Agricultural Economics II. Popp, József Agricultural Economics II



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Agricultural Economics II.

Popp, József

Agricultural Economics II.

Popp, József

TÁMOP-4.1.2.A/1-11/1-2011-0009

University of Debrecen, Service Sciences Methodology Centre

Debrecen, 2013.
Tartalom

Tárgymutató Error: Reference source not found

1. 1. THE GLOBAL AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY, HUNGER, AND POVERTY Error: Reference source not found

1. 1.1. Sustainable future Error: Reference source not found

1.1. 1.1.1. Economic and financial crisis (2006-2008) Error: Reference source not found

1.2. 1.1.2. Food-security strategy Error: Reference source not found

1.3. 1.1.3. External shocks in addition to demand and supply fundamentals Error: Reference source not found

1.4. 1.1.4. A way forward Error: Reference source not found

1.5. 1.1.5. World market volatility challenges facing poor net food-importing countries Error: Reference source not found

1.6. 1.1.6. Characteristics of food insecurity in net food importing countries Error: Reference source not found

1.7. 1.1.7. What can LDCs and NFIDCs do for themselves? Error: Reference source not found

1.8. 1.1.8. Avoiding export prohibitions and restrictions Error: Reference source not found

1.9. 1.1.9. Stockholding and domestic food assistance Error: Reference source not found

1.10. 1.1.10. Reducing the high transaction costs for intra-regional trade Error: Reference source not found

1.11. 1.1.11. Using AoA flexibility to invest in food production and resilience Error: Reference source not found

1.12. 1.1.12. How can the international community help? Error: Reference source not found

2. 1.2. Limiting the role of food aid to emergency responses Error: Reference source not found

3. 1.3. Targeting export credits Error: Reference source not found

4. 1.4. Strengthening food financing facilities Error: Reference source not found

5. 1.5. Increasing technical and financial assistance to boost productivity Error: Reference source not found

6. Questions Error: Reference source not found

7. References Error: Reference source not found

2. 2. FOOD SECURITY AND SOCIAL PROTECTION Error: Reference source not found

1. 2.1. Risks to food security Error: Reference source not found

2. 2.2. Competition for land and water Error: Reference source not found

3. 2.3. Growth of agricultural output Error: Reference source not found

4. Questions Error: Reference source not found

5. References Error: Reference source not found

3. 3. LIVESTOCK IN FOOD SECURITY Error: Reference source not found

1. 3.1. Livestock food in the diet Error: Reference source not found

2. 3.2. Livestock and the food balance Error: Reference source not found

3. 3.3. Livestock contributing to crop production Error: Reference source not found

4. 3.4. Stability of food supplies Error: Reference source not found

5. 3.5. Economic factors affecting choice of livestock source foods Error: Reference source not found

6. Questions Error: Reference source not found

7. References Error: Reference source not found

4. 4. TENSION BETWEEN FOOD, ENERGYAND ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY Error: Reference source not found

1. 4.1. Food security Error: Reference source not found

2. 4.2. Energy security Error: Reference source not found

2.1. 4.2.1. Bioenergy potential Error: Reference source not found

3. 4.3. Environmental impact: land use change and greenhouse gas emission Error: Reference source not found

3.1. 4.3.1. Sustainability criteria for bioenergy Error: Reference source not found

4. Questions Error: Reference source not found

5. References Error: Reference source not found

5. 5. ENERGY SECURITY Error: Reference source not found

1. 5.1. Global energy demand Error: Reference source not found

2. 5.2. Rising transport demand reconfirms the end of cheap oil Error: Reference source not found

3. 5.3. Prospects for natural gas Error: Reference source not found

4. 5.4. Coal in global energy demand Error: Reference source not found

5. 5.5. Nuclear energy Error: Reference source not found

6. 5.6. Achieving energy for all Error: Reference source not found

7. 5.7. Transport policies Error: Reference source not found

8. 5.8. Environmental impact Error: Reference source not found

9. Questions Error: Reference source not found

10. References Error: Reference source not found

6. 6. RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATIVES Error: Reference source not found

1. 6.1. Global energy consumption Error: Reference source not found

2. 6.2. The increasing competition for biomass: bioenergy potential Error: Reference source not found

