Kinking, grounding at multiple points, stretching and reducing the bend radius below the manufacturer’s recommended minimum shall not be permitted.
Discrete I/O (inputs/outputs)
All wiring to I/O devices, either at the harness level or individual wires, shall be labeled, stamped or color-coded in a fashion that allows unique identification at a spacing not exceeding 4 in. Wiring for each I/O device shall be bundled together. If the I/O terminals are the same voltages, then jumpers may be used to connect the common nodes of each I/O terminal.
All wiring that requires shielding shall meet the following minimum requirements. A shield shall be generated by connecting to a ground, which is sourced from a power distribution bus bar or chassis. A shield shall be connected at one location only, typically at one end of the cable. However certain standards or special requirements, such as SAE J1939 or RF applications, have separate shielding techniques that also shall be used as applicable.
NOTE: A shield grounded at both end forms a ground loop, which can cause intermittent control or faults.
When using shielded or coaxial cable, upon stripping of the insulation, the metallic braid shall be free from frayed strands, which can penetrate the insulation of the inner wires. To prevent the introduction of noise, the shield shall not be connected to the common side of a logic circuit.
The data network cabling shall be selected and installed according to the selected protocol requirements. The physical layer of all network communication systems shall not be used for any purpose other than communication between the system components, unless provided for in the network specifications.
Communications networks that use power line carriers (e.g., data modulated on a 24V-power line) shall meet the most stringent applicable wiring and terminal specifications.
Radio frequency (RF)
RF components, such as radios, video devices, cameras, global positioning systems (GPS), etc., shall use coaxial cable to carry the signal. All RF systems require special design consideration for losses along the cable. Connectors shall be minimized, since each connector and crimp has a loss that will attribute to attenuation of the signal. Cabling should allow for the removal of antennas or attached electronics without removing the installed cable between them. If this cannot be done, then a conduit of sufficient size shall be provided for ease of attachment of antenna and cable assembly. The corresponding component vendors shall be consulted for proper application of equipment, including installation of cables.
Cabling used for microphone level and line level signals shall be 22 AWG minimum with shielded twisted pair. Cabling used for amplifier level signals shall be 18 AWG minimum.
The primary purpose of the multiplexing system is control of components necessary to operate the vehicle. This is accomplished by processing information from input devices and controlling output devices through the use of an internal logic program.
Versatility and future expansion shall be provided for by expandable system architecture. The multiplex system shall be capable of accepting new inputs and outputs through the addition of new modules and/or the utilization of existing spare inputs and outputs. All like components in the multiplex system shall be modular and interchangeable with self-diagnostic capabilities. The modules shall be easily accessible for troubleshooting electrical failures and performing system maintenance. Multiplex input/output modules shall use solid-state devices to provide extended service life and individual circuit protection.
Ten percent of the total number of inputs and outputs, or at least one each for each voltage type utilized (0V, 12V, 24V), at each module location shall be designated as spares.
Multiplexing may either be distributed or centralized. A distributed system shall process information on multiple control modules within the network. A centralized system shall process the information on a single control module. Either system shall consist of several modules connected to form a control network.
The input/output for the multiplex system may contain three types of electrical signals: discrete, analog or serial data.
Discrete signals shall reflect the on/off status of switches, levers, limit switches, lights, etc. Analog signals shall reflect numerical data as represented by a voltage signal (0-12V, 10-24V, etc.) or current signal (4-20ma). Both types of analog signals shall represent the status of variable devices such as rheostats, potentiometers, temperature probes, etc. Serial data signals shall reflect ASCII or alphanumeric data used in the communication between other on-board components.
IP 47.Data communications
All data communication networks shall be either in accordance with a nationally recognized interface standard, such as those published by SAE, IEEE or ISO, or shall be published to the procuring agency with the following minimum information:
Protocol requirements for all timing issues (bit, byte, packet, inter-packet timing, idle line timing, etc.) packet sizes, error checking and transport (bulk transfer of data to/from the device).
Data definition requirements that ensure access to diagnostic information and performance characteristics.
The capability and procedures for uploading new application or configuration data.