins from Phippsburg, Maine on May 27, 1844. After he graduated from Perkins and later the Perkins workshop for blind adults, he first made a living tuning pianos and teaching music. Later he became a business man, selling or renting pianos and selling sewing machines. He never lost his interest in his school and often made visits. When he died he on November 6, 1901 at the age of 66, he left $10,000 in cash and real estate (much of the later in western lands) to Perkins. His bequest states: "They (the trustees of the estate) are to pay to each pupil of the Perkins Institution for the Blind and Kindergarten connected with the same, the sum of one dollar all or before the twelfth day of February of each year, the birth of Abraham Lincoln, and in commemoration of his freeing the slaves and preserving the Union, and this to be called the "Blaisdell Fund". If the amount warrant it, and the trustees deem it advisable I also direct that they pay II like sum to each of the said on or before the Fourth of July of each year." "If the trustees consider it best instead of the last payment they may pay to the graduates each year the sum of from tell to fifteen dollars". Since that time the students of Perkins have enjoyed their "Blaisdell Dollars" due to the wise investment by Perkins of Blaisdell's legacy. He is little known to those who visit the Cedar Grove Cemetery, where he was laid to rest but to countless Perkins students his name lives on. 10. Q: a. What is the name of the large hall in the Howe Building?
b. After whom is it named?
A: a. Dwight Hall
b. John Sullivan Dwight (1813-1893) He was born in Boston May 13, 1813. All of his active life he gave to the musical interests of Boston and extended his influence in the cultivation of this art far afield. In 1851 he founded his own music journal, Dwight's Journal of Music, which gave much attention to music therapy. He was very interested in promoting music in public schools. When he became a trustee of the Perkins Institution for the Blind in South Boston (1875-1893), he insisted the children have classical music in their education and compiled Braille books to make it possible. Dwight's work with the blind demonstrated his extensive commitment to special music education in the Boston community".
Darrow, Alice-Ann and others. MEH Bulletin, 1986, pp.20-38 For many years Dwight's and Dr. Howe's portraits hung in the old hall in South Boston. Three years before his death he presented the diplomas to eight graduates, addressing them in beautiful and expressive speech. Michael Anagnos said of him "He was more than a friend, and I revered him as I would a father." Next time you attend a Perkins musical function and listen to the choir take a moment to reflect on the person who did so much to set the standards of excellence, which even today over a hundred years after his death Perkins students still strive towards. I am sure he would be proud of their accomplishments. 11. Q: What important event in Perkins history took place 80 years ago? (the question was asked in 1992) Today, in 2014, it would have been 102 years ago.
A: The move to Watertown. All the educational programs in South Boston, where the school had been since 1839, moved to the new school which had been built in Watertown. The Lower School did not move until the following year. 12. Q: What famous aviator was associated with Perkins?
A: Amelia Earhart
"When a little Syrian boy from Denison House was blinded by the explosion of a kerosene heater, Amelia drove him to the famous Perkins Institute for the Blind on the outskirts of Boston for lessons three times a week. She became fascinated by the techniques employed by the teachers there, many of whom were blind themselves. Soon she was giving several hours a week of her scant free time as a volunteer reader and as assistant to the director of dramatics. Once she said "It takes so little to make those people forget their handicaps and troubles for a half hour. I can't teach the Braille, but I can make them laugh, and I know that's important, too." From Courage is the Price. The biography of Amelia Earhart by Muriel Earhart Morrissey (younger sister of Amelia Earhart). Pub. McCormick-Armstrong, Wichita, 1963. 13. Q: a. After who is the Lower School gym named? What did they do to deserve such an honor?
A: Jennie M. Colby Miss Colby , was a former Perkins student (1879-1883) who distinguished herself in physical training and corrective gymnastics. In her youth Miss Colby had entertained hopes of becoming a trained nurse but was prevented by lack of sight. Thwarted in her ambition she turned her attention to massage, just then engaging the attention of physicians. It is interesting to note that her first instructor was a blind man, Dr. Munroe, with whom she made a good start, with further development through work under Dr. Douglas Graham, greatest exponent of the profession in Boston. Later still she studied medical gymnastics with Baron Nils Poss, who believed in her, sent his pupils to her and helped her in every way. So expert did she become as a masseuse and in the therapeutics of medical gymnastics that she was acclaimed by the medical profession as an authority along those corrective lines, her best professional skill was devoted to the Children's Hospital.
