Chapter 2: review related literature and studies 0 introduction



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CHAPTER 2: REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

2.0 INTRODUCTION

The proponents gathered different related literature and studies, both from foreign and local sources, in order to understand more about their study. They made the highlights of their findings in a narrative presentation following this paragraph. The review of the literature for this study focuses on creating Computerize Crew Management System for Bestlink College of The Philippines. In order to create it will need to find some helpful resources about the study.



2.1 Related Literature

This chapter will give some other information about crew management system and serve as a reference of information about crew management system.



2.1.1 Foreign Literature

2.1.1.1 Portland International Airport

United Airlines Flight 173 crew was making an approach to the Portland International Airport on the evening of Dec 28, 1978 when they experienced a landing gear abnormality. The captain decided to enter a holding pattern so they could troubleshoot the problem. The captain focused on the landing gear problem for an hour, ignoring repeated hints from the first officer and the flight engineer about their dwindling fuel supply. Only when the engines began flaming out did he realize their dire situation. They crash landed in a wooded suburb of Portland, Oregon, over six miles short of the runway. Of the 189 people aboard, two crewmembers and eight passengers died. The NTSB made several recommendations in their report including:

“Issue an operations bulletin to all air carrier operations inspectors directing them to urge their assigned operators to ensure that their flight crews are indoctrinated in principles of flight deck resource management, with particular emphasis on the merits of participative management for captains and assertiveness training for other cockpit crewmembers. (Class II, Priority Action) (X-79-17)”

The NTSB Air Safety Investigator who wrote this recommendation was aviation psychologist, Dr. Alan Diehl. He was assigned to investigate this accident and realized it was similar to several other major airline accidents including the Eastern Airline Lockheed-1011 crash into the Everglades and the runway collision between Pan Am and KLM Boeing-747s at Tenerife Dr. Diehl was familiar with the innovative research being conducted at NASA’s Ames Research Center and elsewhere and was convinced these embryonic CRM training concepts could reduce the likelihood of human error. This NTSB recommendation has been credited with launching the global crew resource management training revolution.

 

Portland Int’l Airport 

features:


  1. Five airport concourses with connectors to each area after security checkpoint

  2. Non-stop service to  more than 50 destinations worldwide

  3. Two kids play areas 

  4. ATMs located throughout the airport

  5. A variety of shops and restaurants including several Starbucks both pre and post security

  6. Free  wireless high-speed Internet access

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crew_resource_management

http://www.choicehotels.com/en/travel-ideas/airports/portland-intl-airport



2.1.1.2 UNITED AIRLINES

Captain Al Haynes, pilot of United Airlines Flight 232, credits Crew Resource Management as being one of the factors that saved his own life, and many others, in the Sioux City, Iowa, crash of July 1989.

The preparation that paid off for the crew was something called Cockpit Resource Management. Up until 1980, we kind of worked on the concept that the captain was THE authority on the aircraft. What he said goes. And we lost a few airplanes because of that. Sometimes the captain isn't as smart as we thought he was. And we would listen to him, and do what he said, and we wouldn't know what he's talking about. And we had 103 years of flying experience there in the cockpit, trying to get that airplane on the ground, not one minute of which we had actually practiced any one of us. So why would I know more about getting that airplane on the ground under those conditions than the other three. So if I hadn't used [CRM], if we had not let everybody put their input in, it's a cinch we wouldn't have made it.

United Airlines is an U.S based airline headquartered in Chicago. In May of 2010, United and Continental Airlines agreed to merge, creating the world's largest carrier. Using the United Airlines name with the Continental logo, the two airlines are now fully integrated and flying as United Airlines.

The combined United operates more than 5,000 daily departures, flying to over 370 destinations in 61 countries. Its main hubs are Chicago O'Hare, Cleveland, Denver, Houston Intercontinental, Newark, San Francisco and Washington Dulles. United Airlines traces its roots to 1926 when Walter T. Varney made air mail flights between Washington and Nevada. Interestingly, Varney was also a founder of the predecessor of Continental Airlines.

Class of Service

Continental offers up to four classes of service on its flights.



