1. Demonstrate occupation specific knowledge and skills.
2. Understand foundations of Career and Technical Education.
3. Demonstrate the ability to plan and develop instruction.
4. Demonstrate the ability to deliver and assess instruction.
5. Understand how to develop, manage and maintain an effective and safe learning environment or workplace.
6. Demonstrate technological literacy.
8. Demonstrate the ability to positively affect learning of all students and address the needs of diverse students.
9. Apply leadership and management theory through research and practice in organizations.
The B.S. Ed. Career and Technical Education – Occupational Education degree program is designed to help students advance in the technical areas of their current careers and become equipped to train others in those technologies. It is suited to students who plan to enter an occupation that requires specific occupational training, are seeking career advancement or personal intellectual enrichment, or are considering a pre professional plan. This degree is especially suited for those who have occupational work experience or prior college credits. This is a 90/30 program and as such allows up to 90 hours of transfer credit. Additionally, occupational experience credit (up to 53 hours) is also available. This is not an educational certification or initial preparation degree. This program is offered online or through a Phoenix based cohort for law enforcement professionals only. Program learning outcomes are constantly revised and are part of courses throughout the program of study.
Brief History of the B.S.Ed. in Career and Technical Education: Occupational Education Program
NAU has a long history of providing a BSED degree in Career and Technical Education. Back when NAU was the Arizona State College, a BSED in Vocational Technical Education was offered as part of the School of Applied Science and Technology. In the 1980’s the program was a part of the College of Design and Technology. It was moved to the Center for Excellence in Education in the fall of 1994. Under the 2002-2004 catalog, the degree name was changed to a BSED in Career and Technical Education with an occupational education emphasis to align with a name change in the national arena. The unique program code for the Occupation Education program was first implemented in the 2003-4 academic year. This program has always been at the forefront of distance education. In the 1990’s the program was truly statewide: utilizing satellite campuses, interactive television (ITV) classrooms, and online delivery methods. The program was one of the initial adopters of online education at NAU. In 2003 the Occupational Emphasis became a completely online program, maintaining the Phoenix-based cohort program for law enforcement professional only. Today, the program is moving towards a national student audience.
The program of study requires the following courses designed to meet the identified program goals:
Students complete a 55 hour major comprised of coursework in approved career and technical education occupation areas. Coursework can include any combination of transfer credit, minor(s) from related fields, NOCTI test credit, and/or occupational experience credit.
All students take core classes in curriculum development (CTE 433), teaching methods (CTE 465), and research (CTE 340w) and complete a capstone course (CTE 495c)
Student choose 6 hours of instructional technology courses from CTE 355 Computer Applications in CTE, CTE 431 Presenting Technical Materials, and CTE 486 Multimedia Development
Students choose 12 hours of coursework in classes such as CTE 301 Integrated Teaching and Learning, CTE 392 Accident Prevention, and CTE 408 Fieldwork Experience that meet their personal career goals
B.S.Ed. in Career and Technical Education: Occupational Education (PAIR data, duplicated and unduplicated counts). The fall term of each academic year is used for the unduplicated count)
It is difficult to explain enrollment trends in the Career and Technical Education (CTE) Occupational Education program because they do not conform to changes in legislature or other university issues. For instance, the Technology Research Initiative Fund (TRIF) established in 2000 dedicated significant funds to workforce development and one of the programs that benefited from that funding was CTE. In 2004 (the oldest data available), enrollment was at around 85 students, but one would think that enrollment would be higher because of the TRIF funding. By 2006, the enrollment trend was already going down. In that year, the Carl D. Perkins Renew Act imposed new restrictions and accountability measures on CTE programs that may have caused some secondary and postsecondary institutions to reevaluate their CTE program offerings. In 2007, as it might have been expected, the enrollment trend went down, but then it recovered again in 2008, going to levels higher than the ones in 2004. After the high enrollment of 2008, the number of students pursuing a CTE program has followed a downtrend. A cursory investigation found that state CTE budged was cut by $27 million in 2011-12 school year, so the enrollment decline cannot be entirely attributed to these budget cuts. In fact, the low enrollment trend is national. For instance, a visit to the Western Oregon University website for CTE indicates that, “The Career and Technical Education Program is currently on hiatus due to low student enrollment. We do not have a date when it will be available again in the future but hope to have a schedule available this fall.” (http://www.wou.edu/provost/extprogram/careertechnical.php).
