and n-octadecanoic



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Supplementary Information (S2)

Supplementary Table (S2) –Stable carbon isotopic measurements of n-hexadecanoic (C16:0) and n-octadecanoic (C18:0) acids of reference fats from modern authentic animal products.

common name

Taxa

Sample type

Period

Provenience

δ13C C16:0

(‰)

δ13C C18:0

(‰)

Freshwater



















Carp

Carassius carassius

tissue

modern

UK

-30.8

-28.8

Clam




experimental sherd

modern

Japan

-28.6

-28.1

Crucian Carp

Carassius sp.

bones

Early Jomon

Japan

-29.2

-29.3

Crucian Carp

Carassius sp.

bones

Early Jomon

Japan

-29.2

-29.6

Crucian Carp

Carassius sp.

bones

Early Jomon

Japan

-28.3

-29.9

Crucian Carp

Carassius sp.

bones

Early Jomon

Japan

-28.8

-29.1

Crucian Carp

Carassius sp.

bones

Early Jomon

Japan

-28.6

-29.3

Eriocheir

Eriocheir sp.

experimental sherd

modern

Japan

-27.3

-27.9

Perch

Perca fluviatilis

tissue

modern

UK

-31.6

-29.0

Pike

Esox lucius

tissue

modern

UK

-28.8

-26.4

Scarce




experimental sherd

modern

Japan

-28.2

-28.2

Salmonidae



















Salmon

Salmonidae sp.

experimental sherd

modern

Japan

-28.6

-29.1

Salmon

Salmonidae sp.

experimental sherd

modern

Japan

-26.6

-25.6

Salmon

Salmonidae sp.

experimental sherd

modern

UK

-25.3

-25.2

Salmon

Salmonidae sp.

tissue

modern

Japan

-25.8

-24.8

Salmon

Salmonidae sp.

tissue

modern

Japan

-24.6

-23.5

Salmon

Salmonidae sp.

tissue

modern

Japan

-26.7

-25.3

Salmon

Salmonidae sp.

tissue

modern

UK

-25.5

-25.4

Trout

Salmonidae sp.

tissue

modern

Japan

-25.0

-23.3

Trout

Salmonidae sp.

tissue

modern

Japan

-24.3

-24.6

Marine



















Atlantic cod

Gadus morhua

tissue

modern

UK

-24.4

-24.0

Atlantic mackerel

Scomber scombrus

tissue

modern

UK

-25.0

-25.2

Babylonia

Babylonia sp.

tissue

modern

Japan

-23.3

-22.8

Bull trout

Myoxocephalus scorpius

tissue

modern

Denmark

-21.2

-21.3

Eel

Anguilla anguilla

tissue

modern

UK

-18.1

-15.4

European flounder

Platichthys flesus

tissue

modern

Denmark

-18.9

-20.1

Oyster

Ostrea edulis

tissue

modern

UK

-23.9

-24.5

Pilot Whale

Globicephala sp.

tissue

modern

Japan

-23.3

-23.5

Ruditapes

Venerupis philippinarum

tissue

modern

Japan

-24.7

-23.7

Short fin pilot whale

Globicephala macrorhynchus

experimental sherd

modern

Japan

-22.6

-23.0

Tuna

Thunnus sp.

bones

Early Jomon

Japan

-25.3

-24.9

Tuna

Thunnus sp.

bones

Early Jomon

Japan

-26.6

-25.1

Wild non-ruminant



















Wild boar

Sus scrofa

bones

Early Jomon

Japan

-28.1

-28.9

Wild boar

Sus scrofa

bones

Early Jomon

Japan

-27.8

-27.9

Wild boar

Sus scrofa

bones

Early Jomon

Japan

-27.8

-29.2

Wild boar

Sus scrofa

bones

Early Jomon

Japan

-29.5

-29.6

Wild boar

Sus scrofa

bones

Early Jomon

Japan

-28.9

-29.5

Wild boar

Sus scrofa

experimental sherd

modern

Japan

-28.3

-27.4

Wild boar

Sus scrofa

tissue

modern

Japan

-28.3

-27.2

Wild boar

Sus scrofa

tissue

modern

Japan

-28.7

-27.7

Wild boar

Sus scrofa

tissue

modern

Japan

-28.6

-27.8

Wild boar

Sus scrofa

tissue

modern

Japan

-28.3

-27.4

Wild ruminant



















Red deer

Cervus elaphus

experimental sherd

modern

UK

-32.4

-34.5

Red deer

Cervus elaphus

tissue

modern

UK

-32.5

-34.1

Serow

Capricornis crispus

experimental sherd

modern

Japan

-32.5

-34.1

Serow

Capricornis crispus

tissue

modern

Japan

-32.4

-33.7

Sika deer

Cervus nippon

experimental sherd

modern

Japan

-28.6

-30.2

Sika deer

Cervus nippon

experimental sherd

modern

Japan

-29.0

-32.5

Sika deer

Cervus nippon

experimental sherd

modern

Japan

-28.7

-28.8

Sika deer

Cervus nippon

experimental sherd

modern

Japan

-31.1

-33.5

Sika deer

Cervus nippon

tissue

modern

Japan

-32.8

-36.0

Acorn



















Acorn

Quercus sp.

tissue

modern

Japan

-33.7

-34.1

Acorn

Quercus sp.

tissue

modern

Japan

-32.4

-33.3

Acorn

Quercus sp.

tissue

modern

Japan

-34.8

-35.6

Acorn

Quercus sp.

tissue

modern

Japan

-32.8

-34.3

Acorn

Quercus sp.

tissue

modern

Japan

-31.8

-33.7

To facilitate comparison with archaeological data, all modern samples, including marine samples, were adjusted for the addition of the effects of post-industrial carbon (46)

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