United First

United First passengers enjoy priority check-in, baggage handling and boarding. On domestic flights, they enjoy more spacious seating, complimentary beverages, meal service on flights longer than two hours, audio entertainment and movies on flights longer than three hours. On long-haul international routes, First Class is branded as Global First and passengers enjoy lounge access, amenity kits featuring Murad products, customized three-course meals, personal video monitors and fully lie-flat seats. They also have access to the United First Lounge at select airports.




United Business First

United brands their business class product on long-haul international flights as Business First. Passengers traveling in United Business First enjoy lounge access, including arrivals lounges in select airports, as well as priority check-in, boarding and baggage handling. United Business First passengers on international routes also enjoy complimentary meal and beverage service and in-seat entertainment systems. On most flights, United Business First passengers enjoy fully lie-flat seats.



Economy Plus

Economy Plus passengers are seated at the front of the Economy cabin and enjoy up to five extra inches of legroom.



United Economy

United Economy passengers traveling on domestic flights enjoy complimentary beverages, alcoholic beverages for purchase, snack boxes and entrees for purchase on select flights and video entertainment on flights three hours or longer. On international routes, United Economy passengers enjoy seatback entertainment on select aircraft, as well as complimentary meal and non-alcoholic beverage service. Alcoholic beverages are complimentary on international trans-Pacific flights and flights within Asia, and they are available for purchase on other international routes.



P.S (Premium Service)

Premium Service flights, known as p.s. flights, are available only on transcontinental routes from New York-JFK to San Francisco and to Los Angeles. p.s. flights feature reconfigured aircraft with three classes of service. United First passengers enjoy lounge access, lie-flat, leather-trimmed seats and other perks such as champagne cocktails, while United Business passengers enjoy 54 inches of legroom and individual digital media players.



Food and Drink

Passengers traveling in United Economy on flights longer than two hours receive complimentary non-alcoholic beverages and can purchase snack boxes. On flights longer than three hours, United Economy passengers are offered selections such as salads and sandwiches for purchase. United Economy passengers enjoy complimentary meals on Transatlantic, Transpacific and South American flights. Complimentary meals are offered to United First and United Business passengers on most flights longer than two hours, including a traditional Japanese meal for passengers traveling between the U.S. and Japan. On shorter flights, United First and United Business passengers enjoy complimentary brand-name snacks that vary depending on the length of the flight. Alcoholic beverages are complimentary to passengers traveling in United First and United Business, as well as to United Economy passengers traveling on flights within Asia and international trans-Pacific flights.



Entertainment

Seatback entertainment is available to all passengers traveling on B767 and B777 aircraft on international routes. United First and United Business passengers traveling on B747 and B767 aircraft enjoy entertainment systems with audio and video on demand and 15.4-inch monitors. United First passengers traveling on B777 aircraft on international itineraries enjoy a personal videotape system, featuring a selection of movies. Overhead monitors are available to passengers traveling in United Economy on B747 aircraft on international routes. On North American routes, movies are shown on flights longer than three hours, typically on overhead screens. On Premium Service (p.s.) flights between New York and San Francisco or Los Angeles, however, customers traveling in United First and United Business class enjoy noise-cancelling headphones and their own media player, featuring movies, television programming and games.

Channel 9, which is an audio channel that allows passengers to hear the transmissions between the pilots in the cockpit and the air traffic controllers, is available on select aircraft.

In-Flight Technology

Select United aircraft have in-seat power outlets. Passengers traveling in United First or United Business on international itineraries on B747 and B767 aircraft and on p.s. (Premium Service) flights on B757 aircraft enjoy in-seat 110V AC power outlets. United Economy passengers traveling on B757 p.s. flights also enjoy in-seat 110V AC power outlets. United First and United Business passengers traveling on B777 aircraft and on B767 aircraft within North America have in-seat EmPower outlets, which require an adapter to plug in a laptop.

