B. It was the first case in which Europeans enslaved blacks



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What follows are all the multiple choice questions from quizzes through chapter 14. They constitute the majority of the questions that will be on the semester final.
1. Which of the following is a correct statement about the use of slave labor in colonial Virginia?

A. Slave ownership was forced on reluctant White Virginians by profit-minded English merchants and the mercantilist officials of the crown.

B. It was the first case in which Europeans enslaved blacks

C. It fulfilled the original plans of the Virginia Company

D. It first occurred after Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin, which greatly stimulated the demand for low-cost labor

E. It spread rapidly in the late seventeenth century, as blacks displaced white indentured servants in the tobacco fields.


2. In the eighteenth century, colonial Virginia and colonial Massachusetts were most alike in that both

  1. relied on the marketing of a single crop

  2. were heavily dependent on slave labor

  3. had an established Anglican church

  4. were royal colonies

  5. administered local government through justices of the peace

3. Which of the following statements about Africans brought as slaves to the British North American colonies is true?



  1. They were the primary labor force for plantations in the Chesapeake by 1630

  2. They had much lower life expectancy in the Chesapeake than in South Carolina or the West Indies

  3. They greatly outnumbered Europeans in every colony south of the Mason-Dixon line by 1776

  4. They maintained cultural practices brought from Africa

  5. They were the primary labor source in Pennsylvania until 1720

4. Which of the following was true of a married woman in the colonial era?



  1. She would be sent to debtor’s prison for debts incurred by her husband

  2. She could vote as her husband’s proxy in elections

  3. She generally lost control of her property when she married

  4. She had no legal claim to the estate of her deceased husband

  5. Her legal rights over her children were the same as her husband

5. The First Great Awakening was:



  1. a religious revival that occurred throughout the American colonies

  2. a slave rebellion in colonial South Carolina

  3. an eighteenth century religious movement among Native Americans

  4. the flowering of Enlightenment political thought in North America

  5. and early colonial protest against British imperialism

6. The mercantilist system of the eighteenth century led to



  1. the restriction of governmental intervention in the economy

  2. the protection of Native Americans from European economic exploitation

  3. the expansion of colonial manufacturing

  4. the subordination of the colonial economy to that of the mother country

  5. noncompetitive commercial relations among nations

7. The North American colonies took advantage of Great Britain’s policy of salutary neglect to



  1. establish religious freedom as a fundamental right

  2. work out trade arrangements to acquire needed products from other countries

  3. introduce the practice of slavery to the new world

  4. establish a standing army

  5. make favorable territorial settlements with France

8. The Navigation Acts were part of the British policy of



  1. isolationism

  2. capitalism

  3. mercantilism

  4. monopolism

  5. imperialism

9. The mercantilist system of the eighteenth century led to



  1. the restriction of governmental intervention in the economy

  2. the protection of Native Americans from European economic exploitation

  3. the expansion of colonial manufacturing

  4. the subordination of the colonial economy to that of the mother country

  5. noncompetitive commercial relations among nations

10. Colonial cities functioned primarily as



  1. mercantile centers for collecting agricultural goods and distributing imported manufactured goods

  2. places were poor immigrants settled and worked as independent artisans

  3. centers where large-scale financial and banking operations were conducted

  4. places to which wage earners commuted from numerous surrounding communities

  5. centers of light manufacturing

11. The North American colonies took advantage of Great Britain’s policy of salutary neglect to



  1. establish religious freedom as a fundamental right

  2. work out trade arrangements to acquire needed products from other countries

  3. introduce the practice of slavery to the new world

  4. establish a standing army

  5. make favorable territorial settlements with France

12. The Navigation Acts were part of the British policy of



  1. isolationism

  2. capitalism

  3. mercantilism

  4. monopolism

  5. imperialism

13. By the 1750’s, the British colonies on the North American mainland were characterized by all of the following EXCEPT



  1. disdain for British constitutional monarchy

  2. many religious denominations

  3. a society without a hereditary aristocracy

  4. a growing number of non-English settlers

  5. acceptance of slavery as a labor system

14. The First Great Awakening led to all of the following EXCEPT



  1. separatism and secession from established churches

  2. the renewed persecution of witches

  3. the growth of institutions of higher learning

  4. a flourishing of the missionary spirit

  5. a greater appreciation of the emotional experiences of faith


15. The wealthiest people in pre-Revolutionary America were primarily

(A) lawyers, doctors, and other professionals

(B) northern merchants and southern planters

(C) inland farmers

(D) industrialists

(E) local government officials


16. France’s support for the United State’s during the American Revolutionary War was motivated primarily by

(A) enthusiasm for the revolutionary principles espoused by the Americans

(B) a desire to weaken its rival, Great Britain

(C) a desire to regain Canada and the Florida’s

(D) pressures from its ally, Spain

(E) the hope of converting the United States into a French dependency


17. By the time of the revolution, the American colonists had generally come to believe that creation of a republic would solve the problems of monarchical rule because a republic would establish