3. 6.3. Competition for financing between renewable energy alternatives Error: Reference source not found

4. 6.4. Biofuels Error: Reference source not found

5. 6.5. Land use for biofuels production Error: Reference source not found

6. 6.6. Environmental impact of biofuels Error: Reference source not found

7. Questions Error: Reference source not found

8. References Error: Reference source not found

7. 7. ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY Error: Reference source not found

1. 7.1. Food cost Error: Reference source not found

2. 7.2. Agricultural land depletion Error: Reference source not found

3. 7.3. Irrigation and aquifer stress Error: Reference source not found

4. 7.4. Yield increase Error: Reference source not found

5. 7.5. Climate change Error: Reference source not found

6. 7.6. Carbon dioxide concentration Error: Reference source not found

7. 7.7. Temperature Error: Reference source not found

8. 7.8. Precipitation Error: Reference source not found

9. 7.9. Climate change, soil degradation and crop productivity interaction Error: Reference source not found

10. Questions Error: Reference source not found

11. References Error: Reference source not found

8. 8. PROVISION OF PUBLIC GOODS Error: Reference source not found

1. 8.1. Loss of biodiversity Error: Reference source not found

2. 8.2. Economic value of ecosystem goods and services Error: Reference source not found

3. 8.3. Markets for environmental services Error: Reference source not found

4. Questions Error: Reference source not found

5. References Error: Reference source not found

9. 9. CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPACT, ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION Error: Reference source not found

1. 9.1. Definition of climate change Error: Reference source not found

2. 9.2. Global greenhouse Error: Reference source not found

3. 9.3. Deeper cuts Error: Reference source not found

4. 9.4. The world needs to adapt to the impacts of climate change Error: Reference source not found

5. 9.5. Providing financing for adaptation Error: Reference source not found

6. 9.6. Timeline of climate change Error: Reference source not found

7. Questions Error: Reference source not found

8. References Error: Reference source not found

10. 10. FOOD CHAIN: FOOD MANUFACTURING, DISTRIBUTION, AND RETAILING Error: Reference source not found

1. 10.1. Food supply chain Error: Reference source not found

1.1. 10.1.1. Producers Error: Reference source not found

1.2. 10.1.2. Wholesalers Error: Reference source not found

1.3. 10.1.3. Supermarkets Error: Reference source not found

2. 10.2. Food retail trade Error: Reference source not found

2.1. 10.2.1. Negotiations Error: Reference source not found

2.2. 10.2.2. Price, discounts, financial contributions and risks Error: Reference source not found

3. 10.3. Asymmetric price adjustment Error: Reference source not found

4. Questions Error: Reference source not found

5. References Error: Reference source not found

11. 11. PRICE VOLATILITY IN FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL MARKETS Error: Reference source not found

1. 11.1. What is volatility? Error: Reference source not found

2. 11.2. Price levels and food security Error: Reference source not found

3. 11.3. Drivers of food price volatility Error: Reference source not found

3.1. 11.3.1. Demand elasticity Error: Reference source not found

4. 11.4. Trade policies Error: Reference source not found

5. 11.5. Hedging agricultural commodity with futures and options (USA) Error: Reference source not found

5.1. 11.5.1. Commodity arbitrage and the operations of a commodity exchange Error: Reference source not found

5.1.1. 11.5.1.1. If the future price goes higher, lower or does not change Error: Reference source not found

5.2. 11.5.2. Options Error: Reference source not found

5.3. 11.5.3. Future contract specifications for selected agricultural commodities Error: Reference source not found

5.4. 11.5.4. Deliverable versus cash settled commodities and price quote Error: Reference source not found

5.5. 11.5.5. What is commodity basis? Error: Reference source not found

5.6. 11.5.6. Speculation on the futures market Error: Reference source not found

6. 11.6. Demand for food products in the future Error: Reference source not found

6.1. 11.6.1. Investing in agriculture Error: Reference source not found

6.2. 11.6.2. Food waste Error: Reference source not found

6.3. 11.6.3. Biofuels Error: Reference source not found

6.4. 11.6.4. GHG-emission Error: Reference source not found

6.5. 11.6.5. Promoting food security strategy programmes Error: Reference source not found

