Chapter 14 New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries multiple choice



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Chapter 14

New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries

MULTIPLE CHOICE


  1. Galileo believed that all aspects of nature could be described in terms of ________.

    1. spiritual harmonies

    2. the motion of atoms

    3. their relation to celestial vibrations

    4. mathematical relationships

Answer: D

Page Ref: 421

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution




  1. The scientific fact that the orbits of the planets are elliptical was discovered by ________.

    1. Newton

    2. Galileo

    3. Brahe

    4. Kepler

Answer: D

Page Ref: 421

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution




  1. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the discoveries that most captured the public imagination were made in ________.

    1. medicine

    2. natural history

    3. chemistry

    4. astronomy

Answer: D

Page Ref: 418

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution




  1. Who published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres and rejected the notion of an earth-centered universe?

    1. Tycho Brahe

    2. Nicolaus Copernicus

    3. Galileo Galilei

    4. Johannes Kepler

Answer: B

Page Ref: 419

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution




  1. Who addressed the issue of planetary motion and established a basis for physics that endured for more than two centuries?

    1. Nicolaus Copernicus

    2. Isaac Newton

    3. Johannes Kepler

    4. Galileo Galilei

Answer: B

Page Ref: 422

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution




  1. Who is known as the father of empiricism?

    1. Isaac Newton

    2. Francis Bacon

    3. Johannes Kepler

    4. Galileo Galilei

Answer: B

Page Ref: 423

Skill: Factual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science




  1. Although he invented analytic geometry, whose most important contribution was to develop a scientific method that relied more on deduction?

    1. René Descartes

    2. Francis Bacon

    3. Isaac Newton

    4. Johannes Kepler

Answer: A

Page Ref: 425

Skill: Factual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science




  1. Descartes divided existing things into two categories: body and ________.

    1. modality

    2. God

    3. metaphor

    4. mind

Answer: D

Page Ref: 425

Skill: Factual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science




  1. Hobbes saw human beings as ________.

    1. naturally docile

    2. basically good

    3. basically just

    4. self-centered, power-hungry creatures

Answer: D

Page Ref: 426

Skill: Factual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science




  1. Maria Winkelmann made her contributions in the field of ________.

    1. natural history

    2. medicine

    3. astronomy

    4. biology

Answer: C

Page Ref: 433

Skill: Factual

Topic: Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution




  1. How many people were sentenced to death for witchcraft or harmful magic between 1400 and 1700?

    1. 1.5 to 2 million

    2. 2,000 to 3,000

    3. 500,000 to 600,000

    4. 70,000 to 100,000

Answer: D

Page Ref: 440

Skill: Factual

Topic: Continuing Superstition




  1. What percentage of people accused of witchcraft in the early modern period were women?

    1. 80 percent

    2. 100 percent

    3. 50 percent

    4. 10 percent

Answer: A

Page Ref: 441

Skill: Factual

Topic: Continuing Superstition




  1. In the sixteenth century, midwifery was a trade often pursued by ________.

    1. noble women

    2. merchant’s wives

    3. elderly or widowed women

    4. male barbers

Answer: C

Page Ref: 443

Skill: Factual

Topic: Continuing Superstition


  1. Baroque art first emerged in ________.

    1. Paris, France

    2. papal Rome

    3. Florence, Italy

    4. Buckingham Palace, London, England

Answer: B

Page Ref: 445

Skill: Factual

Topic: Baroque Art




  1. Galileo named the moons of Jupiter after the Medicis because ________.

  1. he wanted to flatter his patrons

  2. looking for famous names, he could only think of the Medicis

  3. he was in love with a Medici noblewoman

  4. it was the custom to name heavenly bodies after living people

Answer: A

Page Ref: 421

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution



  1. Nicolaus Copernicus’s breakthrough was to show how ________.

  1. the earth moved around the sun

  2. the sun moved around the earth

  3. the sun was dotted with sun spots

  4. the earth was accompanied by other planets in our solar system

Answer: A

Page Ref: 419

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution




  1. The experiences of the English Civil War led Thomas Hobbes to summarize his views about strong central government in his book ________.