(A) a highly centralized government led by a social elite

(B) a strong chief executive

(C) a small, limited government responsible to the people

(D) unlimited male suffrage

(E) a society in which there were no differences of rank and status


18. After 1763, changes in the British imperial system threatened the interests of which of the following groups of American colonists?

I. Land speculators with interests west of the Appalachians

II. Newspaper editors and lawyers

III. Farmers wishing to settle in the Ohio River valley

IV. Boston smugglers


  1. III only

  2. IV only

  3. I and III only

  4. I, II, and IV only

  5. I, II, III, and IV



19. During the War for Independence, the principal reason the American government sought diplomatic recognition from foreign powers was to

A. rally all the states behind a common cause

B. convince the British of the justice of the American cause

C. make it easier to levy taxes on the citizens of the several states

D. facilitate the purchase of arms and borrowing money from other nations

E. allow Von Steuben, Lafayette, and other Europeans to join the American army


20. Which of the following contributed most to the American victory in the Revolution?

A. French military and financial assistance

B. The failure of Loyalists to participate in military action

C. A major American military victory at Valley Forge

D. Support from the French Canadians

E. The British failure to capture Philadelphia


21. The Declaration of Independence did all of the following EXCEPT

A. appeal to the philosophy of natural rights

B. call for the abolition of the slave trade

C. appeal to the sympathies of the English people

D. Criticize the provisions of the Quebec Act of 1774

E. accuse George III of tyranny


22. All of the following contributed to the discontent among soldiers in the Continental Army EXCEPT:

A. Most soldiers were draftees

B. The soldiers feared for the welfare of their families back home

C. The army had inadequate arms and ammunition

D. The army paid soldiers in depreciated paper money

E. The army was inadequately fed and clothed


23. A major defect in the national government established by the Articles of Confederation was that it lacked

A. a means of amending the Articles

B. the authority to tax

C. the power to declare war

D. the authority to make treaties

E. a legislative branch


24. In 1787-1789 which of the following groups was most likely to oppose the ratification of the Constitution?

A. Farmers in isolated areas

B. Export Merchants

C. Former officers in the Continental Army

D. Southern planters

E. Urban artisans


25. The principal motivation for drafting the Bill of Rights was the desire to

A. test the new process of amendment described in the Constitution

B. protect rights not specified in the Constitution

C. strengthen the powers of the federal government

D. restore to the states the powers they had enjoyed under the Articles of Confederation

E. clarify the federal relationship among the states


26. As originally ratified, the U.S. Constitution provided for

A. political parties

B. a presidential cabinet

C. the direct election of senators

D. an electoral college

E. a two-term presidential limit


27. The greatest achievement of the government under the Articles of Confederation was its establishment of

A. a bicameral legislature

B. a system for orderly settlement of the West

C. general postwar prosperity

D. a standardized length for the school year

E. federal financing of secondary education


28. After the Revolution, the concept of the "republican mother" suggested that

A. women would be responsible for raising their children, especially their sons, to be virtuous citizens of the young republic

B. voting would soon become a privilege granted to educated and/or married women

C. the first duty of mothers was to serve the needs of the government

D. wives and mothers would be welcome in the emerging political parties

E. women's virtues had been the inspiration for the ideals of the Revolution


29. Which of the following was true of the U.S. Constitution as adopted at the Constitutional Convention?

A. It was built on a series of compromises

B. It provided exact specifications covering all aspects of government

C. It was a revised version of the English Constitution

D. It included a Bill of Rights

E. It allowed all male citizens over the age of twenty-one to vote


30. Under the Articles of Confederation the U.S. central government had no power to

A. levy taxes

B. make treaties

C. declare war

D. request troops from the states

E. amend the articles




31. Thomas Jefferson opposed some of Alexander Hamilton’s programs because Jefferson believed that

(A) the common bond of a substantial national debt would serve to unify the different states