7. Questions Error: Reference source not found

8. References Error: Reference source not found

12. 12. Plant biotechnology Error: Reference source not found

1. 12.1. History Error: Reference source not found

1.1. 12.1.1. Thousands of years ago Error: Reference source not found

2. 12.2. How biotechnology works? Error: Reference source not found

3. 12.3. Why biotechnology matters? Error: Reference source not found

4. 12.4. Why do we need biotechnology? Error: Reference source not found

5. 12.5. What is genetic modification? Error: Reference source not found

6. 12.6. What sort of changes can be brought about by genetic modification? Error: Reference source not found

7. 12.7. How can we assure that these new developments are safe? Error: Reference source not found

8. 12.8. How do we know that genetically modified crops are safe to eat? Error: Reference source not found

9. 12.9. What about the impact of genetically modified crops on the environment? Error: Reference source not found

10. 12.10. Could the new genes in these crops to be passed on the other plants? Error: Reference source not found

11. 12.11. What about consumer information? Error: Reference source not found

12. 12.13. Substantial equivalence of genetically engineered crops and products with their conventional counterparts Error: Reference source not found

13. Questions Error: Reference source not found

14. References Error: Reference source not found

13. 13. ECONOMICS OF GM CROP CULTIVATION Error: Reference source not found

1. Introduction Error: Reference source not found

2. 13.1. Global status of commercialised GM crops in 2011 Error: Reference source not found

3. 13.2. Global maize trade Error: Reference source not found

4. 13.3. Global soybean and soymeal trade Error: Reference source not found

5. 13.4. The authorisation process in practice Error: Reference source not found

6. 13.5. The GM debate in Europe Error: Reference source not found

7. Questions Error: Reference source not found

8. References Error: Reference source not found

14. 14. ECONOMICS OF CROP PROTECTION MEASURES Error: Reference source not found

1. 14.1. Challenges facing scientists and pest management experts Error: Reference source not found

2. 14.2. Estimates of crop losses due to pests Error: Reference source not found

3. 14.3. Cost and benefit of pesticides Error: Reference source not found

4. 14.4. Global pesticide market Error: Reference source not found

5. Questions Error: Reference source not found

6. References Error: Reference source not found

15. 15. INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL TRADE: WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION (WTO) Error: Reference source not found

1. 15.1. The WTO Agreements Error: Reference source not found

1.1. 15.1.1. Objectives of the WTO: Error: Reference source not found

1.2. 15.1.2. Functions of the WTO: Error: Reference source not found

1.3. 15.1.3. The Ministerial Conference Error: Reference source not found

1.4. 15.1.4. The General Council Error: Reference source not found

1.5. 15.1.5. The Trade Negotiations Committee Error: Reference source not found

1.6. 15.1.6. The Councils & Subsidiary Bodies Error: Reference source not found

1.7. 15.1.7. Decision- making in the WTO Error: Reference source not found

2. 15.2. Principles Error: Reference source not found

3. 15.3. Rules on unfair trade Error: Reference source not found

3.1. 15.3.1. Anti-dumping measures Error: Reference source not found

3.2. 15.3.2. Subsidies & countervailing duties Error: Reference source not found

4. 15.4. Non-discrimination Error: Reference source not found

4.1. 15.4.1. MFN under GATT Error: Reference source not found

4.2. 15.4.2. National treatment under GATT Error: Reference source not found

5. 15.5. Tariffs Error: Reference source not found

5.1. 15.5.1. Negotiations on tariff reduction Error: Reference source not found

5.2. 15.5.2. National tariffs Error: Reference source not found

5.3. 15.5.3. Other duties and charges Error: Reference source not found

6. 15.6. Non-tariff barriers Error: Reference source not found

6.1. 15.6.1. Quantitative restrictions Error: Reference source not found

6.2. 15.6.2. Specific exceptions Error: Reference source not found

6.3. 15.6.3. Other non-tariff barriers Error: Reference source not found

7. 15.7. Technical regulations and standards Error: Reference source not found

7.1. 15.7.1. Sanitary and phytosanitary measures Error: Reference source not found