However, recent reports around the state (e.g., 21st Century Career and Technical Education Pathways On the Rise: The Role of Career and Technical Education in Arizona’s Future produced in 2013 by The Morrison Institute) highlight the need to revive and refund CTE programs if Arizona is to close the skills gap and reduce the high school dropout rate.
*Duplicated counts were obtained from PAIR data on programs. Unduplicated counts were obtained by using PAIR data for the fall term of each academic year. Unduplicated count was not available for FY 12. Graduation Rates
B.S.Ed. in Career and Technical Education: Occupational Education Degrees Awarded by Location (PAIR data, duplicated count)
*There were 3 students identified as Flagstaff students, but program is not in Flagstaff. Students sometimes classify themselves based upon residence not understanding the degree is not offered as a campus based program.
Discrepancy in graduation numbers from 2008 (42 students) to 2012 (zero students) is due to a surge and decline of enrollment coming from a partnership formed with state law enforcement agencies. The decline in enrollment, according to area coordinators in the North Valley NAU campus, is due to the development of a Public Management program that is also a 90/30 program. While the law enforcement cohorts were served in two community campuses, North Valley and East Valley, full time faculty in the CTE programs teach only online. If no other partnership is formed in the Phoenix metro area, the enrollment and graduation trend may shift to completely online.
Program Diversity and Student Engagement with Diversity
The CTE: Occupational Education degree mostly attracts White students who are in Extended Campuses and mostly attend in a part-time basis. Although all the classes are offered online and there are agreements with the Western States area, about 90% of the students claim AZ residency. In terms of gender, about one fourth of the student population is female but the percentage of women rose in the fall 12.
Number of Enrolled Students in Career and Technical Education: Occupational Education Candidates by Gender (PAIR data, fall term of each academic year used for comparison purposes)
Number of Enrolled Students in Career and Technical Education: Occupational Education Candidates by Ethnicity (PAIR data, fall term of each academic year used for comparison purposes)
B.S. Ed. In CTE Occupational Education Self-Study Summary
What is the relationship of the B.S.Ed. in Career and Technical Education: Occupational Education: Occupational Education program to NAU’s mission and strategic goals?
The program has been a leader in distance delivery for over 20 years. This learner-centered degree has had an online option since 2003 to provide convenient access for students. It was one of the first three approved 90/30 programs at Northern Arizona University. Faculty members focus on relevancy in the coursework with a well-planned curriculum that is applicable, challenging, and helps prepare students for a variety of careers upon graduation (NAU Goal 1). The program also focuses on personal contact with students. Until recently all advising was done by full-time faculty (online program) or full-time coordinators (cohort program). Online faculty members are accessible to students for assistance 7 days per week. To address the goal of student access, progress and affordability (Goal 2), this program offers year round admission and allows students to start the program at any time. The flexible program of study allows students to customize coursework to meet individual career goals. In addition, the program is focused on affordability by allowing students to achieve their bachelor’s degree in an efficient and timely manner. Because the program does not charge program fees, has very low course fees, and most courses do not require the purchase of textbooks, the students are able to earn their degree in an affordable manner. The learner-centeredness of the program is demonstrated by the degree to which the B.S .Ed. in CTE program also addresses the goal of innovative and effective practices by employing a rigorous online education program. Candidates are able to complete this degree program wherever they live and/or work. By crafting the program in this manner, the program increases educational opportunity across the state, region, and nationally.
What is the quality of the program?
