CHAPTER TEN: THE NEW PARTNERSHIP FOR AFRICA’S DEVELOPMENT
In Declaration AHG/Decl. 1 (XXXVII), the African Heads of State and Government meeting in Lusaka, Zambia on 11 July 2001 at the 37th Session of the Assembly of the OAU, decided to merge two previous initiatives, namely, the Millennium Partnership for the African Recovery Programme (MAP) and the OMEGA Plan, as the New African Initiative (NAI). In the Declaration, the NAI was defined as “a pledge by African leaders, based on a common vision and a firm and shared conviction, that they have a pressing duty to eradicate poverty and to place their countries, both individually and collectively, on a path of sustainable growth and development, and at the same time to participate actively in the world economy and body politic”.
The Lusaka Summit also decided to establish a Heads of State and Government Implementation Committee (HSGIC) consisting of fifteen Heads of State and Government, including the five initiating Heads of State (Algeria, Egypt, Nigeria, Senegal and South Africa). This number was subsequently increased to twenty at the inaugural Summit of the AU in July 2002 in Durban.
In the Lusaka Declaration, the HSGIC was entrusted with the following functions:
“Identification of strategic issues that need to be researched planned and led at the continental level;
Setting of mechanisms for reviewing progress in the achievement of mutually agreed targets and compliance with mutually agreed standards;
Reviewing of progress of the implementation of past decisions and taking appropriate steps to address problems and delays”.
The New African Initiative was later renamed the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), after receiving the support of external partners. In doing so, the objective was to ensure that NEPAD was conceived as an instrument for forging partnerships among African countries, between African governments and their private sector, and between Africa and the international community.
At its first meeting on 23 October 2001, and in accordance with its functions, the HSGIC established the Steering Committee, composed of Personal Representatives of its members, and a Secretariat located in South Africa. The Steering Committee was specifically mandated to develop a strategic plan for marketing NEPAD at national, sub-regional, regional and international levels, so as to mobilize domestic support and facilitate private-public sector partnership in Africa as well as international partnership. Subsequently, the Declaration on the Implementation of NEPAD adopted by the AU Summit in Durban mandated the HSGIC to further elaborate the NEPAD framework and to ensure implementation of the NEPAD Initial Action Plan until reviewed by the next AU Summit in July 2003 in Maputo, Mozambique.
The Initial Action Plan of NEPAD focuses on the following three priority areas; namely, preconditions for sustainable development (political governance, economic and corporate governance), sectoral priorities (agriculture and market access, human resource development, infrastructure, environment) and resources mobilization. The implementation strategy of the Initial Action Plan aims at achieving higher rate of growth and increasing employment, reducing poverty and inequality, diversifying production structures, enhancing international competitiveness and promoting exports and regional cooperation, improving competitiveness.
The preconditions for sustainable development were entrusted to the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM), which was to be voluntarily acceded to by Member States. A High Level Panel of Eminent Personalities was set up to proceed with the country reviews as and when they are requested.
Execution of Statutory Functions and Audit Findings
Pre-conditions for sustainable development
NEPAD has successfully operationalised the APRM. As of December 2007, 25 countries have voluntarily acceded to the Mechanism. Among them, 5 countries have undertaken their reviews (Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Ghana and Algeria), and 6 are in the pipeline (Benin, Uganda, Mauritius, Nigeria, Mozambique and Lesotho).
Each review leads to a National Programme of Action whose implementation is diligently monitored by the APRM Panel, which keeps the HSGIC duly informed through the submission of annual progress reports. The Peer Review Mechanism is also engineering intra-African technical cooperation for development; identifying best practices during each country’s review and building inter-country cooperation around them. This could be an incentive for non-members to join the Mechanism.
For the sectoral priorities, NEPAD Secretariat has prepared a Strategic Action Plan for the period 2004 – 2007. The components of the Plan include the Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), the Short-Term Action Plan (STAP) for infrastructure Development, the Science and Technology Consolidated Action Plan, the Environment Plan, the AU NEPAD Health Strategy, the Education Action and the Tourism Action Plan. These plans are being implemented through national governments and RECs.
According to NEPAD progress reports, several projects were identified for support in the field of infrastructure, particularly in the fields of interconnection of power systems in most regions of the continent, and promotion of transport corridors. A number of studies were carried out which are awaiting implementation.
In the field of agriculture and food security, NEPAD has initiated the Sustainable Land Management in the framework of CAADP. Several countries have joined the initiative. A similar initiative known as e- Business schools was taken with respect to Science and Technology. For other priority sectors such as Health and Education, NEPAD concentrated its activities essentially through building partnerships (e.g. Global Health Workforce Alliance, Global Funds to fight Aids, Earth Institute, etc.). This has been done, at the initial stage, through the organisation of joint meetings.