8. 15.8. General safeguards Error: Reference source not found

9. 15.9. Waivers Error: Reference source not found

10. 15.10. Dispute settlement Error: Reference source not found

11. 15.11. Agreement on Agriculture Error: Reference source not found

11.1. 15.11.1. Tarification Error: Reference source not found

11.2. 15.11.2. Bindings and reductions Error: Reference source not found

11.3. 15.11.3. Tariff-rate quotas Error: Reference source not found

11.4. 15.11.4. The boxes Error: Reference source not found

11.5. 15.11.5. Green box Error: Reference source not found

11.6. 15.11.6. Amber box Error: Reference source not found

11.7. 15.11.7. Blue box Error: Reference source not found

11.8. 15.11.8. De minimis Error: Reference source not found

11.9. 15.11.9. Export competition Error: Reference source not found

11.10. 15.11.10. Anti-circumvention Error: Reference source not found

12. 15.12. WTO negotiations after 2000 Error: Reference source not found

13. Questions Error: Reference source not found

14. References Error: Reference source not found
Az ábrák listája

1.1. Figure 1: Poor people spend much of their income on food Error: Reference source not found

1.2. Figure 2: Countries requiring external assistance for food (34 countries) Error: Reference source not found

2.1. Figure 1: World population growth Error: Reference source not found

2.2. Figure 2: Losses along the food chain Error: Reference source not found

3.1. Table 1: Average dietary protein and energy consumption and undernourishment by region Error: Reference source not found

3.2. Table 2: Changes in global livestock production total and per person 1967 to 200 Error: Reference source not found

5.1. Figure 1: World primary energy demand by fuel in 2008 Error: Reference source not found

5.2. Figure 2: World primary energy demand by fuel in 2035 Error: Reference source not found

6.1. Figure 1: World primary energy demand by fuel in 2008 Error: Reference source not found

6.2. Figure 2: Global bioenergy sources Error: Reference source not found

6.3. Figure 3: Word fuel ethanol production, 2010 Error: Reference source not found

6.4. Figure 4: World biodiesel production, 2010 Error: Reference source not found

7.1. Figure 1: Closed basins Error: Reference source not found

7.2. Figure 2: Aquifer stress Error: Reference source not found

7.3. Figure 3: Climate change Error: Reference source not found

10.1. Figure 1: Overview of players in the agri-food sector Error: Reference source not found

11.1. Figure 1: Food Price Index, annually, 1960-2011 (2000 = 100) Error: Reference source not found

11.2. Figure 2: World stocks as a percentage of world consumption for corn, wheat, rice and vegetable oils, 1960–2010 Error: Reference source not found

12.1. Figure 1: Bt Cotton lifecycle Error: Reference source not found

13.1. Figure 1: GM crop plantings 2011 by crop Error: Reference source not found

13.2. Figure 2: Share of GM crops in global plantings of key crops in 2011* Error: Reference source not found

13.3. Figure 3: GM Product submissions and authorisations. Status of 1 February 2012 Error: Reference source not found

14.1. Figure 1: Development of crop losses from 1996-98 to 2001-03 Error: Reference source not found

14.2. Figure 2: Development of efficacy of actual crop protection practices from 1996-98 to 2001-03 Error: Reference source not found

15.1. Figure 1: Tariff-Quota Error: Reference source not found

15.2. Figure 2: TBT and SPS measures relating to the international trade of oranges Error: Reference source not found

15.3. Figure 1: Amber Box and de minimis: Current Total Aggregate Measurement of Support Error: Reference source not found

15.4. Table 3: Reduction formula for ad valorem tariffs Error: Reference source not found
A táblázatok listája

8.1. Table 1: Scenario of the future: 2050 Error: Reference source not found

11.1. Table 1: Future contract specifications Error: Reference source not found

11.2. Table 2: Chicago mercantile exchange feeder cattle futures price quotes for 10:30 am Error: Reference source not found

11.3. Table 3: Chicago mercantile exchange feeder cattle options price quotes for 10:30 am Error: Reference source not found

11.4. Table 4: How a grain producer should use basis in marketing strategies Error: Reference source not found

13.1. Table 1: Area of GM crops by country (2011) Million hectares Error: Reference source not found

13.2. Table 2: Adoption rate of GM crops in the leading exporting countries of maize and soybean (2011) Error: Reference source not found