Faculty: Quality of the Faculty and Curricular Offerings
This program has only one tenure track faculty member and one non-tenure track faculty member on a contract that renews annually. These faculty members serve not only the B.S.Ed. CTE programs but the M.Ed. CTE programs as well. Both faculty members teach year round to support the course offerings of both programs (including winter and summer sessions). They are supplemented with Part-time faculty. In the Phoenix program only a single course is taught by full-time faculty, the capstone course CTE 495c (previously CTE 408c). In the online program Part-time faculty are also heavily relied upon.
The two full time faculty bring to the program very different skills and professional experiences that complement each other, making it a stronger program. For instance, Dr. Michael Roberts brings the experience and skills from the construction, welding, etc. part of the degree while Ms. Nicole Hampton brings the business perspective and experience. Besides that, they take extreme care in selecting part-time faculty to teach in the program. Full time faculty members evaluate potential instructors based upon a combination of education and experience. Specifically, a combination of education in CTE, experience in CTE at the secondary or post-secondary level, and occupational experience in a CTE content area are essential to be able to teach in the MCTE program. Part-time faculty also need to show knowledge of current trends, issues, and philosophies in CTE and show an involvement in the field overall.
The table below indicates faculty teaching core courses:
CTE: Occupational Education Core Faculty
Career and Technical Education: Occupational Education Courses Taught
Career and Technical Education: Occupational Education Online Core Course
CTE340w Research & Development In CTE
CTE355 Computer Applications for CTE Teachers
CTE431 Presentation of Technical Materials
CTE433 Program. & Curriculum Planning in CTE
CTE465 Methods of CTE
N. Hampton/B. Snow
N. Hampton/B. Snow
CTE486 Multimedia Development
CTE495c Capstone in CTE
M. Roberts, N. Hampton
Online Elective Courses, Designers, and Instructors
Career and Technical Education: Occupational Education Online Elective Course
CTE300 Comprehensive CTE Programs
Croft (06), Hampton
Croft (06), Hampton, Henry
CTE301 Integrating Teaching and Learning
CTE391 Laboratory Mgt.
CTE330 Contemporary Technology Education Program
CTE392 Accident Prevention
CTE496 Career and Technical Student Organizations
Evidence of Teaching Effectiveness and Innovation Students in the B.S.Ed. in Career and Technical Education – Occupational Education complete an end of term evaluation of each course. The tables below present the course evaluation data for the two most recent academic terms. Course evaluations sample student perceptions of the quality of courses and instruction using a 5 point Likert-like survey tool. Rating of 5 indicate that the student perceived the course experience in that area to be “excellent.” Ratings of 1 indicate that the student perceived the course experience in that area to be “unsatisfactory.” To gather data on the student perceptions of teaching effectiveness and innovation, two questions from the survey were extracted for analysis. Student ratings on the extent to which the course “increased their knowledge” were used to indicate the quality of the overall instruction they received (i.e., did the student learn). The second question, “Was the course worthwhile?” serves as an indication of the student’s overall satisfaction with the course.
Student course evaluations for the numerous courses in the B.S .Ed. in Career and Technical Education during the 2011-2012 academic year are included below. Evaluations for courses in the program of studies are typically above 4.0 for all courses and all instructors. Courses in the tables below are divided into three areas: CTE Core, Instructional Technology, and Electives. The CTE Core courses are offered every semester to allow for rolling enrollment during the academic year and summer. Instructional Technology courses are offered only once a year because students are required to take two of these courses and one course is offered in each of the fall, spring, and summer sessions. CTE Electives, according to the faculty in this area, are offered according to the interests of each student. Noteworthy is the fact that evaluations are consistently at or above 4.0 regardless of courses being taught by full time or part time faculty. This speaks of the care that full time faculty put into selecting part time instructors for their courses. Another factor in receiving consistently good evaluations is the close monitoring to the standardized design and content of each course regardless of who teaches it.
