Syllable reduction



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PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES
(The undesirable substitutions, deletions and additions children do

when trying to simplify and reconstruct adult words systematically)


OMISSIONS

  1. Syllables

  1. SYLLABLE REDUCTION

    • Reducing the number of syllables in a word to one syllable

    • Deletion of a syllable nucleus in a multi-syllabic word

  • i.e.: vowel, diphthong, vocalic consonant (ɚ)

            • e.g.: flower  [] , basket  __




  1. CONSONANT SEQUENCE REDUCTION / Weak syllable deletion

    • AKA- Cluster Reduction

    • Deletion of a consonant in a sequence of two or more

    • Common in adults as well as children – not a disorder

  • i.e.: CC → C, CCC→C, or CCC→CC = string to sing or sring

  • e.g.: basket → []



  1. MULTISYLLABICITY PROBMEMS

    • Most children can produce multisyllabic words by 6 years of age

          • e.g.: extinguisher  [__]




  1. Singleton Consonants

    1. PREVOCALIC SINGLETON CONSONANT OMISSION (word-initial)

    • AKA- Initial Consonant Deletion

    • Deletion of a singleton consonant that initiates a syllable / CV syllable

    • Less common

  • i.e.: leaving off the first part of a word

            • e.g.: zipper → []




    1. INTERVOCALIC (word-medial)

  • Occur when children delete word-medial singleton consonants

  • e.g.: bucket  [_]



    1. POSTVOCALIC SINGLETON CONSONANT OMISSION (word-final)

    • AKA- Final Consonant Deletion

    • CV used by 12 months

    • Deletion of a singleton consonant that terminates a syllable

    • More common – seen in toddlers of 18 months

  • i.e.: dropping off the last consonant sound – in a word or syllable

            • e.g.: leaf → [l] ; baseball → []



  1. Consonant Sequence/Clusters




  1. REDUCTIONS (Consonant sequence reduction)

    • Extremely common

    • Occurs when one consonant (or more) in a sequence is omitted w/ at least one consonant remaining

      • e.g.: truck  [t_k]




  1. DELETIONS

    • The omission of all of the consonants in the sequence

      • e.g.: truck  [_]


MAJOR SUBSTITUTIONS


      1. FRONTING

  • The substitution of an anterior/front consonant for a posterior/rear consonant

              • i.e.: /k/, /g/, //, /h/

  • Usually continues into the same manner

  • i.e.: The velar becomes an alveolar or a bilabial

            • e.g.: cowboy → [tb]

            • k → t

            • g → d




      1. BACKING

        • The substitution of a posterior/back consonant for an anterior/front consonant

        • Less common than fronting

  • i.e.: alveolar and bilabials become a velar

            • e.g.: soap → [] ; taupe → [k]




      1. STOPPING

  • The substitution of a stop consonant for a continuant

  • i.e.: /p/, /b/, / t/, /d/, /k/, /g/

            • e.g.: mouth → [d]




      1. GLIDING

        • The substitution of a glide (/w, or j/) for another phoneme

  • i.e.: going from a liquid to a glide

            • e.g.: rock → []




      1. VOWELIZATION

        • The substitution of a vowel (a pure vowel) in the place of a vocalic liquid, or postvocalic liquid

  • i.e. the schwar “  ”= dropping the “ r ”

  • e.g.: square → [skw]

  • e.g.: battle  [b]

  • e.g.: car  [k], belt  [b]



      1. PALATALIZATION

        • Adding a palatal component to a non-palatal phoneme

  • i.e.: making a sound at the palate when it should be made somewhere else

            • e.g.: soap → []




      1. DEPALATALIZATION

        • Deleting the palatal component from a palatal phoneme

            • e.g.: shoe → []




      1. AFFRICATION

        • Adding a stop component to a continuant phoneme

        • The addition of the combination of stop and fricative

  • i.e.: turning a fricative (/s, f, v, , , ,/ into an affricate (/, /)

            • e.g.: shoe → [ ]




      1. DEAFFRICATION

        • The substation of an affricate with a continuant or a stop

        • The loss of the combination of stop and fricative

  • i.e.: taking away the stop portion of the affricate

            • e.g.: chair → [] or jump→ [dmp]


MAJOR ASSIMILATIONS

      • Assimilation involves altering a phoneme so that it takes on a characteristic of another sound in the word even if that sound has been omitted.

