Chapter 21—Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World 1750-1850



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Chapter 21—Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World 1750-1850 (pages 588-617)


  1. What two western European powers fought for control during the 1700s? List the battles they fought in, when they were, and what was the result?

  2. Describe the Enlightenment thoughts of John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau.

  3. What is the ancien regime?

  4. What role did women play in the dissemination of new Enlightenment ideas?

  5. Explain what this statement means: “These thinkers looked to Britain’s North American colonies for confirmation of their belief that human nature unconstrained by the corrupted practices of Europe’s old order would quickly produce material abundance and social justice.” (page 593)

  6. Why was Benjamin Franklin considered a symbol of this era? Provide both political and intellectual examples to support this statement.

  7. What is the main idea of the 4th paragraph on the right column of page 593?

  8. What were the beliefs of the Counter Enlightenments? (20 points)

  9. How did folk culture lead to protests? What does this statement mean about local beliefs: “Long live the King. Death to bad government.”? (page 594) (20 points)

  10. What does this statement mean on page 595: “Moreover, the medieval idea of social order determined by birth had been replaced by a capitalist vision that emphasized competition and social mobility.”?

  11. Why did Britain pass the Proclamation of 1763? What effect did it have?

  12. Why did some colonists protest the taxes that were placed on them by England? How did they protest them?

  13. What happened in Boston in 1770? What was England’s response?

  14. What were the goals of the Declaration of Independence?

  15. Why were the British not able to effectively use loyalist and pacifists to their benefit during the Revolutionary War?

  16. Describe the role Native American Indians played at this time. (25 points)

  17. What help did the French provide to the colonists? Why do you think they helped them out?

  18. Why were the new state constitutions widely published throughout Europe?

  19. Why were the Articles of Confederation weak?

  20. List the major aspects of the US Constitution.

  21. Describe each of the 3 levels of French society (estates). (30 points)

  22. Why by the mid 1700s was the French government/economic society starting to collapse?

  23. What reforms were tried by several French kings? Why were they not effective?

  24. Who made up the National Assembly? Why did the other estates refuse to allow the Third Estate much power?

  25. Why did French common people storm the Bastille? What impact did this have on the peasants in the countryside? What did the National Assembly do? (25 points)

  26. What did the Declaration of the Rights of Man do?

  27. What does this statement mean: “Here the revolutionary link between the material deprivation of the French poor and the political aspirations of the French bourgeoisie was forged. “?

  28. What did the Legislative Assembly do in the new French Constitution?

  29. Why did France go to war in 1791? Were they successful?

  30. What happened to King Louis XVI?

  31. Who was Maximillien Robespierre? What was the job of the Committee of Public Safety?

  32. How did the Reign of Terror finally end?

  33. How was Napoleon Bonaparte able to gain power? What is popular authoritarianism?

  34. What two positive changes and two negative changes did Napoleon bring to France? (20 points)

  35. Describe Napoleon’s military impact. Read pages 605-608. (30 points)

  36. Who were the gens de couleur? What did they want to see happen in Saint Dominique?

  37. How were slaves able to defeat their masters? How important was Toussaint L’Ouverture to their cause?

  38. What was the hope of Metternich and the Holy Alliance?

  39. Create Main Idea sentences for each paragraph under Nationalism, Reform, and Revolution 1821-1850 (pages 612-614) (40 points)

  40. Read the Comparative Perspectives & Summary—Explain how the American Revolution was different than the French Revolution and Haitian Revolution. Why do you think this is? (30 points)



Chapter 22—The Early Industrial Revolution 1760-1851 (pages 619-643)


  1. What caused a population explosion in England in the 1800s? What part of the world did this affect the most?

  2. What were the positive/negative effects of the “enclosure moment”?

  3. What are cottage industries?

  4. What new inventions helped to spur this industrial revolution?

  5. Why was Britain the starting point for the Industrial Revolution? Use specific examples. (40 points)

  6. Why did the rest of continental Europe lag behind? What did they do to get up to speed? Provide 4 examples (30 points)

  7. What were the 5 innovations that spurred industrialization?

  8. How did Josiah Wedgwood institute mass production? What did this make him able to do?

  9. Describe the mechanization transformation of the cotton industry. (30 points)

  10. What impact does mechanization have? What did it do to foreign markets?

  11. How did English cotton mechanization impact America?

  12. How did the English find a way to produce iron cheaply?

  13. What was the “American system of manufacturing”?

  14. Why was the steam engine such an important invention during this time?

  15. What were the railroads able to now for countries?

  16. What did the electric telegraph do for the world?

  17. Why did developers need to build row houses?

  18. Describe the city—use page 632-633 to help you (25 points)

  19. Describe “slash-and-burn agriculture on an industrial scale”. (page 633)

  20. How did iron become cheaper than wood?

  21. Describe working conditions/choices for women and children. ( 25 points)

  22. How did American industrialization differ from Britain’s industrialization?

  23. What happened in Ireland in 1847? What impact did it have?

  24. What was the cult of domesticity?

  25. What did Adam Smith believe in according to his, Wealth of Nations?

  26. What were the beliefs of positivists and utopian socialists?

  27. What were some reforms made for factory and mine workers?

  28. How did the non-industrialized world respond to industrialization? Reference China, India, and Egypt in your response. (30 points)