CTE 340W Research and Development in Career and Technology Education
CTE 433 Program and Curriculum Planning in CTE
CTE 465 Methods of Career and Technical Education
CTE 495C Capstone in CTE
Course Number and Title
Sections Taught 2011-12
Response Rate (range)
CTE 355 Computer Applications for CTE Teachers
CTE 431 Presentation of Technical Material in Career and Technical Education
CTE 486 Multimedia Development
Course Number and Title
Sections Taught 2011-12
Response Rate (range)
CTE 300 Comprehensive CTE Programs
CTE 301 Integrated Teaching and Learning
CTE 392 Accident Prevention
Faculty Contributions to Discipline or Profession through Scholarly, Creative or Professional Activity There are only two full-time faculty members in the career and technical education area. Both core faculty members hold key state leadership positions in the career and technical education discipline. Dr. Roberts serves as an appointed member of the CTE Advisory Board to the Arizona State Board of Education. Nicole Hampton serves as an appointed member as the University Representative to the ACTEAZ Board of Directors.
Additionally, both have a very extensive and diverse scholarly and professional record. The Appendix file provides a list of scholarly and professional activities for these two core career and technical education faculty. They have made presentations at conferences, published chapters in textbooks, served as scholarly reviewers in their discipline, participated in diverse committee membership servicing their discipline at the college, university, and state levels, and held leadership roles.
Both core faculty members maintain membership and an active role in the key professional organizations in their discipline: the Association for Career and Technical Education and the Arizona Association for Career and Technical Education. Additionally, both core faculty members serve annually as University Supervisors for student teachers in the Career and Technical Education disciplines. Dr. Roberts has also served as a University Supervisor for DODDs student teachers in a variety of disciplines.
Assessment of Student Learning/Success
The B.S. Ed. in CTE Occupational Education uses two measures to assess student learning in the program. The first measure, overall grade point averages of program graduates, samples overall learning while in the program. The average GPA of a BSED CTE Occupational Education graduate is 3.64. This shows that students are successfully completing the coursework.
The second measure of student learning evaluates student performance in the final, capstone course in the program. The BSED CTE Occupational Education program has a capstone course that, with the exception of one year, has been taught by the one full-time tenured faculty member. When taught as CTE408c it was pass/fail. 111 students ( 99%) passed and 1 student ( 1%) failed (2004-2007). Now the course is being taught as CTE495c and is graded. Grade distribution for the past two years is 84 students (84%) A, 13 students (13%) B, 1 student (1%) C, 1 student (1%) F, and 1 student (1%) W (2005-2011).
Contributions of the Program to the region, state or local community
This is the only program of its kind in the region, state, and even the nation. The ability for this program to grant students up to 53 hours of occupational experience credit through testing and work experience makes this degree a viable option for many students to complete a BS degree in a timely and affordable way. This degree was one of the first NAU programs to offer a 90/30 option. This allows students to affordably complete all of their major and liberal studies requirements at a community college, and upon transfer only have to complete 30 hours of CTE classes with NAU – all of which are available conveniently online. The partnership the ground-based program has had in the greater Phoenix area with local law enforcement has afforded job advancement opportunities for many officers. The program also helps many Arizona Department of Education certified CTE teachers become “highly qualified” by providing them with a pathway to completing their BSED program. The availability of the program online has made this possible.
Strategic plans for the future
Future improvements for the B.S.Ed. in Career and Technical Education: Occupational Education fall into four broad categories: Students, faculty/staff, program enhancements, and program delivery system.
Expand the program to other regions of the state. The Phoenix area on-site programs should be expanding to include students outside the law enforcement area beginning Fall, 2012. Currently, this is the only on-site B.S. Ed. in CTE: Occupational Education program. By expanding to other key areas of the state, the program can serve an unmet need in the region and potentially increase enrollment. The program faculty members and department chair will work with the Academic Operations Unit of Extended Campuses to identify promising locations for future on-site programs.
Although the program has good diversity for Hispanic students, the program needs to actively recruit a more diverse candidate pool, including more African American and Native American students. The program faculty members will work with the administration of the College of Education and the Marketing Department to develop a plan to advertise the program to students with diverse backgrounds, specifically those from Hispanic/Latino(a) and Native American backgrounds. Also, more recruitment needs to happen within the states that form the Western Undergraduate Exchange agreement to increase out-of-state enrollment and to recruit more minority students.
