Ap us history Unit Test: The Gilded Age Questions 1-3relate to the passage below



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AP US History

Unit Test: The Gilded Age


Questions 1-3relate to the passage below

"You evidently have observed the growth of corporate wealth and influence. You recognize that wealth, in order to become more highly productive, is concentrated into fewer hands, and yet you sing the old siren song that working men should depend entirely upon his "own individual effort." The school of laissez faire, of which you seem to be pronounced advocate, has produced great men in advocating the theory of each for himself and Satanic majesty taking the most, but have most pronounced advocates of your school of thought in economics have, when practically put to the test, been compelled to admit that combination (unions) and organization of the toiling masses are essential both to prevent deterioration and secure improvement in the condition of wage earners."

Samuel Gompers, Letter to Judge Grosscup, Labor in Industrial Society, 1894
1. This excerpt was written most directly support of which of the following:

a. Formation of monopolies and trusts b. Collective Bargaining

c. The Anti-trust movement d. Employee ownership of business
2. According to the author, what has most contributed to the need for wage earners to organize unions

a. The school of laissez faire economics

b. The rise of captains of industry

c. The concentration corporate wealth and power

d. The belief in individualism and self-reliance
3. Which of the following was most closely allied to the sentiments in this excerpt:

a. The economic theories of David Ricardo and Adam Smith

b. The practice of horizontal integration and monopoly

c. The charter for workers living Pullman Company towns

d. The regulations of the American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Questions 4- 7 relate to the political cartoon below

4. The cartoon above best reflects which of the following socio-economic and political beliefs:

a. Laissez-faire b. Socialism c. Jim Crow Laws d. Nativism
5. The negative reaction to "New Immigration" was based on all of the following EXCEPT

a. The fact that most of the new immigrants from Europe were non-Christians

b. The fact that Democrats and Populists s favored immigration restrictions because the flood hurt wages.

c. The fact that most eastern and southern immigrants were very poor and had few marketable skills.

d. Fears of disease and radical political views counter to capitalism
6. Which of the following issues for the New Immigrants would be similar to those faced by antebellum immigrants?

a. Those with little money or skills found themselves trapped in the squalor of major urban areas.

b. It was easier for them to fit in because their languages were similar to English

c. Americans were no longer as anti-Catholic as in the antebellum years

d. There was a completely open immigration policy which did not involve a screening process
7. Immigrants known as "birds of passage" were most frequently related to

a. Jewish immigrants from Poland because of an emblem on their ship

b. Italian immigrants who planned upon returning to their homeland after earning some money

c. Greek immigrants who "flew" from heavy taxes levied by the Ottoman Empire

d. Chinese immigrants who "flew" past the reception center at Angel Island
Questions 8-10 are related to the excerpt below

"The anti-Jewish riots are worse than the censor will permit to publish. There was a well laid-out plan for the general massacre of Jews on the day following the Orthodox Easter. The mob was led by priests, and the general cry, "Kill the Jews", was taken up all over the city. The Jews were taken wholly unaware and were slaughtered like sheep. The dead number 120 and the injured about 500. The scenes of horror attending this massacre are beyond description. Babies were literally torn to pieces by the frenzied and bloodthirsty mob. The local police made no attempt to check the reign of terror. At sunset the streets were piled with corpses and wounded. Those who could make their escape fled in terror, and the city is now practically deserted of Jews."

New York Times article, Easter 1903
8. The newspaper account above most likely occurred in which country?

a. Russia b. Germany c. France d. Italy


9. The event being described by the journalist is known as a

a. "Blood-letting" b. A pogrom c. A ghetto d. A Kristallnacht


10. For Jews escaping persecution in Europe which city was their most common destination?

a. New Orleans b. Los Angeles c. New York d. Chicago


Questions 11- 14 relate to the chart on the next page

http://www.ectolearning.com/file.aspx?f=66a75e3d-8aa3-49e5-a513-551e3e37966e
11. Which of the following best explains the tariffs rates during the Gilded Age period

a. American farmers believed that high tariffs would result in higher farm prices.

b. Republicans believed that that high tariffs would protect American business from foreign competition.

c. Democrats believed that high tariffs would create jobs for American workers

d. Consumers believed that higher tariffs would result in higher quality manufactured goods made in the United States
12. Which statement best describes the level of tariffs in the US in the 19th century?

a. Tariffs were generally highest during Democratic Administrations

b. The election of James Garfield started the period of higher tariffs

c. The election of William McKinley saw the first tariff reduction in 30 years

d. Tariffs were closely linked to the value of the US dollar
13. Which Populist demand related to an argument for lowering tariff rates

a. Demonetization of gold specie b. The adoption of a graduated income tax

c. Federal nationalization of banks d. Passage of the ICC Act
14. The lowering of tariffs by 1913 can best be explained by

a. The fact that the Populist had found a resurgence under new leadership

b. Democratic control of Congress and the executive branch

c. The start of World War One in Europe

d. A period of agrarian prosperity commenced at the turn of the century
Questions 15- 18 relate to the chart on the next page