(B) the French alliance threatened to spread the violence of the French Revolution to America

(C) the federal government should encourage manufacturing and industry

(D) Hamilton’s programs were weakening the military strength of the nation

(E) Hamilton’s programs favored wealthy financial interests


32. Early American diplomats to European nations often gained advantages for the United States by

A. sending America’s strong military and naval forces against those of European powers

B. convincing the people of European nations to exert pressure on their governments

C. using confidential information effectively

D. exploiting European rivalries

E. using America’s vast wealth in order to obtain favorable diplomatic settlements.


33. Which of the following most accurately describes the attitude of the Founding Fathers toward political parties?

A. Parties are vehicles of ambition and selfish interest that threaten the existence of republican government

B. Parties are engines of democracy that provide citizens with a voice in government

C. Parties are necessary evils in any republic.

D. In a large republic, parties are the best means of creating effective coalitions of interest groups.

E. A two-party system is essential to a stable republic.


34. The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions took the position that

A. only the U.S. Supreme Court had the power to restrict freedom of speech and the press

B. the authority of state governments included the power to decide whether or not an act of Congress was constitutional

C. only fiscal measures initiated by state legislatures could be acted on by Congress

D. Congress was responsible for maintaining the vitality of a "loyal opposition" political party

E. the "supremacy clause" of the constitution applied only to foreign affairs


35. President Washington's Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 was issued in response to

A. Spanish expansion in the Southeast

B. Dutch economic activity in the Mid-Atlantic states

C. Canadian alliances with northern American Indians

D. French diplomatic overtures to invoke the Franco-American Alliance

E. English boycotts of selected American manufacturers


36. The financial programs of Alexander Hamilton included all of the following EXCEPT

A. funding of a national debt

B. nullification of all private debts to the states

C. imposing of a tax on liquor

D. establishment of the Bank

E. assumption of all state debts


37. In the United States, the Haitian rebellion of the 1790s prompted

A. the acquisition of Puerto Rico for colonization by emancipated slaves

B. a movement of free African Americans to Haiti

C. the passage of a federal law increasing the severity of punishments for slave rebellion

D. an increased fear of slave revolts in the South

E. a military expedition of southern slaveholders to restore French rule in Haiti




    1. Which of the following did NOT contribute to the United States’ decision to declare war against Britain in 1812?

  1. American military and economic preparedness for war

  2. American concern for national honor

  3. The impressment of American seamen

  4. British interference with United States commerce

  5. American fears of British aid to Native Americans on the frontier


39. Marbury v. Madison (1803) is famous for establishing the principle of

A. the sancity of contracts

B. the supremacy of the executive over the legislative branch

C. judicial review

D. due process of law

E. equal access by any citizen to federal courts


40. An important reason for the proclamation of the Monroe Doctrine was to

  1. end the United States alliance with France

  2. displace England as the chief creditor of the Latin American countries

  3. counter British objections that would arise in any future United States effort to annex Canada or the West Indies

  4. protect republican institutions of government in the Western Hemisphere

  5. prevent French interference in the internal affairs of Mexico




    1. Which of the following is correct about tariffs passed between the period 1816-1828?

  1. They reduced barriers to free trade

  2. They were supported by all sections of the nation.

  3. Their constitutionality was tested in the courts

  4. They were primarily intended as revenue-raising measures

  5. They were the first tariffs whose major purpose was protection




    1. Which of the following had the greatest effect on the institution of slavery in the United States in the first quarter of the nineteenth century?

  1. Demands of Southern textile manufacturers for cotton

  2. Introduction of crop rotation and fertilizers

  3. Use of more stringent techniques of slave control

  4. Invention of the cotton gin

  5. The “three-fifths” compromise




    1. The opening of the Erie Canal in 1825 was important because it

  1. established the role of the federal government in internal improvements

  2. strengthened the ties between the eastern manufacturing and western agricultural regions

  3. made the invention of the steamboat economically viable

  4. spurred innovation in the railroad industry

  5. was the last major canal project before the Civil War



    1. Which of the following moved in the greatest numbers into Appalachia as the Native Americans of the region were defeated?