Ann G. Fish, The Lantern, June 15 1935. 14. Q Which building is named after a Perkins director's wife?
A Anagnos Cottage named for Julia Romana Anagnos (1844-1886)
She was the wife of Perkins second director, Michael Anagnos and the eldest child of Perkins first director, Samuel Gridley Howe and Julia Ward Howe. Julia married Michael Anagnos (1837-1906) (full name Anagnostopoulos) in 1870. She died in 1886, a year before the Perkins kindergarten was opened by Anagnos. Julia and Michael had no children, although they both loved children.
15. Q: What major recycling project did Perkins students participate in just over 50 years ago? (question was asked in 1994)
A: Collection of materials for the war effort.
Mr. Smith, former director and Perkins Scoutmaster wrote that during World War II the Perkins scouts: "collected waste paper, cooking fat and old metal. Our boys built heavy carts in the shop under the direction of shop instructors. Mrs. Smith and I helped, using the school station wagon on weekends and after school. We collected in the corner of Glover & Bradlee cottages playground, by the window. It took two huge trucks to take it all away. About every three weeks we would send away fifteen tons of waste paper. Collecting fat was a very interesting project. We had housewives all over the neighborhood saving it for us in small cans, one, two, and three pound tins. We gathered it in our carts and dumped it into a huge drum placed in the corner of the Potter covered play-yard with a cover on it. About every three weeks a truck would take away the full drum and leave us another." 16. Q: a. How many bells are there in the Perkins Tower?
b. What are the bells names?
A: a. Eight
b. Treble: "ANGEL" May God Bless All, whom we do call.
2nd: "JOY" Break forth into joy, sing together.
3rd: "BLESSING" 0 ye light and darkness bless ye the Lord.
4th: "HONOUR" Sing ye to the Lord, sing forth the honour of His name.
5th: "GLORY" Arise, shine, for thy light is come.
6th: "FAITH" Send out thy light and thy truth; let them lead me.
7th: "HOPE" Lift up your hearts. We lift them up unto the Lord.
8th: "LOVE" Ring in the love of truth, ring in the common love of good. The Tower of the Howe building house a fine peal of bells presented by Mrs. Andrews C. Wheelwright, a descendant of Colonel Thomas H Perkins, after whom the school was renamed in 1839. The bells were made in the Whitechapel Bell Foundry (founded in 1570) in London. They were imported from England and installed in 1913, soon after the school came to Watertown. As is traditional in Europe, each bell has a name and text inscribed upon it. The original cost, without duty $4,831.84 cost, estimated in 1960 $11,901.92 17. Q: The Beacon Luncheonette (although not "officially" part of Perkins, the Beacon has been for many years part of Perkins Life). To many of us it is a home away from home, a place to eat and relax. Since this question was asked in 1995 the Beacon has again changed owners and name. On June 30, 1997 owners retired and the new owners (only know him as Vic) have since renamed it the Village Country Kitchen.
a. How long has it been the Beacon Luncheonette?
b. What is the owner's full name?
c. How old is the building?
d. What was the building before it became the Beacon? It has been more than one other business (not the small business to the right in the same building) e. Names of previous owners of business.
A: a. Since 1972
b. Evangelos Kiriazis. Now we know why he is called "Van" (It has taken me nearly 25 years to learn this, and as our good friend, Mr. Kiriazis says, "and for nearly 25 years Ken you have been ordering the same breakfast most Saturday mornings."
c. It was built in the 1920s.
d. George's Spa.
It was owned by George and Helen Soukeassian since 1927. At the time of they purchased it was an economy store, hair dresser and George's Spa (today it is a small business to the right of the Beacon). In 1945 George brought the building and started enlarging the building. The original George's Spa became a dry cleaner. After conversion, it reopened as "George' Super Spa" taking over the two other stores. It had a lunch counter, sold produce, meals and groceries as well as newspapers. In September 1948 there was a fire and the store was again renovated and reopened. It was known by all as George's, a great meeting place for the Perkins boys and teachers in the evenings, after study hall and weekends. The Perkins girls could not go there, they were allowed to go to another Spa on the corner of Ladd Street and North Beacon St.