15. What factor accounts for the sudden spike in immigration from Europe during the late 19th-early 20th century?

a. A wave of racially motivated attacks in Western Europe

b. The origins of the Holocaust in Nazi Germany

c. World War One and the

d. The Start of the Great Depression in 1929
16. What factors might explain the decline in immigration starting in the 1920s continuing until the 1950s

a. Borders were shut down as the U.S. became completely isolationist

b. Immigration quotas and global war slowed the pace of immigration

c. The Democratic and Populists forced immigration quotas through the Senate

d. Prosperity in Europe and Asia led to more jobs and higher wages
17. The "Gentleman's Agreement" sought to limit immigration from

a. Japan b. Russia c. China d. Germany


18. The only group to face complete exclusion during this period were

a. German b. Chinese c. Italian d. Mexican


Questions 19 - 20 Relate to the Passage Below

“Of every thousand dollars spent in so-called charity today, it is probable that nine hundred and fifty dollars is unwisely spent.…The best means of benefiting the community is to place within its reach the ladders upon which the aspiring can rise—free libraries, parks, and means of recreation, by which men are helped in body and mind.…The laws of accumulation will be left free, the laws of distribution free. Individualism will continue, but the millionaire will be but a trustee for the poor.…The best minds will thus have reached a stage in the development of the race in which it is clearly seen there is no mode of disposing of surplus wealth creditable to thoughtful and earnest men into whose hands it flows, save by using it year by year for the general good.”


Andrew Carnegie, “The Gospel of Wealth,” 1889 Andrew Carnegie, The Gospel of Wealth and Other Timely Essays
19. The view of the poor in the quote above is most consistent with the ideology of

a. the Populist Party. b. Social Darwinism. c. the Social Gospel. d. utopianism.


20. Late 19th-century critics of the ideology expressed in the quote above would most likely argue that

a. societal good could be advanced through the Social Gospel.

b. the social order of the Gilded Age is logical and successful.

c. “conspicuous consumption” benefitted all classes in society.

d. utopianism is a weak model for reform.
Questions 21- 24 Relate to the Image Below
http://i.ytimg.com/vi/xofyenl_asg/maxresdefault.jpg

21. United States Steel Corporation was

a. Created by J.P. Morgan as a result of merging with other steel companies.

b. The only steel company that was contracted to build warships for the U.S. Navy.

c. The first company to capitalize total worth of $1 billion.

d. The only company in the world to utilize the Bessemer process


22. Which statement about Standard Oil is INCORRECT?

a. Utilized modern marketing techniques to sell its product.

b. Made millions even before the widespread need of gasoline.

c. Made its owner Andrew Carnegie America’s first billionaire.

d. Was broken up under the Sherman Anti-trust Act of 1890.
23. Which of the following factors would have played the LEAST role in explaining the explosive nature of

the post-Civil War economy:

a. Federal and state government allowed business owners a free hand with minimal regulations.

b. There was a steady supply of immigrant workers from overseas.

c. A spate of new innovations and inventions revolutionized the production of goods.

e. free college education made Americans abler to adapt to the work place.


24. Despite his reputation for philanthropy Andrew Carnegie stance against the demands of labor lead to which of the following deadly strikes?
a. 1877 Railroad Strike b. The Pullman Strike

c. The 1902 Coal Miners Strike d. The Homestead strike


Questions 25- 27 Relate to the Image Below
http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/24/73724-004-1c154991.jpg

25. The results of the 1896 election revealed that

a. The Agrarian Populist Revolt dramatically impacted the results

b. That the Solid South had returned to Democratic control for the first time since Reconstruction

c. That the majority of Americans supported the pro-gold and high tariff policies of the Republicans

d. That the Democratic candidate lost despite winning all of the major urban vote


26. What did the election results reveal about the Populist Party?

a. The Populists were powerful enough to marshal lower class voters in northeastern cities.

b. The Populist Party was dead having cast its support for Bryan.

c. The Populist offended many women by its anti-suffrage stance

d. It revealed little because the Populist movement was dead long before 1896
27 By accepting Populist support William Jennings Bryan agreed to support all of the following Populist ideas EXCEPT

a. Bimetallism b. The Sherman Silver Purchase

c. Immigration restrictions on the Chinese d. A graduated income tax

Questions 28 - 29 Relate to the passage below

“To those of my race who depend on bettering their condition in a foreign land or who underestimated the importance of cultivating friendly relations with the Southern white man, who is their next-door neighbor, I say: ‘Cast down your bucket where you are’—cast it down in making friends in every manly way of the people of all races by whom we are surrounded.…To those of the white race who look to the incoming of those of foreign birth and strange tongue and habits for the prosperity of the South, were I permitted I would repeat what I say to my own race, ‘Cast down your bucket where you are.’ Cast it down among the eight million of Negroes whose habits you know.”