  1. immigrants from Sweden

  2. Slaveholders, indentured servants, and slaves from coastal plantations

  3. Puritans from New England

  4. Scotch-Irish, German, and English immigrants

  5. White immigrants from the West Indies




    1. Which of the following describes the “Lowell System” in early nineteenth century New England?

  1. A plan to promote and expand textile manufacturing activities

  2. An agreement among the New England states to secede and form a New England confederacy

  3. A reform eliminating property-holding as a qualification for voting

  4. A strategy to defend New England during the War of 1812

  5. A congressional reapportionment plan during the 1820s.




    1. In the first half of the 19th century, Cherokee efforts to retain their tribal lands in Georgia received direct support from

  1. the white residents of Oklahoma

  2. President Andrew Jackson

  3. The United States Supreme Court

  4. The Democratic press

  5. The United States Congress




    1. Of the following, which was the principal issue on which the U.S, sought settlement with Great Britain at the outset of the War of 1812?

  1. A guarantee of New England fishing rights off Newfoundland

  2. Free navigation of the Mississippi River

  3. Cancellation of pre-Revolutionary War debts

  4. Access to trade with the British West Indies

  5. An end to impressment




    1. According to Alexis de Toqueville in Democracy in America, American individualism arose as a result of

  1. the absence of an aristocracy

  2. limited geographic mobility

  3. the uneven distribution of wealth

  4. urbanization

  5. the Enlightenment




    1. When Thomas Jefferson said in 1801, “We are all republicans—we are all federalists,” he meant that

  1. Americans would never ally themselves with monarchical governments

  2. Federalists would be appointed to his cabinet

  3. The two parties’ platforms were identical

  4. The principles of American government were above party politics

  5. He admired Hamilton’s policies




    1. The Hartford Convention was a manifestation of

  1. New England Federalist opposition to the War of 1812

  2. New England’s desire to end United States trade with Great Britain

  3. Northern gratitude to General Jackson for his victory at New Orleans

  4. The War Hawks’ impatience with President Madison’s conduct of foreign policy

  5. Western resentment against British-backed American Indian attacks




    1. Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana had its origins in his desire to

  1. remove the French from forts along the Mississippi valley

  2. acquire a port to provide an outlet for western crops

  3. acquire territory for the expansion of slavery

  4. oppose New England Federalism

  5. demonstrate friendship for the French in the Napoleonic Wars




    1. In Marbury vs. Madison, the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed

  1. its right to determine the constitutionality of state court decisions

  2. its right to determine the constitutionality of state laws

  3. its right to determine the constitutionality of congressional enactments

  4. the sanctity of property rights against harassment by unfriendly state legislatures

  5. the broad scope of the federal government’s commerce power




    1. The issuance of the Monroe Doctrine did which of the following?

  1. Reaffirmed George Washington’s goal of American neutrality in the Americas

  2. Helped Secretary of State John Quincy Adams secure the presidency in 1824

  3. Established the U.S. as the dominant economic power in Latin America

  4. Provided the basis for resolving Anglo-American border disputes

  5. Asserted American independence in the area of foreign policy




    1. The Jefferson administration advocated which of the following changes as a means of restoring republican ideals?

  1. Abolishing the Bank of the United States

  2. Reducing the scope of activities of the federal government

  3. Discontinuing the funding of state debts

  4. Increasing the size of the U.S. military

  5. Adopting the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions on the national level




    1. The Missouri Compromise did which of the following?

  1. Prohibited slavery in all of the Louisiana Purchase

  2. Provided for admission to the Union of all future states in pairs of one free, one slave

  3. Allowed Maine to enter as a free state

  4. Provided for the annexation of Texas

  5. Finally settled the question of congressional power over slavery in the territories




    1. The Embargo Act of 1807 had which of the following effects on the U.S.?

  1. It severely damaged American manufacturing

  2. It enriched many cotton plantation owners

  3. It disrupted American shipping

  4. It was ruinous to subsistence farmers

  5. It had little economic impact




    1. The development of the early nineteenth century concept of “separate spheres” for the sexes encouraged all of the following EXCEPT

  1. accepting women as intellectual equals of men

  2. idealizing the home as a haven in a competitive world

  3. designating the home as the appropriate place for a woman

  4. emphasizing childrearing as a prime duty of a woman

  5. establishing a moral climate in the home




    1. President Jackson’s Native American policy resulted in which of the following?

  1. Jackson’s loss of popularity in the country

  2. The first efforts to grant citizenship to Native Americans

  3. The division of tribal lands into small units and their allotment to heads of families in each tribe

  4. Widespread uprisings among the Sioux in Dakota territory

  5. The removal of the Cherokee from the Southeast to settlements across the Mississippi




    1. In the first half of the 19th century, Cherokee efforts to retain their tribal lands in Georgia received direct support from