13.3. Table 3: Global maize trade (Million tonnes) Error: Reference source not found

13.4. Table 4: Global soybean trade (Million tonnes) Error: Reference source not found

13.5. Table 5: Global soybean meal trade (Million tonnes) Error: Reference source not found

13.6. Table 6: Events in commercial GM crops and in pipelines worldwide, by crop Error: Reference source not found

13.7. Table 7: Events in commercial GM crops and in pipelines worldwide by region of origin Error: Reference source not found

13.8. Table 8: Asynchronous and isolated foreign approvals as potential sources for low-level presence Error: Reference source not found

14.1. Table 1: Value of herbicides, insecticides and fungicides in U.S. crop production Error: Reference source not found

14.2. Table 2: Total estimated environmental and social costs from pesticides in the USA Error: Reference source not found

14.3. Table 3: Annual estimated pesticide use in the world Error: Reference source not found

15.1. Table 1: The reductions in agricultural subsidies and protection agreed in the Uruguay Round Error: Reference source not found

15.2. Table 2: Domestic support structure Error: Reference source not found
Tárgymutató


1. fejezet - 1. THE GLOBAL AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY, HUNGER, AND POVERTY

Introduction

As stated in the 1972 United Nations Conference on the Human Environment and the 1992 Earth Summit, human beings are at the centre of sustainable development. However, even today, over 900 million people still suffer from hunger. Poor populations worldwide, especially in rural areas, are among those most vulnerable to the food, climate, financial, economic, social and energy crises and threats the world faces today We cannot call development sustainable while this situation persists, while nearly one out of every seven men, women and children are victims of undernourishment (FAO, 2012a).

The quest for food security can be the common thread that ulinks the different challenges we face and helps build a sustainable future. To feed a growing population that is expected to top the nine billion mark in 2050, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) projects the need to increase agricultural output by at least 60% in the next decades. But even then the pressure on our natural resources will be extreme. So we must also change the way we eat and find ways to feed the world without the need to produce as much. We can do this by changing to healthier diets in the richer segments of our population and by diminishing the food loss and waste that exist in industrialized and developing countries, and that make us throw away 1.3 billion tonnes of food every year, between production and consumption (FAO, 2012a).

However, even if we do increase agricultural output by 60%, the world would still have 300 million people hungry in 2050 because, like the hundreds of millions today, they would still lack the means to access the food they need. For them, food security is not an issue of insufficient production; it is an issue of inadequate access. The only way to ensure their food security is by creating decent jobs, paying better wages, giving them access to productive assets and distributing income in a more equitable way. We must bring them into society, complementing support to smallholders and income generation opportunities with the strengthening of safety nets, cash for work and cash transfer programmes that contribute to strengthening of local production and consumption circuits, in an effort that must contribute to our sustainable development goals.

The transition to a sustainable future also requires fundamental changes in the governance of food and agriculture and an equitable sharing of the transition costs and benefits. In the past, the poorer have paid a greater share of transition costs and received a smaller share of benefits. This is an unacceptable balance and one that needs to change. The speed of change should also be a concern, so that the vulnerable population can adapt and be part of the changes instead of widening the gaps that exist today.

1. 1.1. Sustainable future

Improving agricultural and food systems is essential for a world with healthier people and healthier ecosystems. Healthy and productive lives cannot be achieved unless “all people at all times have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO, 1996). Healthy ecosystems must be resilient and productive, and provide the goods and services needed to meet current societal needs and desires without jeopardizing the options for future generations to benefit from the full range of goods and services provided by terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems. There are very strong ulinkages between the conditions to achieve universal food security and nutrition, responsible environmental stewardship and greater fairness in food management. They intersect in agricultural and food systems at the global, national and local levels. The transition to a sustainable future requires fundamental changes in the governance of food and agriculture and an equitable distribution of the transition costs and benefits.

The sustainable management of agriculture and food systems is key to a sustainable future. Sound policies are needed to create the incentives and capacities for sustainable consumption and production and to enable consumers and producers to make sustainable choices.

National governments and other stakeholders need to:


  • Establish and protect rights to resources, especially for the most vulnerable;

  • Incorporate incentives for sustainable consumption and production into food systems;

  • Promote fair and well-functioning agricultural and food markets;

  • Reduce risk and increase the resilience of the most vulnerable; and

  • Invest public resources in essential public goods, including innovation and infrastructure.



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