Overall, while expressing its appreciation for NEPAD Secretariat efforts in building external partnerships, the Panel is of the view that the spread of its activities has represented a major impediment that needs to be addressed. The main objective of NEPAD is to contribute in accelerating the continental economic integration and transformation process.
NEPAD's focus being mainly at national and regional (RECs) levels, its resource mobilisation actives consisted mainly in providing them with the necessary support in this respect. Thus, information made available to the Panel includes only financial support expected from development partners, including the support of the Summit of the Group of Eight most industrialized countries (G8) in 2003 to market access, agriculture and infrastructure, and in 2004 in Gleneagles (increase of Official Development Assistance to Africa by US$ 25 billion per year and doubling this by 2010, and multilateral debt cancellation for 14 African countries).
The Panel recognizes the active role played by NEPAD in facilitating the provision of external support. It is, however, of the view that NEPAD could play a pro-active role in domestic resource mobilisation, particularly from the African Private sector. This would greatly contribute to the financing of projects , particularly in the areas of transport infrastructures and energy.
Overall, the Panel recognizes the role played by NEPAD in engaging the RECs in the implementation of its Strategic Action Plan and its various sectoral components. This role would be essential when the NEPAD would be fully integrated in the programmes and processes of the African Union, as discussed in the next section.
Integration of NEPAD into the African Union structures and processes
The issue of the relations between NEPAD and the Organs of the Union, particularly the Commission, has occupied the central stage since 2003. During its second meeting, the HSGIC specifically “emphasized that NEPAD is a mandated initiative of the African Union (AU). Therefore, there should be greater cooperation and coordination between the AU and NEPAD Secretariats, as well as with the NEPAD Steering Committee.” It also “reiterated that one of the goals of NEPAD is the promotion of regional integration. They, therefore, called on the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) as the building blocks, to speed up the implementation of their integration programmes.”
Subsequently, as a follow-up, the Assembly of the Union adopted, at its second ordinary Session in Maputo, Mozambique, in July 2003, Declaration Assembly / AU/ Decl.5 (II), in which NEPAD was recognized as an AU Programme. The Declaration specifically called for specific actions with a view to integrating NEPAD into African Union’s structures and processes, including, inter-alia:
Establishing“ appropriate linkages between the NEPAD Steering Committee with the relevant Organs of the African Union including the Permanent Representatives Committee and the Executive Council”;
Formalising “the working relations between the AU Commission and the NEPAD Secretariat, especially for programme co-ordination and harmonisation;” and,
Developing “a sustainable funding mechanism for NEPAD after its complete integration into the AU structures and processes”.
In order to speed up the implementation of the Maputo Declaration, the AU Commission and the NEPAD Secretariat prepared a joint proposal submitted to the HSGIC in Algiers, Algeria in March 2007. The thrust of the Algiers Decision of the HSGIC was that:
NEPAD should remain a program of the AU;
A Planning and Coordinating Mechanism should be created after a study to be commissioned;
HSGIC would be strengthened and would retain its present role
The operations of the NEPAD Coordinating mechanism should continue in South Africa (so as) to provide continuity and an excellent atmosphere to carry out its new roles;
A transitional period of one year is needed for a smooth streamlining of NEPAD activities and processes with those of the African Union Commission; and,
A Coordinating Unit should be created within the AUC to elaborate a detailed roadmap on integration of NEPAD and creation of the NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Authority.
The HSGIC Decision was submitted to the Assembly of Heads of State at its Ninth Ordinary Session in Accra, Ghana. The consideration of the decision by the Assembly was postponed until a review meeting, which was scheduled for Dakar, Senegal in November 2007. Since the meeting has been postponed to a later date, the Panel is of the view that the Decision of the HSGIC should be endorsed by the Assembly, and that the proposed study for setting up the NEPAD Planning and Coordinating mechanism (Authority or Agency) be undertaken urgently. Furthermore, the Panel noted that the Government of South Africa currently bears the bulk of the burden of the operational cost of NEPAD.
The Panel recommends that:
Member States should meet their commitments towards the operational costs of NEPAD;
NEPAD should be proactive in its support of fast-tracking the continental integration of Africa by supporting Pan-African and interregional projects and programmes; and,
With respect to the APRM, the Panel recommends that countries that have not yet should join and support the process and that the process should be accelerated to cover all African Countries. Furthermore, in order to maintain the credibility of the mechanism, all countries concerned should ensure that the national follow process is conducted with the required full autonomy.