  1. the white residents of Oklahoma

  2. President Andrew Jackson

  3. The United States Supreme Court

  4. The Democratic press

  5. The United States Congress




    1. Henry Clay’s “American System” called for all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A tariff for the protection of industry

  2. Internal improvements at national government expense

  3. Sale of federal lands to finance higher education

  4. Greater reliance on domestic financial resources

  5. Increased trade among the sections of the nation




    1. Which of the following resulted from the policies of the Jackson Administration?

  1. A central bank was established.

  2. The value of paper currency issued by individual banks became uniform.

  3. The number of banks, each issuing its own paper currency, increased

  4. A nationwide banking system was begun

  5. Federal fiscal activities became linked to a system of federal banks.




    1. Andrew Jackson supported all of the following EXCEPT

  1. Indian removal

  2. The right of nullification

  3. The removal of federal deposits from the Bank of the United States

  4. Annexation of new territory

  5. Use of the presidential veto power




    1. Jacksonian Democracy was distinguished by the belief that

  1. an aristocracy posed no danger to the Republic

  2. the National Republicans alone new what was right for the people

  3. political participation by the common man should be increased

  4. political rights should be granted to women

  5. franchise restrictions should be racially neutral

65. The nullification crisis of 1832-1833 was significant, in part, because it



  1. Signaled the triumph of pro-tariff forces

  2. Strengthened support for the Missouri Compromise

  3. Weakened the Whig party throughout the South

  4. Enhanced Andrew Jackson’s reputation as a strong president

  5. Cemented the alliance between Andrew Jackson and John C. Calhoun

67. The Whigs of the 1830s and 1840s differed from the Jacksonian Democrats in that the Whigs



  1. won the support of Irish immigrants

  2. secured the removal of Native Americans to lands west of the Mississippi

  3. Supported the American System of Henry Clay

  4. Favored a laissez-faire economy

  5. Urged the annexation of Texas




    1. Which of the following describes the “Lowell System” in early nineteenth century New England?

  1. A plan to promote and expand textile manufacturing activities

  2. An agreement among the New England states to secede and form a New England confederacy

  3. A reform eliminating property-holding as a qualification for voting

  4. A strategy to defend New England during the War of 1812

  5. A congressional reapportionment plan during the 1820s.




    1. The majority of white families in the antebellum South owned

  1. more than 100 slaves

  2. 50 to 100 slaves

  3. 10 to 50 slaves

  4. 5 to 10 slaves

  5. No slaves




    1. The development of the early nineteenth century concept of “separate spheres” for the sexes encouraged all of the following EXCEPT

  1. accepting women as intellectual equals of men

  2. idealizing the home as a haven in a competitive world

  3. designating the home as the appropriate place for a woman

  4. emphasizing childrearing as a prime duty of a woman

  5. establishing a moral climate in the home




    1. The idea of Manifest Destiny included all of the following beliefs EXCEPT:

  1. Commerce and industry would decline as the nation expanded its agricultural base

  2. The use of land for settled agriculture was preferable to its use for nomadic hunting

  3. Westward expansion was both inevitable and beneficial

  4. God had selected America as a chosen land and people

  5. The ultimate extent of the American domain was to be from the tropics to the Arctic




    1. Which of the following most likely increased Mexican suspicion of American territorial objectives of the 1830s and 1840s?

  1. Abolitionist agitation in the North

  2. Jackson’s policy toward the annexation of Texas (1836-1837)

  3. The Webster –Ashburton Treaty

  4. Clay’s speeches in the campaign of 1844

  5. Rhetoric on “manifest destiny” in the American press




    1. A proposal for the uncompensated emancipation of American slaves was advanced by

A. Thomas Jefferson in the Northwest Ordinance of 1787

B. James Madison in The Federalist in 1788

C. The American Colonization Society in 1817

D. William Lloyd Garrison in The Liberator in 1831

E. The Republican party platform of 1860


    1. Which of the following had the greatest effect on the institution of slavery in the United States in the first quarter of the nineteenth century?