e. In addition to the owners of the other stores and Mr. Soukeassian the owners have been Vaughan Kalustian who ran the Spa from 1967 until Mr. Kiriazis's family converted it to the Beacon. Many thanks to Van Kiriazis and to George's daughter Hasmig Biallaregeon (whom I sorry to say died in 1997) for all the information and pictures she let me borrow. Also to George's wife Helen (Queen of George's Spa) for letting Helen have some of the pictures. George's two daughters, Harmina and Hasmig were called by the Perkins boys, so Hasmig told me, "Bang" and "Explosion". Hasmig lived with her husband, Al in the family house, a few doors up from the Beacon on the corner of North Beacon and Beechwood Ave. She told me that her father was an Armenian born in Egypt. When he came to Watertown he had a number of jobs, including working in the rubber factories on Arsenal Street before he opened his Spa. During the Second World War he worked in a local shipyard while his wife Helen and his two daughters ran the store. All have fond memories of Perkins, especially of the boys and staff members who were regular customers. Hasmig and Harmina attended many dances in Dwight Hall. 18. Q Where on the campus could the name Hilton to be found, besides on the front of the Hilton Building.
A: In the old Bomb Shelter.
I am sure that those who were at Perkins in the 1960s will remember the large bomb shelter that was built under Brooks Hill and the sleeping areas they were assigned to with their meager belongings. Each area was named after a famous hotel including the Hilton. The shelter is no longer used except for storage and the old sleeping areas are gone, including the Hilton. 19. Q: Where do you find the Howe family Coat of Arms on the Perkins campus?
Bonus marks if you know in which historic building; outside of Boston you can also find the same coat of arms.
A: Above the Main door of the Howe Building 20.
Bonus marks those who know that one can find the same coat of arms over the mantle place in the living room (first room on the left) in Longfellow's Wayside Inn, Sudbury, MA. Although the original owner spelled his family name How, the Howe's and the Gridley's were old New England families. "On both sides, he [Dr. Howe] carne of patriotic New England' stock. His uncle, Edward Compston Howe, was one of the "Indians" of the Boston Tea Party, Colonel Richard Gridley, fortified Bunker Hill the night before the battle ... nor was he responsible for the legend that when time was, a Mistress Howe was hanged as a witch on Boston Common."
Samuel Gridley Howe by Laura E. Richards, 1935.
20. Q: a. Where on the campus do you find these two inscriptions?
"Take care of the little blind children" and "Let us, then, be up, and doing with heart for any fate, still achieving, still pursing, learn to labor and to wait."
b. Who wrote them?
A: a. Outside above the living room window of Anagnos Cottage and over the fireplace in Bennett Cottage.
b. Julia Romana Anagnos - "Take care of the Little Blind Children" These were the last words of Julia Romana Anagnos as she lay dying. The Perkins trustees wrote of her soon after her death. "One who grew up with this school, who gave her energies and her rich resources of mind and character to its advancement and to the welfare of the blind ... From her childhood her sympathies were irresistibly drawn to her father's [Dr. Howe] enterprise; and she became year by year, though not officially, a more and more valuable assistant .... She contributed not only to the instruction, teaching languages, reading choicest literature to classes of pupils, conversing with them, and in a very quickening way, on serious and improving topics, but she was in an important sense the confidential friend of many of the girls, and also of the boys... She did all she could to make their life here happy" That is why Anagnos Cottage is named after Julia not Michael Anagnos. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow - Let us, then, be up, and doing ... "
It was taken from "A Psalm of Life” 1839. This famous poem. starts:
Tell me not, in mournful numbers,
Life is but an empty dream!
For the soul is dead that slumbers,
And things are not what they seem.
Life is real! Life is eamest!
And the grave is not its goal;
Dust thou art, to dust returnest,
Was not spoken of the soul.
(Former Perkins student Stephanie Barker told me that this poem was put to music and sang by the Perkins girl's Glee Club in South Boston) Longfellow was a life-long friend of Dr. Howe's and a member of the informal "Five of Clubs," which for many years held meetings at Perkins in South Boston.