  1. Second Treatise of Government

  2. Leviathan

  3. Discourse on Method

  4. Gulliver’s Travels

Answer: B

Page Ref: 426

Skill: Factual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science




  1. Baroque art became associated with ________.

  1. the Renaissance

  2. English nobility

  3. Roman Catholicism

  4. popular Protestantism

Answer: C

Page Ref: 445

Skill: Factual

Topic: Baroque Art




  1. Jonathan Swift’s satire of the new sciences was ________.

  1. Leviathan

  2. Gulliver’s Travels

  3. First Treatise of Government

  4. Letter Concerning Toleration

Answer: B

Page Ref: 437

Skill: Factual

Topic: The New Science and Religious Faith




  1. Brahe’s assistant was ________.

  1. Francis Bacon

  2. Rene Descartes

  3. Johannes Kepler

  4. John Locke

Answer: C

Page Ref: 420

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution




  1. The scientist most known for his work on the laws of gravitation was ________.

  1. Tycho Brahe

  2. Isaac Newton

  3. Francis Bacon

  4. John Locke

Answer: B

Page Ref: 422

Skill: Factual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution




  1. The most famous institution dedicated to the new sciences was the ________.

  1. Berlin Academy of Science

  2. Royal Society of London

  3. University of Paris

  4. French Academy of Science

Answer: B

Page Ref: 430

Skill: Factual

Topic: The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge




  1. The woman who brought René Descartes to advise on the new science academy was ________.

  1. Queen Christina of Sweden

  2. Maria Cunitz

  3. Elisabetha Hevelius

  4. Maria Winkelmann

Answer: A

Page Ref: 432

Skill: Factual

Topic: Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution




  1. The author of Pensées, published posthumously, was _________.

  1. Denis Diderot

  2. René de Chateaubriand

  3. René Descartes

  4. Blaise Pascal

Answer: D

Page Ref: 435

Skill: Factual

Topic: The New Science and Religious Faith




  1. The clergy _________ the search for witches.

  1. condemned

  2. ignored

  3. endorsed

  4. pitied

Answer: C

Page Ref: 440

Skill: Factual

Topic: Continuing Superstition




  1. Baroque art aligned with the ideas of the scientific revolution because it ________.

  1. paralleled the interest in human anatomy and the natural world

  2. departed from classic religious scenes

  3. depicted largely mathematical ideas

  4. was commissioned by the leaders of the new scientific world

Answer: A

Page Ref: 444

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Baroque Art




  1. In the early sixteenth century, the standard explanation of the place of the earth in the heavens combined the works of ________.

  1. Ptolemy and Aristotle

  2. Plato and Aristotle

  3. Aquinas and Bacon

  4. Socrates and Plato

Answer: A

Page Ref: 419

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution




  1. Which of the following is Tycho Brahe’s major contribution to science?

  1. He created a vast body of astronomical data from which his successors could work.

  2. He did groundbreaking scientific research in which he suggested that Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun.

  3. He proved Copernicus’s research incorrect and published his own geocentric findings.

  4. He proved that the moon and other planets revolved around the earth.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 420