  1. Demands of Southern textile manufacturers for cotton

  2. Introduction of crop rotation and fertilizers

  3. Use of more stringent techniques of slave control

  4. Invention of the cotton gin

  5. The “three-fifths” compromise




    1. The dramatic increase in The South’s slave labor force between 1810 and 1860 was due to

  1. an increase in the African slave trade

  2. the importation of slaves from the West Indies

  3. an increase in the severity of fugitive slave laws

  4. the acquisition of Louisiana

  5. the natural population increase of American-born slaves




    1. In the antebellum period, free African Americans were

  1. given the right to suffrage in most states

  2. protected from kidnapping under stringent provisions of the Fugitive Slave Act

  3. educated in integrated schools in most northern states

  4. able to settle in states in the Middle West without legal restriction

  5. able to accumulate some property in spite of discrimination




    1. The Missouri Compromise did which of the following?

  1. Prohibited slavery in all of the Louisiana Purchase

  2. Provided for admission to the Union of all future states in pairs of one free, one slave

  3. Allowed Maine to enter as a free state

  4. Provided for the annexation of Texas

  5. Finally settled the question of congressional power over slavery in the territories




    1. The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) heightened the sectional crisis because it

  1. Repealed the Missouri Compromise

  2. Repealed the Fugitive Slave Act

  3. Made Kansas and Nebraska free states

  4. Stimulated Southern emigration to the territories taken from Mexico

  5. Signaled acceptance of the principle of the Wilmot Proviso

79. In the pre-Civil War era, the railroad’s most important impact on the economy was the



  1. Creation of a huge new market for railway equipment

  2. Creation of the basis for greater cooperation between Southern planters and Northern textile manufacturers

  3. Generation of new employment opportunities for unskilled workers

  4. Participation of the federal government in the financing of a nationwide transportation network

  5. Accessibility to Eastern urban markets provided to Midwestern farmers




    1. In the presidential campaign of 1860, which of the following positions was asserted by the Republican Party platform with respect to slavery?

  1. Slavery should be abolished immediately by the federal government

  2. The extension of slavery to other countries should be prohibited

  3. The Missouri Compromise line (36◦ 30◦) should be extended to the Pacific Ocean, and slavery should be prohibited in territories above that line

  4. The gradual emancipation of the slaves should begin, and the federal government should compensate slave owners for the loss of slave property

  5. The extension of slavery to United States territories should be prohibited by the federal government, but slavery should be protected in the states where it already existed




    1. The hostility of the Know-Nothing Party was primarily directed against

  1. the growth of cities and industrial manufacturing

  2. Irish and German Catholic immigrants

  3. Free Masons and members of other fraternal orders

  4. Abolitionists

  5. Slaveholders




    1. Which of the following states the principle of Popular Sovereignty?

  1. Congress has the right to decide where slavery shall and shall not exist

  2. The settlers in a given territory have the sole right to decide whether or not slavery will be permitted there

  3. Individual citizens can decide for themselves whether or not to hold slaves

  4. The American people shall decide where slavery will exist through a national plebiscite

  5. Individual states have the right to reject congressional decisions on slavery




    1. In the 1850’s, the South differed from the North in that the South had

  1. A better developed transportation system

  2. A better educated white population

  3. Less interest in evangelical religion

  4. Fewer European immigrants

  5. More cities




    1. Which of the following statements about the Dred Scott decision is correct?

  1. It recognized the power of Congress to prohibit slavery in the territories, but refused on technical grounds to free Scott

  2. It stated that black people were not citizens of the United States

  3. It upheld the constitutionality of the Missouri Compromise

  4. It upheld the principle of Popular Sovereignty

  5. It freed Scott, but not other slaves in circumstances similar to Scott’s




    1. Which of the following provisions of the Compromise of 1850 provoked the most controversy in the 1850’s?

  1. the admission of California as a free state

  2. The establishment of the principle of popular sovereignty in the Mexican Secession

  3. The ban on the slave trade in the District of Columbia

  4. The continued protection of slavery in the District of Columbia

  5. The strengthened Fugitive Slave Law




    1. The Republican Party originated in the mid 1850’s as a sectional party committed to which of the following?

  1. Opposition to further extension of slavery into the territories

  2. Immediate emancipation of all slaves

  3. Repeal of Whig economic policies

  4. Restriction of immigration

  5. Acknowledgment of popular sovereignty as the basis for organizing the federal territories




    1. The Wilmot Proviso specifically provided for

  1. the prohibition of slavery in the Louisiana Territory

  2. the primacy of federal law over state legislated Black Codes

  3. the abolition of the internal slave trade

  4. the prohibition of slavery in lands acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War

  5. federal return of fugitive slaves




    1. The goal of the American Colonization Society was to

  1. return freed slaves to Africa

  2. recruit immigrant labor for American factories

  3. assimilate recent immigrants into American society

  4. extend U.S. influence to overseas colonies

  5. promote western expansion by funding internal improvements




    1. “Let Southern oppressors tremble. . . . I shall strenuously contend for immediate enfranchisement. . . . I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice.”