Booker T. Washington, Atlanta Exposition Address, 1885

Booker T. Washington, Up from Slavery: An Autobiography (1900), 218–225.


28. The speech above attempts to

a. reverse the Plessey v. Ferguson ruling to ensure greater equality.

b. “Americanize” new migrants in the South.

c. convince blacks to make the best of their prescribed place in society.

d. adopt an alternate society based on utopianism
29. The author of the quote above was most likely motivated by the

a. continuation of the traditions of sharecropping.

b. federal reforms that encouraged education.

c. support of blacks from white Southern politicians.

d. opportunities in the “New South.”
Short Answer Section

Question 30 is based on the following two passages.

“The promise of freedom and prosperity seemed to have been revoked for those who labored, as opposed to those who owned and managed the nation’s resources and industrial enterprises. Fundamental decisions about their lives—from whether they worked and for how much, to whose influence would shape their control. Pain and bewilderment led to outrage and action. Unionizing workers called for “industrial democracy,” Populist farmers for a “cooperative commonwealth.” Indeed, if corporate capitalists saw themselves as champions of a free market version of American democracy, organized labor and other advocates for the poor and dispossessed saw themselves as vindicating an egalitarian version of that same democracy.”

-Francis G. Couvares, et. al., “The Triumph of Capitalism: Efficiency or Class War?” in Interpretations of American History, Vol. 2, 8th Edition, (Boston, Bedford/St. Martin's, 2009), 56.

“From the beginning, it seems, businessmen have run the American economy. They can take the credit and the blame for many of its achievements and failures. They, more than [any] other group in the economy, have managed the production, transportation, and distribution of goods and services. No other group—farmers, blue-collar workers, or white-collar workers—has ever had much to do with the overall coordination of the economic system or its adaptation to basic changes in the population and technology.…In the past, businessmen have devoted their energies to economic affairs, giving far less attention to cultural, social, or even political matters. Precisely, because they have created an enormously productive economy and the most affluent society in the world…”

-Alfred D. Chandler Jr., “The Role of Business in the United States: A Historical Survey,” Daedalus 98 (Winter 1969).

30. Based on the two interpretations above regarding late 19th-century industrialization, complete the following three tasks:

a. Briefly explain the main point made in Passage 1.

b. Briefly explain the main point made in Passage 2.

c. Provide ONE piece of evidence from 1865 to 1900 that is not included in the passages, and explain how it supports or refutes the interpretation of either passage.
Questions 31 Relates to the Passages Below

“The promise of freedom and prosperity seemed to have been revoked for those who labored, as opposed to those who owned and managed the nation’s resources and industrial enterprises. Fundamental decisions about their lives—from whether they worked and for how much, to whose influence would shape their control. Pain and bewilderment led to outrage and action. Unionizing workers called for “industrial democracy,” Populist farmers for a “cooperative commonwealth.” Indeed, if corporate capitalists saw themselves as champions of a free market version of American democracy, organized labor and other advocates for the poor and dispossessed saw themselves as vindicating an egalitarian version of that same democracy.”


Francis G. Couvares, et. al., “The Triumph of Capitalism: Efficiency or Class War?” 2009

Francis G. Couvares, et. al., “The Triumph of Capitalism: Efficiency or Class War?” in Interpretations of American History, Vol. 2, 8th Edition, (Boston, Bedford/St. Martin's, 2009), 56.

“From the beginning, it seems, businessmen have run the American economy. They can take the credit and the blame for many of its achievements and failures. They, more than [any] other group in the economy, have managed the production, transportation, and distribution of goods and services. No other group—farmers, blue-collar workers, or white-collar workers—has ever had much to do with the overall coordination of the economic system or its adaptation to basic changes in the population and technology.…In the past, businessmen have devoted their energies to economic affairs, giving far less attention to cultural, social, or even political matters. Precisely, because they have created an enormously productive economy and the most affluent society in the world…”
Alfred D. Chandler Jr., The Role of Business in the United States: A Historical Survey, 1969

Alfred D. Chandler Jr., “The Role of Business in the United States: A Historical Survey,” Daedalus 98 (Winter 1969).


31. Based on the two interpretations above regarding late 19th-century industrialization, complete the following three tasks:

a. Briefly explain the main point made in Passage 1.

b. Briefly explain the main point made in Passage 2.

c. Provide ONE piece of evidence from 1865 to 1900 that is not included in the passages, and explain how it supports or refutes the interpretation of either passage.


32. During the years 1870 to 1900, labor and management battled for control over wages and working conditions.

a. Explain ONE governmental policy or practice that contributed to this conflict.

b. Explain ONE cultural or intellectual movement that contributed to this conflict.

c. Provide ONE new piece of outside evidence and explain how it supports your response in either Part A or Part B.


There is no question 32

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