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution




  1. Newton was a strong supporter of ________.

  1. empiricism

  2. inspiration

  3. divine guidance

  4. rationalism

Answer: A

Page Ref: 422

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution





  1. Many proponents of mechanism believed________.

  1. machines should do the work of humans

  2. human beings were machines, slaves to religion

  3. humans are machines whose purpose is to produce knowledge

  4. the world can be explained in mechanical metaphors

Answer: D

Page Ref: 423

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science




  1. Francis Bacon believed that________.

  1. the study of nature began with the articulation of general principles

  2. knowledge of nature should be used to improve the human condition

  3. knowledge of nature was primarily useful for what it told us about the divine

  4. the best era of human history lay in antiquity

Answer: B

Page Ref: 423

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science




  1. According to Hobbes, human beings escape the terrible state of nature by ________.

  1. becoming selfless and obeying others

  2. taking part in a tacit contract

  3. naturally being sociable

  4. embracing Christianity

Answer: B

Page Ref: 427

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science



  1. In Locke’s view, the relationship between rulers and the governed has its foundation in __________.

  1. military power

  2. divine will

  3. trust

  4. economic inequality

Answer: C

Page Ref: 428

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science




  1. According to Pascal’s famous wager, ________.

  1. it is best to believe God exists and stake everything to gain the lot; if God should prove not to exist, comparatively little will have been lost

  2. it is best to live life to the fullest, regardless of your religious beliefs, and if God does exist, seek forgiveness near the end of your life

  3. it is best to believe that God does not exist so that if he does exist, you will be joyful rather than disappointed

  4. only one person in a hundred would be saved

Answer: A

Page Ref: 435

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The New Science and Religious Faith




  1. Based upon your knowledge of the text, which of the following is the most plausible cause of the witch hunts?

  1. The droughts causing famine, especially in Ireland, led to the death of many, and because the witches claimed to control the weather, they were to blame.

  2. Witches were primarily women, and because women bore children that were causing an economic and scientific panic, they were to blame.

  3. The corrupt government needed a distraction from the bad publicity, and because the same women that were suspected of being witches were spreading the news of corruption, politicians saw witch hunts as an answer to both of their problems.

  4. Religious divisions and warfare threatened the security of society, and the witches were the scapegoats of a social panic.

Answer: D

Page Ref: 440

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Continuing Superstition




  1. The witch hunts ended because, among other things, ________.

  1. they threatened the social order

  2. Protestants were more preoccupied with the devil

  3. the power of words seemed greater after Gutenberg

  4. no judges were left

Answer: A

Page Ref: 444

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Continuing Superstition


  1. Charles I’s employment of Rubens illustrated to the people of England that ________.

  1. baroque art demonstrated religious truths

  2. Charles opposed a monarchial government

  3. Galileo was incorrect and should be condemned

  4. Charles I had Roman Catholic sympathies

Answer: D

Page Ref: 445–446

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Baroque Art




  1. The most elaborative baroque monument to political absolutism was ________.

  1. Pope Urban VIII’s tabernacle in Rome

  2. Charles I’s palace in London

  3. Louis XIV’s palace at Versailles

  4. Franz Joseph’s palace in Vienna

Answer: C

Page Ref: 446

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Baroque Art




  1. The heliocentric universe was introduced by ________.

  1. Nicolaus Copernicus

  2. Isaac Newton

  3. Johannes Kepler

  4. Galileo Galilei

Answer: A

Page Ref: 419

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution




  1. As Brahe’s assistant, Kepler ________.

  1. stayed closely aligned to the theories of Brahe long after Brahe’s death

  2. grew jealous of Brahe’s fame and worked to discount the research they had completed together

  3. was considered inferior to Brahe as a scientist

  4. helped collect the scientific data and then interpreted it in his own way after Brahe’s death

Answer: A

Page Ref: 420–421

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution


  1. Prior to 1600, the scientific world viewed Copernicus’s understanding of the universe with ________.

  1. full acceptance and approval

  2. complete rejection

  3. caution and interest

  4. religious outrage and condemnation

Answer: C

Page Ref: 419

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution




  1. How did the telescope change the understanding of the universe for scientists?

  1. It increased the accuracy of physical observations.

  2. It required a new level of mathematical accuracy.

  3. It improved navigation.

  4. It required increased attention to scientific subjects.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 421

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The Scientific Revolution




  1. In his Discourse on Method, Descartes attacked ________.

  1. Locke’s method

  2. the use of reason alone

  3. the church

  4. received truths

Answer: D

Page Ref: 425

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science



  1. The idea that humans were, by nature, creatures of reason and basic goodwill is an idea embraced by ________.

  1. Locke, in opposition to the ideas of Descartes

  2. Hobbes, in opposition to the ideas of John Locke

  3. Locke, in opposition to the ideas of Thomas Hobbes

  4. Bacon, in opposition to the ideas of John Locke

Answer: C

Page Ref: 428

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Philosophy Responds to Changing Science




