Augmented reality in educational environments



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SBEI Gimnasium № 1529

Gogrichiani Elizaveta Mikhailovna

Markova Galina Petrovna, teacher of English language

SBEI Gimnasium № 1529

Moscow, 2017

AUGMENTED REALITY IN EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS.

SBEI Gimnasium № 1529 named after A. S. Griboyedov

INTRODUCTION

Augmented reality (AR) is a live direct or indirect view of a physical, real-world environment whose elements are augmented (or supplemented) by computer-generated sensory input such as sound, video, graphics or GPS data. This work is dedicated to the advanced methods of education achieved with the help of Augmented Reality (AR). This work describes application of Augmented Reality (AR) to learning and training, and the potential impact on the future of education.

The urgency of the chosen theme seems to be of great importance at present because technologies are constantly developing, and using them in education is rational. Augmented Reality (AR) bridges the gap between the real and the virtual worlds, what gives students prodigious possibilities to learn the information in a completely unique way.

That is why, the purpose of the work is to introduce Augmented Reality (AR) to students in Russia and find out its benefits in case of implementation.



The object of the researchare particular qualities of Augmented Reality (AR).

The tasks to complete:

1. To show how Augmented Reality can increase the efficiency of education.

2. To determine the importance of the theme nowadays.



In order to solve these tasks we have used such methods:

  • Observation

  • Description

  • Comparison

  • Illustrative method

The research has been performed in three interrelated steps:

  1. analysis of literature on the problem in the first stage

  2. the theoretical basis of the research with the examples illustrating application of Augmented Reality (AR) in education in different countries

  3. the generalization of results of the research and drawing up the final conclusions are the last part of our work

The practical significance of the research is in spreading information of Augmented Reality (AR) in our country and its possible application by various institutions, which seek to give students more profound knowledge.

It can also be of an interest for people studying problems of Information technology (IT), pedagogy and many other disciplines, who are interested in creating interactive lessons or capturing the attention of the audience, but firstly for students, who have chances to develop completely new ways of education in future.

CONTENTS


  • Introduction

  • Theprincipalpart

  1. What is Augmented Reality?

  2. Companies Working On Education In Augmented And Virtual Reality

  3. Five Directions of Augmented Reality in Educational Environments

  4. Reasons to Use Augmented Reality in Educational Environments

  5. Benefits of Augmented Reality in Educational Environments

  1. State of Mind

  2. Teaching Concepts

  3. Presentation

  4. Learning Type

  5. Content Understanding

  1. Difficulties in Using Augmented Reality in Educational Environments

  2. How can we use Augmented Reality at Russian schools?

  • Supplement

  • Conclusion

AUGMENTED REALITY

Augmented reality (AR) is related to a more general concept called mediated reality, in which a view of reality is modified (possibly even diminished rather than augmented) by a computer. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one’s current perception of reality. By contrast, virtual reality replaces the real world with a simulated one. Augmentation is conventionally in real-time and in semantic context with environmental elements, such as sports scores on TV during a match.

With the help of advanced AR technology the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactive and digitally controlled. Information about the environment and its objects is overlaid on the real world. This information can be virtual or real, e.g. seeing other real sensed or measured information such as electromagnetic radio waves overlaid in exact alignment with where they actually are in space. Augmented reality brings out the components of the digital world into a person's perceived real world.



Types of AR:

  • Head Mounted Display (HMD) is a display device, worn on the head or as part of a helmet, that has a small display optic in front of one (monocular HMD) or each eye (binocular HMD).

  • Head Wearable Displays (HWDs) are a development of HMDs, and tend to be smaller, more refined designs.

  • Hand Held Devices. This is perhaps the fastest growing area of augmented reality and the first that is likely to develop into commonplace AR systems. Applications on the Apple iPhone and Google Android platform are already using AR to complement navigation and information systems.

  • Static Screen. The use of static screens implies a screen that does not move with the user.

COMPANIES WORKING ON EDUCATION IN AR AND VR

  1. Nearpod

Nearpod is an organization which combines VR and AR technology with traditional lesson plans in a classroom for a more immersive technology driven approach to learning. Nearpod VR is giving us an idea of what a classroom of the future is going to look like, with lesson plans being enhanced with VR and AR technology and students being more engaged by using this new technology.

  1. Gamar

Gamar is a company who is attempting to make museum visits more modern through the use of Augmented Reality. The way that Gamar’s content works is that they have interactive experiences and supplemental information which can be paired with certain locations to enhance museum visits. One of the chief rules of a museum is not to touch anything, but with Gamar’s app museum attendees will be able to point their smartphone or tablet at an exhibit at one of their paired locations and get additional information on that exhibit.