There is a slight increase in the enrollment of women into the program. However, more concerted efforts need to be channeled to attract more female students into the CTE professions. The program faculty will continue working with the Marketing Department to develop advertising materials that also appeal to potential female students.
The program only has two full-time faculty members; one tenured Associate Professor and another non-tenure track faculty member on a year-to-year renewable contract (as has been the case since Fall 2001). The non-tenure track faculty member is funded out of state TRIF funds (voter approved initiative funding to deliver programs to students in rural areas and to enhance the state workforce development). Both faculty members also serve the M.Ed. CTE program. The non-tenure track, year-to-year faculty member also currently serves as the Area Coordinator for Career and Technical Education, with no program coordination release time and teaching a 4:4 load (four courses per semester). The program would benefit greatly from having the non-tenure track faculty member on a multi-year contract to provide greater stability. The program faculty members and department chair will explore the possibility of adding positions to the CTE program area to support program growth.
The program has limited opportunities to expand or move in new directions with only two full time faculty members. Presently, the majority of courses in the program are taught by part-time, contingent faculty residing in distance locations. To innovate and pursue new initiatives additional full-time faculty members are needed. This is especially true as the on-site program is planning to expand for program quality and consistency off course offerings to larger constituencies. Additional faculty members are needed.
With the recent budget cuts, travel and professional development funds have been reduced. Lacking travel and professional development funds, it is difficult to remain current on topics related to CTE. Faculty members in the B.S. Ed. in CTE – Occupational Education program need resources to attend professional development in the CTE field to ensure currency of content area knowledge in all coursework. The program faculty members will work with the department chair and the College of Education administration to identify funding sources to support professional development opportunities and travel expenses for faculty members in the CTE program.
Faculty members in the program could benefit from additional resources to maintain or increase leadership positions in key CTE organizations at the regional, state, and national levels.
Resources are needed to effectively market and recruit students into the program, especially both nationwide and internationally. This program has a lot of opportunity for growth outside of Arizona that has not been tapped into yet.
Approval was recently received from UCC to allow a total of 55 hours of occupational experience credit to align with the total hours in the major. This is accomplished through the National Occupational Competency Testing Institute (NOCTI). NOCTI is a nationally-recognized assessment that provides future students an option to earn credit hours out of work experience. NOCTI is also used for accreditation purposes. Student teachers must pass the written component of the NOCTI exam for their content area, given that there is not an AEPA portion of the test that is required to obtain a CTE certification. Fees are equal to the cost of a three credit hour course (NAU Extended Campuses/Resident Undergraduate).
The present assessment plan consists of course grades and student performance on a comprehensive examination that covers the content of the program. To gain a better understanding of the extent of student learning in the program, a more comprehensive assessment plan needs to be developed, aligned to program-level student learning outcomes and national CTE standards, and designed to sample student learning across a variety of performance-based measures. The program faculty members will work with the Office of Curriculum, Learning Design, and Assessment to develop a program assessment plan.
Extensive partnerships need to be developed with the business community of the Phoenix metro area. These partnerships will have at least three goals: (1) poll employers on the type of graduates they need to fill vacant positions, (2) serve as an advisory board to the faculty who manage the program, and (3) provide more student placements to offer more hands-on instruction.
The current on-site program in Phoenix should be reexamined to insure program integrity and instructional quality. Program faculty would like to investigate moving the Phoenix program to a hybrid delivery method, thereby allowing the full-time CTE faculty to participate in a program that has historically been taught almost exclusively by part-time, contingent faculty The provision of blended learning options will address candidate desires for an in-person, on-site program, a sentiment often expressed by students in distance locations, while also using technology to maximize the limited personnel resources of the program.
To insure consistency and continuity across the program, all faculty (including Phoenix part-time instructors) will be required use the BbLearn grade book and the GPS system to communicate student progress.
Establish a more focused rotation of courses to channel student enrollment instead of diluting it into many offerings. This will also allow that more courses are taught by full time faculty or well-established part time faculty.