In-flight internet service via Gogo is available to all passengers on p.s. flights; however, VOIP applications are not permitted. Satellite phone service is available for a fee on domestic and international routes aboard B747, B767 and B777 aircraft.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crew_resource_management

http://www.tripadvisor.com/Airlines-UA-United-Airlines

2.1.1.3 AIR FRANCE

One analysis blames failure to observe Crew Resource Management as being a contributing factor that led to the fatal crash of Air France Flight 447 into the Atlantic on a flight from Rio de Janeiro to Paris on June 1, 2009.

Following resolution of an earlier incident with a faulty pilot tube that lasted a few minutes, the pilot left to take a rest break, leaving control in the hands of the copilots. When the two copilots were operating the Airbus around 02:11:21, it was not clear which one of the two was in control of the plane.

Following recovery of the black box two years later, various independent analyses were published, both before and after the official report by the BEA, France's air safety board. One was a French report in the book "Erreurs de Pilotage" which leaked the final minutes of recorded cockpit conversation. On December 6, 2011, Popular Mechanics published an analysis of the accident including a translation of the leaked conversation accompanied by a step-by-step commentary.

Speaking about the actions of the two copilots in the cockpit in the minutes before the aircraft impacted the ocean, the article commentary says,

The men are utterly failing to engage in an important process known as crew resource management, or CRM. They are failing, essentially, to cooperate. It is not clear to either one of them who is responsible for what, and who is doing what.

In addition, the feedback mechanism of the side stick on the Airbus does not indicate to the pilot on the right what the pilot on the left is doing, and vice versa. So that when one copilot kept pulling back on the stick in error, the other copilot was not aware and could not take corrective action. The plane plunged into the Atlantic with a loss of 228 lives.

Air France features:



La Première / First

The A380 La Première / First cabin is the most spacious of the entire Air France fleet. With its 9 seats, it is fully equipped with every attention to detail.



  1. A private area for you to change, complete with dressing table, locker and high-quality beauty products by Biologique Recherché for well-being and privacy throughout your entire flight.

  2. A seat featuring the latest technology, including an easy-to-use remote control to help you find the position that suits you best for your trip.

  3. A bar exclusively for La Première / First passengers with a buffet, providing the
    perfect place to have a bite to eat and converse without disturbing the tranquility of the cabin.

Business

Situated on the A380´s upper deck, the Business cabin is a serene setting, conducive to both relaxation and work.



  1. The specially equipped seat measuring 2 m / 6.6 ft provides unequaled comfort, even at takeoff and landing. Also at your disposal is a storage container, an outlet to recharge your laptop and a 15-inch video screen, the largest in the entire Air France fleet.

  2. Exclusive access to "the gallery," the first-ever art gallery built into an aircraft. The gallery lets you discover exhibitions designed especially for Air France in
    partnership with the world´s most famous museums.

Premium Economy


Located between the Business and Economy cabins and separated from each by a divider, the Premium Economy cabin offers a tranquil ambiance conducive to work or relaxation.

  1. A fixed-shell seat maintains your privacy throughout the entire trip. The seat contains storage spaces and includes multiple functionalities to help you work or relax: a large interactive video screen, a noise-reducing headset and a power outlet to plug in your laptop computer.

  2. Added accessories provide even more comfort: a toiletries kit (including Clarins moisturizer), a pure virgin wool blanket, a feather pillow and more.


Please note: the Premium Economy cabin is only available in our aircraft containing 516 seats.

Economy

Equipped with new Air France exclusives, the spacious A380 Economy cabin lets you benefit from exceptional comfort on board.



  • A bigger seat with more functionality: with 30% larger armrests, it offers more space and greater intimacy. Each seat has an individual video screen.

  • Spacious bars provide the perfect place to relax and socialize amid modern decoration, offering refreshments throughout your flight.

  • To recharge your computer, outlets are available on the main deck.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crew_resource_management

http://www.airfrance.us/US/en/common/guidevoyageur/classeetconfort/A380_confort_airfrance.html

2.1.2 Local Literature

Broderick and Boudreau (1992) describe findings of a Project in the Centre for Advanced Human Resource Studies at Cornell (based on research and interviews with 500 companies) that suggest that investments in IT can significantly enhance HR management contributions to competitiveness of firms. The authors state that most of the interviewed firms do not take full advantage of possibilities offered by IT tools. Although IT can improve HR administrative, operational, and planning decisions, most organizational investments in HR information technology so far support only administrative decisions associated with payroll and record keeping.