In Russian Federation:



  1. Devar

In January 2015 the first Russian Augmented Reaity Publishing house was established. Devar (Development of Augmented Reality) is researching and improving AR-technologies for creating unique products. According to Devar, this remarkable technology allows to animate habitual for us printed books.

Its aim is to recover lost interest to the books and classical literature.The company also wants to make the newest technologies of Augmented Reaity available for everybody.



  1. EligoVision

EligoVision is a young Russian hi-tech company that develops and markets unique interactive 3D technologies and creates proprietary virtual and augmented reality systems. Their intellectual property includes the company «know-how» as well as patented hardware and software within the field of 3D technologies.

From the first day of creation EligoVision has not been using products made by foreign developers. All materials which are being researched and invented by EligoVision is done by its own programmer, engineers, and designers.

This year, EligoVision has been collaborating with the ‘’School of Real Actions’’ –a Russian contest of projects and research done by students. There EligoVision presented to the participants a unique program, called EligoVision Toolbox (or EV Toolbox).


  1. AR Production

AR Production is a Russian company of professional developers, creators, inventors, designers connected with the same passion – to achieve the best results with innovative methods.

One of their last projects is The Museum Of Augmented Reality in Astana, the capital of Kazakhstan.

FIVE DIRECTIONS OF AUGMENTED REALITY IN EDUCATION


  • Discovery Learning

Discovery learning takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his own experience and prior knowledge and is a method of instruction through which students interact with their environment by exploring and manipulating objects, wrestling with questions and controversies, or performing experiments.

Augmented Reality AR can be used in applications that enable Discovery learning.This type of application is often used in museums, in astronomical education, and at historical places.



  • Objects Modeling

In order to allow students create or design virtual objects Augmented Reality can be used in Objects Modeling programs. This type of application is also used in architectural education.

  • AR Books

The concept of AR books is simple - a physical book contains many elements that elude the human eye, only visible through the use of various apps, gadgets and other devices. AR books are usually created for children. The content of AR books can vary – from classical novels, such as Moby Dick, to Book of Spells from J.K. Rowling.

  • Skills Training

Programs aimed at improvement of professional skills are widely used within pilots, medical workers or cosmonauts. They allow students to get professional experience without going through dangerous situations. The applications are often realized with head mounted displays.

  • AR Gaming

Despite the existence of Video Games, destroying days of one’s life, some programs are ripe with possibilities for educators. The main advantage is gaining personal experience of surviving or interacting under unknown circumstances. Additionally, Augmented Reality Games provide educators with highly interactive and visual forms of learning.

BENEFITS OF AUGMENTED REALITY IN EDUCATION



  • State of mind

To identify the results of using Augmented Reality in education, we analyzed several experiments, such as at the Harvard School of Education. Researchers at the Harvard School of Education, University Wisconsin at Madison, and the Teacher Education Program at MIT used a grant from the Department of Education to design an "augmented" reality game to help teach middle school students literacy and mathematics. The game called "Alien Contact!" is one of the many augmented games that have been developed. These games mix actual reality with a superimposed virtual reality by using hand-held GPS guided computers or cell phones. The project encourages students to have fun as they learn.

  1. Increased Motivation

‘’Learning no longer is about achieving a grade. When playing the games students are given a sense of purpose and an incentive to care.’’ Excited about using advanced technologies while playing a game, students forget about the grades and concentrate on the process of education. They become interested in new information. They may wish to find out even more, in order to broaden their horizons.

  1. Increased Concentration.

Logically, when motivation increases, concentration increases as well. Today, technologies are so remarkable, that we sometimes fail to follow the time.

  1. Increased Satisfaction

Users experience higher satisfaction regarding the learning process or their educational progress. Frankly speaking, students have more fun running through a library and solving tasks directed by an AR application than by sitting in classroom.

  1. Ability to move

The rise in global obesity rates over the last three decades has been substantial and widespread, presenting a major public health epidemic in both the developed and the developing world. The usage of Virtual Reality Technology is one of the main reasons.But in the same technology we can find a solution: active games, as the app Zombies, Run! While a helicopter pilot helps you escape a zombie apocalypse, you’re tricked into training for a 5km race.

  • Teaching Concepts

  1. Increased Student-centered Learning

Student-centered learning, also known as learner-centered education, broadly encompasses methods of teaching that shift the focus of instruction from the teacher to the student. In original usage, student-centered learning aims to develop learner autonomy and independence by putting responsibility for the learning path in the hands of students. In this type of learning teacher can give students the ability to acquire the data on their own, and dedicate lessons to inspiring and giving advices, that young people need so much. Besides, individual researches give students vital for our century skills. They improve the ability to explore and absorb new knowledge and solve problems.

  1. Collaboration

“Kids today like to learn collaboratively through shared experiences,” says Chris Dede, the inventor of Alien Contact!. We are sure, that intention to act along with others is natural for all children. They do not stop playing like they’re parents used to – only the type of games has changed.