21. Q: Where can you find on the Perkins campus Michael Anagnos' cane?
A: Howe building, upper museum area, glass case on the right 3rd Braille music cabinet on the right side going towards the chapel. I had the staff of the Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University look at the cane; they say that it is probably made from the wood of an evergreen, prickly shrub or tree, Rutaceae family, Zanthoxylum genus that grows in Mediterranean countries, like Greece. The handle is made of a small animal horn, maybe a goat. It is banded below the handle in what looks like si1yer. It has a rubber tip to protect it from wear; we know that Anagnos did a lot of walking. The size, nearly three feet long seems to indicate that Mr. Anagnos was about 5 ft. tall. It would seem from the design and materials used that it was made in Greece. It was presented to Perkins by Mrs. Cora L. Gleason a friend of Mr. Anagnos.
(Thanks to staff member, Brendan McGee for telling me where it was. 22. Q: What famous 20th century photographer's mother worked at Perkins?
A: Margaret Bouke-White (1904-1971)
"A photojournalist who will remain unique in the history of photography because the mass media magazines for which she worked - Life and Fortune no longer exist in their original form."
Review of Margaret Bourke-White: A Biography by Elsa Dorfman. She was one of the first photographers hired by Life and the first woman photographer on their staff. She is most famous for her pictures of Russia and American Industry, the Great Depression and World War II. She is less known for series of pictures she took of the Perkins campus (no students) in the 1930s. These were taken while her mother Mrs. Minnie E. White worked at Perkins (1931-36). Mrs. White was assistant house matron in the Lower School, Potter Cottage before becoming Perkins first nutritionist. Her duties were the preparation of all foods in the four Lower School cottages. She took the Teacher Training Course 1931-1932 and studied household economics at Columbia University in New York City. It was while going to Columbia, summer of 1936 that she died. 23. Q How many students have attended Perkins since 1832 to Jan. 1998?
A: 5,548 (as of January 19, 1998)
This is according to the Registrar's Office which gives a number to each student. 24 Q: What famous singer worked at Perkins?
A: Joan Baez
The folk singer was a house parent in Oliver Cottage, Sept-Nov. 1959 . Oliver was then part of the Kindergarten, because there so many young students.
See" Daybreak" by Joan Baez, 1966. 25. Q: What is the oldest school for the blind?
A: Institution des Jeunes Aveugles (Institution for Blind Youth) in Paris was founded by Valentin Hauy in 1784. Perkins is the oldest school for the blind in the United States it was incorporated in 1829. The New York Institution for the Blind was incorporated in 1831. New York Institution accepted students March 1832. Perkins accepted students in July, 1832. Ohio established the first state residential school in 1837. 26. Q: Who was longest serving director?
A: Dr. Samuel Gridley Howe: 1831-1976 45 years
Michael Anagnos: 1876-1906 30 years
Edward E. Allen: 1907-1931 24 years
Gabriel Farrell: 1931-1951 20 years
Edward J. Waterhouse: 1951-1971 20 years
Benjamin F. Smith: 1971-1977 6 years
Charles D. Woodcock: 1977-1984 7 years
Kevin J. Lessard: 1985- 27. Q: Which Perkins staff, former deaf-blind students and Teacher Trainees has received the Anne Sullivan Medal?
A: In 1966 to mark the centennial of the birth of Anne Sullivan, Helen Keller's teacher and former Perkins student, Perkins and The Industrial Horne for the Blind, now Helen Keller Services for the Blind in Brooklyn, New York established the Anne Sullivan Medal Award offered for outstanding service to the deaf-blind. At given intervals since its establishment, this award has been presented to selected recipients in the United States and other countries. Leo Queenan Staff 1966
Joan Sheilds DB T. T. 1966
Gertrude Stenquist Staff 1966
Rose Vivian Staff 1966
Jackie Coker Former student 1966
Leonard Dowdy Former student 1966
Helen Hayes Former student 1966
Robert Smithdas Former student 1966
Jan van Dijk DB T. T. 1974
Chan Poh Lin Former student 1975
Karen Andersen DB T. T. 1980
Patricia Taylor T.T. 1987
Leike de Leuw DB T.T. 1987
Edward Waterhouse Staff 1988
Marion Obeng DB T.T. 1991
Benjamin Smith Staff 1991
Roderick Macdonald Former student 1992
Susanna Crespo T.T 1995
Carol Crook Staff 1998
Mary McDonagh Staff 1998 28. Q: How long are the Perkins Tunnels?