Broderick and Boudreau examine how IT, can support HRM, identifying three types of application related to different firm-level strategies identified by Schuler and Jackson: Survey of Literature.
2.1.2.2 CEBU PACIFIC AIRLINES

...in March 1996, Cebu Pacific entered the market with a promise to give "low fare, great value" to every Juan who wanted to fly. After offering low fares to domestic destinations, CEB launched its international operations on November 2001 and now flies to Bangkok, Busan, Guangzhou, Ho Chi Minh, Hong Kong, Jakarta, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Macau, Osaka, Seoul, Shanghai, Singapore and Taipei. In short, destinations, where one can go shopping and sightseeing!

To get every Juan to more places every day, CEB operates a fleet of 39 Airbus (10 A319, 27 A320 and 2 A330) and 8 ATR 72-500 aircraft, one of the most modern fleets in Asia. With the completion of the re-fleeting program, our capacity has doubled.

CEB offers the lowest year round Lite Fares for its destinations.  CEB remains to be the pioneer in creative pricing strategies as it manages to offer the lowest fare in every route it operates. 

Cebu Pacific is not just the leader in low fares but also in innovation and creativity! CEB is the first local airline to introduce e-ticketing, prepaid excess baggage and seat selection in the Philippines. Guests have also learned to anticipate a uniquely upbeat flying experience with CEB, as this is the only domestic carrier that offers fun in the skies with its games on board popularly known as Fun Flights, together with its entertaining in-flight magazine – Smile.

CEB also partnered with various destination hotels, car rental service, travel insurance and entertainment ticketing service, to provide its guests a more convenient travel experience. On time performance, schedule reliability and a smooth, comfortable flight are just some of the things that the air-traveling public has come to expect from Cebu Pacific.

http://www.cebupacificair.com/pages/aboutus.aspx

2.1.2.3 Spirit of Manila Airlines Corporation

Spirit of Manila Airlines Corporation (Spirit of Manila) is the latest Filipino-owned airline company offering scheduled international and regional passenger services from Manila/Clark to key Asian and Middle Eastern countries. The airline is based in the Clark Freeport Zone at Diosdado Macapagal International Airport (DMIA) in Clark Field, Pampanga.

Recently, Spirit of Manila acquired a 10-hectare property at DMIA to house its fleet of Boeing aircraft. Together with its technical and investment partners, the company will start soon the construction of large hangars for aircraft maintenance services to DMIA’s regional and international carriers, including the fabrication of airframe and component overhaul on some of the most widely used commercial aircraft in the Asia Pacific Region.

Spirit of Manila is designed for Filipino and international travelers, offering safe, reliable and on-time airline services through its experienced and dedicated staff whose objective is to satisfy the expectations of its passengers. The airline offers budget fares and other innovative schemes to cater to the overseas Filipino workers. Most of the airline staff have vast experience and expertise in the areas of airline operation and maintenance. They are trained and certified in their respective line of responsibilities.

Based on a five year vision and solid plans, this bold drive creates bright future for Spirit of Manila which aims to be one of the dominant air service providers in the highly competitive airline industry in Asia. It also complements the development of DMIA as the country’s next international gateway that aims to serve millions of passengers per year.



Objectives and Goals

 Spirit of Manila capitalizes on its core of airline operation. A strong and dynamic culture of safety, reliability, affordability and convenience entrenched by customer service focused programs.

Tagged with the spirit of "I am going home," the airline offers to every flyer a new definition of a low cost carrier: the warmth and comfort of home from origin to destination and return.

In a nutshell, Spirit of Manila will provide:



  1. Efficient and reliable air transport services

  2. Customer satisfaction

  3. Automated operations

  4. Positive growth and reasonable return on equity

  5. General well-being of employees

  6. Quality and Safety Management

http://www.spiritofmanilaairlines.com/aboutus.aspx

2.2 Related Studies

2.2.1 Foreign Studies

Branch (2007:77) explains that ship manning today forms a very important part of the shipping industry in an increasingly competitive cost-conscious and complex environment. Emphasizes the trend of new technology being introduced to the industry whilst economic change to the operating environment is continuous, and concludes that the objective of ship management operations is to optimize the use of resources compatible with commercial requirements. The growth of third party ship management has been essential in the past decades and has been the outcome of companies’ pressure to adopt new technology in order to improve the quality and efficiency of their operations.