Studies report that the analyzed AR applications improved collaborative learning by providing new ways of communication and cooperation. The opportunityfor collaborative communication and problem-solving among studentsrises from the augmented reality experience. But of course, everything depends on the particular program.

Collaboration promotes student-faculty interaction and familiarity, enhances student satisfaction with the learning experience, develops oral communication skills, develops social interaction skills, promotes positive race relations, encourages diversity understanding, encourages student responsibility for learning, establishes an atmosphere of cooperation etc. These are only tip of the iceberg.In a word, without collaboration, educational process mightturn into a plain struggle for degrees.картинки по запросу representational systems


  • Presentation

  1. Increased Information Accessibility

Progress we make partially depends on our personal representational system. Traditional system of education, consisting of series of lecture, mostly fits auditories. Augmented Reality lets visuals and kinesthetics also acquire information easily.

  1. Increased Details

For example, using 3D-Modeling Augmented Reality programs shows students much more detailed picture, that can be changed for better survey. Paying attention to details is significant for people of different professions: constructors, engineers, scientists (sufficient attention to detail helps to reduce the potential for injuries) etc.картинки по запросу ar brain model

  • Learning Type

  1. Personal Experience

As we mentioned in another part (Five Directions of Augmented Reality in Educational Environments; skills training), Augmented Reality is reported to have sense of presence, when used in a learning context. This means, that the participants have a real experience and can remember it as an actual event, developing a stronger connection with previous knowledge. Users can avoid many fatal mistakes in the future.

  1. Increased Creativity

In 2015 The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney, did a research for Symposium On Mobile Graphics and Interactive Applications 2015.The purpose of research was engaging the imagination and boosting the creativity of young users. They presented six prototype applications ‘’that explore and develop Augmented Creativity in different ways, cultivating creativity through AR interactivity.’’ augmented creativity- bridging the real and virtual worlds to enhance creative play-image

The coloring book app brings characters coloured by children to life. Using the music apps kid can explore different music styles and instruments, forming his own version of popular songs. In the gaming domain, creators showed how to transform passive game interaction into active real-world movement that requires coordination and cooperation between players, and how AR can be applied to city-wide gaming concepts. Lastly, interactive books were designed: nice animals are telling interesting stories and illustrate their words through Augmented Reality.картинки по запросу augmented reality creativity

DIFFICULTIES IN USING AUGMENTED REALITY IN EDUCATION


  • Content creation. graphic-designer.jpg

Creating educational content for AR requires both domain expertise and technical expertise. The difficulty in implementation arises from two factors: (1) AR experiences typically make use of computer graphics which are typically created by trained artists, and (2) the creation of such spatially-interactive experiences is difficult and there exist very few tools to aid this process.

  • Investment Costs

The cost of bringing AR tools into schools sometimes can be expensive. Schools have to acquire technologies such as cameras, projectors and computers. In order to leverage augmented-reality for easily accessing educational content, this technology would not just be installed in computer labs, but in typical classrooms. Secondly, there is a maintenance cost required to ensure both the software and hardware will run smoothly and are kept up to date. Aside from the technology cost, there is also a cost to train teachers in using the technology and educational content. An additional difficulty faced by institutional administrators in adopting this technology, is the lack of empirical results about the use of this technology for education.

  • Technology Learning Curves

Although augmented-reality technology is intuitive to use, it cannot be claimed that it perfectly meets user expectations. The object-tracking technology is not fully precise, and there are typically errors in detecting positions of real objects; this can cause misalignment between virtual content and its physical counterpart, or unexpected movement in virtual content. Sometimes physical objects cannot be tracked at all, due to problems with lighting conditions, object recognition, or occlusion of the video camera.

HOW CAN WE USE AUGMENTED REALITY AR SCHOOLS?

According to all the Augmented Reality benefits we have named above, this technology could be applied at Russian schools. Nearly all of the disciplines children are studying demand clear understanding of structure or visual experience to some extent. In this part we are going to sequence these disciplines and give examples of how they may be made more interactive with the use of Augmented Reality.


  • Exact sciences

  1. Geometry


Geometry101
Geometry (and especially Stereometry) deals with measurements and volumes of various figures, including the solid figures or Polyhedrons. Through the 3D representation the spatial perception is being developed and students can see how properties are related to the calculations of volumes and areas of polyhedrons. картинки по запросу geometry augmented reality картинки по запросу шестигранная призма задачи

Here we can compare images of two Hexagonal prisms. The one that is transferred from three-dimensional space to two-dimensional space looks challenging to imagine in real life.