  1. How did scientists interact with universities during the scientific revolution?

  1. Universities were often criticized by scientists.

  2. Universities were generally praised by scientists.

  3. Scientists were eager to be hired by universities.

  4. Universities wanted to take credit for the discoveries of scientists.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 429

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge




  1. The learned societies that emerged in the 1600s are best described as ________.

  1. forums for intellectual exchange

  2. political clubs

  3. social gatherings

  4. closely linked to universities

Answer: A

Page Ref: 430

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge




  1. The Enlightenment was the ________.

  1. eighteenth-century movement that held that change and reform were both desirable through the application of reason and science

  2. twentieth-century movement that brought scientists and philosophers together to reconcile their differences on the state of the natural world

  3. eighteenth-century movement that attempted to interpret the events of scripture based on scientific observations of the natural world

  4. nineteenth-century movement that saw the growth of industry and the increase of manufacturing

Answer: A

Page Ref: 432

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge




  1. The Berlin Academy of Science denied Maria Winkelmann’s application to continue her husband’s study because ________.

  1. she was a woman

  2. her husband had died

  3. her work was considered inferior to the work of other scientists

  4. she had angered the upper level hierarchy of the Academy

Answer: A

Page Ref: 433

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution




  1. The book on astronomy by Maria Cunitz was ________.

  1. initially rejected by the scientific world

  2. recognized as her own work only after her husband added a preface

  3. considered an important accomplishment for a woman of her day

  4. widely read and distributed in universities

Answer: B

Page Ref: 432–433

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution



  1. According to Francis Bacon, the Bible and nature ________.

  1. should be explained by scientists

  2. must be compatible since they shared the same author

  3. are directly opposed on countless points and must be reconciled

  4. are inadequately explained by the Roman Catholic Church

Answer: B

Page Ref: 439

Skill: Conceptual

Topic: The New Science and Religious Faith




  1. The scope of witchcraft persecutions showed that _________.

  1. the Catholic Church was losing its power

  2. the Protestant Reformation had run its course

  3. the wars of religion were over

  4. belief in witchcraft was common

Answer: D

Page Ref: 440

Skill: Analytical

Topic: Continuing Superstition




  1. Which of the following is true of the scientific revolution?

  1. It was not rapid.

  2. It involved a large collective of people that numbered in the thousands.

  3. It was a unified movement.

  4. Everything associated with the revolution was new and groundbreaking.

Answer: A

Page Ref: 418

Skill: Analytical

Topic: The Scientific Revolution




  1. The greatest example of empiricism is shown by the work of ________.

  1. Blaise Pascal

  2. Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler

  3. Thomas Hobbes

  4. Ptolemy

Answer: C

Page Ref: 419–421

Skill: Analytical

Topic: The Scientific Revolution




  1. Opposing ________, it was natural that the scientific revolution would also often find itself in opposition to _________.

  1. reason; the church

  2. received truths; political authority

  3. the deductive method; empiricism

  4. scholasticism; universities

Answer: D

Page Ref: 429

Skill: Analytical

Topic: The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge




  1. Pascal’s attitude toward reason was that it was ________.

  1. un-Christian

  2. of little use

  3. insufficient for grasping religious concepts

  4. superior to faith in understanding the world

Answer: C

Page Ref: 435

Skill: Analytical

Topic: The New Science and Religious Faith




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