BIMCO (2009) reports that there are numerous advantages in employing ship managers, such as their ability to outsource many difficult and labor intensive elements of ship operation and management. It is an arrangement that suits an industry where demand for ships and commodities is notoriously cyclical. It also enables a small or medium sized owner to operate the vessels without the need for a large in-house organization. Moreover, placing this small fleet with a sizeable ship management company will automatically acquire the advantages of being part of a larger fleet, such as excellent purchasing power for stores, repairs and other matters, which the manager in command of a large fleet is capable to obtain. There have also been changes in the organizational structure with the appearance and development of management companies, and the extension of ‘flagging out’ and ‘second registers.

Amante, 2005:535-57 cited in Stopford, 2009:48) “with some smaller numbers

employed onshore in various shipping offices and services”
(Stopford, 2009:48) The significant and constant increase in the number of Marlow seafarers, especially during the past decade, triggered the Directors’ decision to invest in methods of

Improving the company’s productivity at all organizational working levels. The need for

Efficient handling and control of the huge volume of accounts’ payable and related

Documentation was one of the main areas of their attention, mainly due to the fact that

both the crewing operating as well as administrative cost had shown no significant

Economies of scale and the company’s total annual expenses’ turnover exceeded USD

230 million. It is worth mentioning that crewing costs typically constitute approximately

40% of a ship’s total daily operating cost, and thus plays a significant role in the overall


https://eprints.mdx.ac.uk/7917/1/Menelaou-DProf..pdf
2.2.2 Local Studies

This will serve as new information about the system given from our local country that encountered the same system.



2.2.2.1 Dr. Linda Diehl

.   Dr. Diehl was familiar with the innovative research being conducted at NASA’s Ames Research Center and elsewhere and was convinced these embryonic CRM training concepts could reduce the likelihood of human error.[1] This NTSB recommendation has been credited with launching the global crew resource management training revolution.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crew_resource_management

2.2.2.2 Donald H Jenkins

Intensive care frequently results in unintentional harm to patients and statistics don’t seem to improve. The ICU environment is especially unforgiving for mistakes due to the multidisciplinary, time-critical nature of care and vulnerability of the patients. Human factors account for the majority of adverse events and a sound safety climate is therefore essential. This article reviews the existing literature on aviation-derived training called Crew Resource Management (CRM) and discusses its application in critical care medicine. CRM focuses on teamwork, threat and error management and blame free discussion of human mistakes. Though evidence is still scarce, the authors consider CRM to be a promising tool for culture change in the ICU setting, if supported by leadership and well-designed follow-up.

2.2.2.3 Jose R. Ruiz

Crew Resource Management as an academic field of study has only been in existence for a relatively short period. However, because of its importance to the aviation community and the airlines in particular, there is a small but growing community of researcher and academicians that are specializing in its postulates. Despite the importance of research to the aviation industry and to aviation education, no comprehensive compendium of point specific literature exists. This void presents an obstacle for both researchers and practitioners in locating articles that may be relevant to their work. In addition, because of a narrow scope of many aviation education programs, researchers seeking information are often unaware of specificity's that address the totality of any particular program. Thus, the authors set out to identify a particular point specific niche of articles relating to a particular time segment of the unfolding Crew Resource Management Training field.

Using descriptive research methodology and a systematic and thorouh computer methodology, three hundred eighty-five citations were identified. These then were culled of duplication and a resultant sixty-six representative articles, with abstracts were found to coincide to the period of 1993 to 1998. These were further refined to key topics of a) the current status of CRM training and research, b) evolution of CRM concepts, c) measuring methods, and d) application of CRM.

http://commons.erau.edu/jaaer/vol8/iss3/2/



Project Study 1 and 2 - Crew Management System



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