  1. Physics


Augmented Reality Physics Experiment Toolbox.
Optics is both difficult and interesting branch of physics, which involves the behavior and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it. Unfortunately, sketches are not very successful in light depiction. Although, this problem is easily solved by Augmented Reality. http://arlab.me.iastate.edu/images/diffuse_light_ar.jpg http://arlab.me.iastate.edu/images/lambert.jpg


By holding the device over the image a 3D representation of a horse's heart is revealed
Natural Science картинки по запросу augmented reality in biology

  1. Biology

The University of Liverpool's School of Veterinary Science is already utilising cutting edge technology to allow students to analyse animals' internal anatomy, using their smartphones. But nowadays there exists a lot of AR-applications. Some of them show human being Anatomy, while others – life of a rare flower species.

  1. Chemistry


EligoVision Toolbox
Chemistry is a branch of science which studies interactions of substances. Sometimes, scholars have to learn chemical reactions formulas by heart, without realizing what is actually going on between the molecules, in spite of illustrations, presented in textbooks. Augmented Reality allows to see the point in discussion.

картинки по запросу агрегатные состояния воды рисуноккартинки по запросу eligovision агрегатные состояния воды

3.Geographyкартинки по запросу eligovision chemistry




EligoVision Toolbox
Actually, this subject includes many other sciences, but, all in all, it seeks an understanding of the Earth and its human and natural complexities. At this picture we can see a AU tellurium. It demonstrates not only the Earth turning round the Sun, but how it influences on our nature as well.

ANALYTICAL PART

CONCLUSION

Implementing the newest technologies is eligible in all areas of our life. Likewise, Augmented Reality is starting to be used in educational environments. We analyzed certain Augmented Reality pilots, which aim was to improve academic activity. However, Augmented Reality should not be interpreted as wonder-working method of teaching. Each Augmented Reality application is unique and has its own advantages and disadvantages. Implemented thoroughly Augmented Reality nonetheless may bring into education numerous benefits. We have identified 10 different advantages of Augmented Reality. Two of them (Increased Information Accessibility and Personal Experience) seem to be the most significant, due to the importance of these factors in some spheres, such as medicine or aviation etc.

We have introduced technology of Augmented Reality to Russian students, by naming its types and AR-based companies. We have named directions of Augmented Reality in education and tried to give meaningful reasons of using it. We have also presented varied options of employment of technology at schools or other educational institutions.

GlOSSARY


Computer-mediated reality refers to the ability to add to, subtract information from, or otherwise manipulate one's perception of reality through the use of a wearable computer or hand-held device such as a smartphone.

Semantics is primarily the linguistic, and also philosophical study of meaning—in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics. It focuses on the relationship between signifiers—like words, phrases, signs, and symbols—and what they stand for, their denotation.It is often used in ordinary language for denoting a problem of understanding that comes down to word selection or connotation.

Immersive ── noting or relating to digital technology or images that actively engage one's senses and may create an altered mental state: immersive media.

Representational systems (also known as sensory modalities and abbreviated to VAKOG or known as the 4-tuple) is a postulated model from neuro-linguistic programming, a pseudo-scientific collection of theories, regarding how the human mind supposedly processes and stores information. The central idea of this model is that experience is represented in the mind in sensorial terms, i.e. in terms of the putative five senses.

Computer software, or simply software, is that part of a computer system that consists of encoded information or computer instructions, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built.

Computer hardware is the collection of physical components that constitute a computer system. Computer hardware is the physical parts or components of a computer, such as monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, hard disk drive (HDD), graphic card, sound card, memory (RAM), motherboard, and so on, all of which are tangible physical objects.

Hardware is directed by the software to execute any command or instruction. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system.



Empirical(here)── capable of being verified or disproved by observation or experiment.

Misalignment the incorrect arrangement or position of something in relation to something else.

Counterpart ── a person or thing closely resembling another, especially in function.

In computer graphics, ambient occlusion is a shading and rendering technique used to calculate how exposed each point in a scene is to ambient lighting.



LITERATURE LIST

Correa, A. G. D., Tahira, A., Ribeir, J. B., Kitamura, R. K., Inoue, T. Y., & Ficheman, I. K. (2013). Development of an interactive book with augmented reality for mobile learning.8th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI) (pp. 211-545)

Dünser, A., & Hornecker, E. (2009). An observational study of children interacting with an augmented story book. Technologies for E-Learning and Digital Entertainment (pp. 79-162). Springer Berlin Heidelberg

Welch, G., Russo, D., Funaro, J., van Dam, A., Ilie, A., Low, K. L., Lastra, A., Cairns, B., Towles, H., Fuchs, H., Yang, R., Becker, S., Russo, D., Funaro, J., & Van Dam, A. (2008). Immersive electronic books for surgical training (pp. 16-23)

Shelton, B. E., & Hedley, N. R. (2014). Exploring a cognitive basis for learning spatial relationships with augmented reality. Technology, Instruction, Cognition and Learning (pp. 87-105)
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