The Author of the statement above was



  1. John C. Calhoun

  2. Stephen A. Douglas

  3. Henry Clay

  4. Abraham Lincoln

  5. William L. Garrison



    1. Which of the following best characterizes the response of Great Britain and France to the American Civil War?

  1. They saw advantages in a divided Union, but pursued cautious policies toward both sides

  2. They favored restoration of the Union and actively worked to arbitrate the conflict

  3. They favored permanent separation of the Union and openly supported the South

  4. They favored restoration of the Union and openly supported the North

  5. They had no interest in the conflict and remained aloof from it




    1. In part, President Lincoln refrained from taking action to emancipate slaves until the Civil War had been in progress for almost two years because

  1. He sought to retain the loyalty of the border states

  2. Slavery still existed in most Northern States

  3. Congress had not granted him the authority

  4. He was preparing a plan to send all of the slaves to Liberia

  5. He feared a hostile reaction on the part of the British and French




    1. The North’s advantages over the South at the outbreak of the Civil War included all of the following EXCEPT

  1. Greater agreement over war aims

  2. More substantial industrial resources

  3. A more extensive railroad system

  4. Dominance in foreign trade

  5. Naval supremacy




    1. Which of the following statements about African American soldiers during the Civil War is correct?

  1. They were primarily engaged in military campaigns west of the Mississippi

  2. They were limited to non-combat duty

  3. They were barred from receiving awards for valor in combat

  4. For most of the war, they were paid less than White soldiers of equal rank

  5. For most of the war, they were led by African American officers




    1. At the beginning of the Civil War, Southerners expressed all of the following expectations EXCEPT:

  1. The materialism of the North would prevent Northerners from fighting an idealistic war

  2. Great Britain would intervene on the side of the South in order to preserve its source of cotton

  3. Northern unity in the struggle against the Southern states would break

  4. The south’s superior industrial resources would give it an advantage over the North

  5. The justice of the South’s cause would prevail




    1. The Battle of Antietam, September 17, 1862, is considered pivotal to the outcome of the Civil War because it

  1. represented the Union’s deepest thrust into Southern territory

  2. forestalled the possibility of European intervention

  3. resulted in the border states joining the Confederacy

  4. marked the first use of Black troops by the Union army

  5. Confirmed George McClellan’s status as the leading Union general

96. During Reconstruction, Southern Blacks typically did which of the following?

A. Worked as day laborers in towns and cities

B. Migrated northward, exercising their new freedom

C. Owned and worked small farms

D. Worked in mines and factories

E. Tilled farms as renters and sharecroppers
97. All of the following elements of the Radical Republican program were implemented during Reconstruction EXCEPT