      • Common in adult speech

        • Bank  [bk]




              1. LABIAL (Regressive or progressive)

                • Regressive assimilation affects a sound earlier in the word

                • Progressive assimilation influences a later sound

            • i.e.: when a sound is an artifact of assimilation even though a word-final sound is omitted:

              1. VELAR

                • Occurs in the speech of some preschoolers w/

                  • e.g.: doggie  [ggi]




              1. ALVEOLAR

                • An alveolar consonant is substituted because of another alveolar in the word

                • Can be differentiated from fronting by having the child say two words, one with an alveolar (e.g. cat) and one without (e.g. car)

            • If they substitute /t/ in both words it’s fronting, if only in one word, then it is alveolar assimilation

              • e.g.: duck  [dt]




              1. PALATAL

  • e.g.: juice  []

              1. NASAL

                  • e.g.: bone  [mon]

              2. LIQUID

                  • e.g.: yellow  [ll]


GLOTTAL STOP REPLACEMENT

  • Some children mark final consonants by substituting a glottal stop intil they are able to produce word endings

  • Children with palatal anomalies often produce glottal stops excessively

  • Glottal stops sometime are produced because of dialects and in specific contexts (button  [bun]


SYLLABLE-STRUCTURE/CONTEXT-RELATED CHANGES
1. METATHESIS

        • The transposition of phonemes or syllables within words, or across word boundaries

            • e.g.: masks → [ks] ; kung pow → [p k]

2. MIGRATION



        • Similar to metathesis, but only one phoneme is moved to another place in the word

            • e.g.: star → [ts]

3. COALESCENCE



        • The replacement of two phonemes by another phoneme that contains characteristics of both original phonemes

            • e.g.: spoon → [fn]

            • The /f/ has same stridency features of /s/ and the labial feature of the /p/

4. REDUPLICATION



    • Repetition of phonemes or syllables

            • e.g.: Santa Clause → [ ], truck  [_]

5. EPENTHESIS



            • e.g.: fish → [f]

6. DIMUNITIVE



  • When /i/ is added to nouns

      • Often done when speaking to toddlers

            • e.g.: horsie

7. CLUSTER CREATION



  • When a second consonant is added to a singleton

            • e.g.: see  [sti]

VOICING ALTERATIONS


              1. PREVOCALIC VOICING

  • cup  [gp]




              1. PREVOCALIC DEVOICING

  • gum  [km]




              1. POSTVOCALIC DEVOICING (normal)

                  • page  [pe]




              1. POSTVOCALIC VOICING (rare)

                  • leaf  [liv]



VOWEL ALTERATIONS
1. VOWEL DEVIATION

        • The substitution of a vowel that might affect meaning

  • i.e.: one change of pronunciation changes the word

  • e.g.: pit → [pt]




  1. Neurtalization –

            • bed  [bd]




  1. Dialectal – many vowel differences are related to dialects (Southern America)

            • eye  []



IDIOSYNCRATIC RULES
Sometimes children have individual preferences that cannot be categorized as any type of deviation. Some have a preferred sound that they substitute for most sounds. Others may restrict these substitutions to certain positions in words
OTHER DEVIATIONS / DISTORTIONS


  1. MINIMAL PLACE OF ARTICULATION SHIFTS (Phonemic)

Such as substitutions of some anterior stridents (e.g.: /f/) for the interdental fricatives often cannot be identified unless the listener sees the child’s mouth

1. /f, v, s, z/ for “th”

            • teeth  [tf]



  1. MINIMAL PLACE OF ARTICULATION SHIFTS (Phonetic)




        1. Lisps for sibilants (stridency maintained)

          1. Frontal/Interdental Lisp – stridency is maintained, but the tongue placement is forward

            • see  [si]

            • see  [si]




          1. Lateral lisp – not a phonemic difference (i.e. does not result in a change in meaning)




        1. Other tongue protrusion – for alveolar consonants must be seen to be identified

  • note []


        1. Nasalizations – a nonphonemic alteration that sometimes is related to oral structure difficulties ()

  • see  [s]

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