A. provision of 40 acres to each freedman

B. enactment of the fourteenth amendment

C. military occupation of the South

D. punishment of the Confederate leaders

E. restrictions on the power of the President


98. The Reconstruction Acts of 1867 provided for:

A. temporary Union military supervision of the ex-Confederacy

B. federal monetary support of the resettlement of American Blacks to Africa

C. denial of Black property-holding and voting rights

D. implementation of anti-Black vagrancy laws in the South

E. lenient re-admission of the ex-Confederate states to the Union

99. Why did Congressional Reconstruction end in 1877?

A. The freed slaves had been successfully integrated into Southern society

B. The treaty ending the Civil War had set such a time limit

C. Most of the politically active Black people had left the South for Northern cities

D. The Republican and Democratic parties effected a compromise agreement after the 1876 presidential election

E. The United States needed the troops stationed in the South to confront the French in Mexico


100. The Black Codes passed in a number of southern states after the Civil War were intended to

A. close public schools to the children of former slaves

B. promote the return of former slaves to Africa

C. enable Black citizens to vote in federal elections

D. place limits on the socioeconomic opportunities open to Black people

E. further the integration of southern society


101. The direct impact of the Civil War on the economy included all of the following EXCEPT

A. the emergence of the trust as a form of business organization

B. the initiation of transcontinental railroad building

C. runaway inflation in the south

D. the creation of a more uniform national banking system

E. disruption of cotton exports to England


102. All of the following led Congress to impose Radical Reconstruction measures EXCEPT the

A. Enactment of Black Codes by southern legislatures

B. outbreak of race riots in New Orleans and Memphis

C. massive exodus of former slaves from the South

D. election of former Confederates to Congress

E. response of southern legislatures to the Fourteenth Amendment


103. Which of the following best describes the situation of freedmen in the decade following the Civil War?

A. Each was given 40 acres of land and a mule by the Union government

B. All were immediately granted political equality by the Emancipation Proclamation

C. The majority entered sharecropping arrangements with former masters or other nearby planters

D. They were requires to pass a literacy test before being granted United States citizenship

E. They supported the passage of Black Codes to ensure their economic and political rights.


104. Which of the following was a serious constitutional question after the Civil War?

A. The restoration of the power of the federal judiciary

B. The legality of the national banking system

C. The political and legal status of the former Confederate slaves

D. The relationship between the United States and Britain

E. The proposed annexation of Colombia
105. All of the following were objectives of W.E.B. DuBois EXCEPT

A. the total enfranchisement of all eligible Black citizens

B. the establishment of an organization to seek legal redress of Black grievances

C. The establishment of Black political power

D. cooperation of White people in obtaining Black progress

E. the implementation of Booker T. Washington's program for Black progress


106. The Supreme Court decision in Plessy V. Ferguson (1896) did which of the following?

A. Denounced business combinations in restraining of trade

B. Sanctioned separate but equal public facilities for African Americans

C. Declared that the Fourteenth Amendment applied principally to the protection of corporations

D. Defined the Constitution as color-blind

E. Empowered Congress to cancel treaties with American Indian tribes unilaterally


107. In his Atlanta Compromise speech, Booker T. Washington called for which of the following?

A. African American voting rights

B. An end to racial segregation

C. Support for African American self-help

D. Educational equality for African Americans

E. Racial integration of religious organizations


108. During the closing decades of the nineteenth century, farmers complained about all of the following except

A. rising commodity prices

B. high interest charges

C. high freight rates

D. high storage costs

E. large middleman profits





  1. Which of the following is a correct statement about the Gilded Age?

  1. The average real wages of blue-collar workers declined.

  2. The average number of hours people worked increased.

  3. Prices of farm products rose sharply, causing the cost of living to rise steeply.

  4. Business activity expanded and contracted frequently.

  5. The federal debt from the Civil War required heavy federal taxes.



  1. Joseph Pulitzer achieved fame and wealth as a

  1. Radio commentator

  2. Political cartoonist

  3. Photographer

  4. Film producer

  5. Newspaper publisher



  1. Which of the following was primarily responsible for the declining death rate in American cities at the end of the nineteenth century?

  1. Fewer poor people moved to the cities in the late nineteenth century.

  2. Cities began to provide free medical care to those who needed it.

  3. Doctors began to provide free medical care to poor people.

  4. Better transportation enabled more people to seek medical care.

  5. Cities built sewers and supplied purified water.




  1. The second Sioux War (1875-1876), which saw the defeat of Custer at the Battle of the Little Big Horn, was caused by all of the following EXCEPT

  1. The extension of the route of the Northern Pacific Railroad

  2. The gold rush in the Black Hills

  3. A concentrated effort on the part of the major Protestant denominations to convert the Sioux to Christianity

  4. Corruption within the Department of the Interior

  5. Overland migration of settlers to the Pacific Northwest



  1. All of the following are true of railroad expansion in the late nineteenth century EXCEPT that it

  1. Opened new territories to commercial agriculture

  2. Accelerated the growth of some older cities and created new ones

  3. Was financed by private corporations without government assistance

  4. Led to new managerial forms and techniques

  5. Was often capitalized beyond what was needed



  1. The intent of the Dawes Act of 1887 was to

  1. Assimilate American Indians into the mainstream of American culture

  2. Recognize and preserve the tribal cultures of American Indians

  3. Legally establish the communal nature of American Indian landholding

  4. Restore to American Indians land seized unjustly

  5. Remove all American Indians to the Indian Territory (Oklahoma)



  1. Which of the following constitutes a significant change in the treatment of American Indians during the last half of the nineteenth century?

  1. The beginnings of negotiations with individual tribes

  2. The start of a removal policy

  3. The abandonment of the reservation system

  4. The admission of all American Indians to the full rights of Unites States citizenship

  5. The division of the tribal lands among individual members



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