  29. READ the SUMMARY



Chapter 23—Nation Building and Economic Transformation in the Americas 1800-1890 (pages 645-677)

  1. What ignited Latin America’s struggle for independence?

  2. What was the Juanta Central? How did Spain’s colonies react to it?

  3. Explain how Gran Colombia was formed. (40 points)

  4. Describe how Argentina was bale to gain independence. Why did they face so much trouble after gaining it? (30 points)

  5. What happened on September 16, 1810 in Mexico? What was the result of this speech?

  6. By 1823, what form of government was in place in Mexico?

  7. How was Brazil unique in its quest for independence??

  8. What did Pedro I do for the slaves? What happened by 1889?

  9. Why was the American constitution able to sustain through hardships than the other constitutions throughout the Americas?

  10. Describe the political struggle in Canada at this time. (20 points)

  11. Who was a caudillo? Be sure to explain what personalist leader means in your explanation.

  12. Describe the actions of Paez and Jackson at this time. (pages 655-657) 40 points

  13. Why were new national governments often weaker than the colonial governments they replaced?

  14. Describe what happened to Gran Colombia.

  15. What regional issues were prevalent in the US? What did it lead to?

  16. Why were the French in Mexico? What role do the French play in Mexican history?

  17. Describe/Explain the conflicts of the Amerindian peoples with the US. Be sure to include all the conflicts in each region. (30 points)

  18. How did the people who fought against the natives justify their actions?

  19. What was the Caste War? Why did it happen?

  20. Describe the end of slavery in the US, Brazil, and Cuba. (30 points)

  21. What impact did the new immigration have on the transformation of the Western Hemisphere?

  22. What were the reactions of nativists to the huge increase in immigrants? Provide 5 examples. (20 points)

  23. What is acculturation? Why do you think countries would force values on the immigrants?

  24. Why was Latin America slow in their economic growth? Provide 2 explanations. (20 points)

  25. Why was the US so economically successful by the end of the 19th century? Provide 4 explanations (20 points)

  26. How was the environment altered throughout the Western Hemisphere? Provide 4 examples. (20 points)

  27. READ THE COMPARTIVE PERSEPECTIVES & SUMMARY!!!



Chapter 24/25—Africa, India, & the New British Empire 1750-1870 (pages 623-649)


  1. Why was the Zulu Kingdom formed? Who was their first ruler?

  2. Explain the jihad movement that started in the 1770’s. Why did it start and what were the results?

  3. Assess the importance of slavery in the Sokoto Caliphate.

  4. Explain what Muhammad Ali does in order to modernize Egypt.

  5. What did Ismail mean with this statement, “My country is no longer in Africa, it is in Europe.” What does he do to show this?

  6. How are Europeans powers able to occupy Egypt?

  7. Explain Ethiopia’s introduction into modernization.

  8. Describe France and Algeria’s early relationship. Why did their relationship sour? What did France do?

  9. Describe the war between France and Algeria. What was the result? What will the result be for the rest of Africa? (20 points)

  10. Describe the findings of the explorers who traveled the African continent. Who were they and why did they go? What was their impact and importance? (35 points)

  11. What goods were traded by Africans? Why did some Africans not want the slave trade to end?

  12. How did palm oil production impact the Niger River Valley?

  13. How did the suppression of the slave trade spread Western culture in Africa? (30 points)

  14. Where did 2/3’s of African slaves end up in the 1800’s?

  15. Explain why the eastern African states carved out by Sultans Tippu Tip & Omar considered “Secondary empires”? Explain their economic importance. (25 points)

  16. Why did Egypt invade Sudan? What impact did these types of actions have on Africa?

  17. Who were sepoys? Why were they needed?

  18. What were 4 policies the British instilled in India to have them emulate England? (20 points)

  19. How did a British takeover impact regular Indians? How did it impact their economy, both positively and negatively? (25 points)

  20. Why were the sepoys getting more frustrated with the British? What was the Rebellion of 1857? (Use page 635)

  21. What political reforms were made in India after the Sepoy Rebellion?

  22. What was the job of the ICS? Why were Indians pretty much denied entrance?

  23. What did increase in movement lead to in India?

  24. What did Rammohun Roy and his Brahmo Samaj try to do for India?

  25. What was the role of the Indian National Congress?

  26. What’s the main idea of the 1st paragraph under “Britain’s Eastern Empire”?

  27. Why was Britain able to overtake the Dutch possessions overseas? What were they?

  28. Who were Afrikaners? Why did they not like the British? What did they do? (20 points)

  29. Why were the “straits settlements” important to Britain?

  30. Why did England acquire so many territories at this time?

  31. How did improved shipbuilding technology impact trade?

  32. When and who explored Australia and New Zealand? Who were the first people to populate this area (besides the natives that were already there)?

  33. What happened to the “aborigines” living on this continent at the beginning of European settlements? What happened to them after a stable English government was put into place? (25 points)

  34. What exports were from Australia and New Zealand?

  35. Why did laborers from China, India, and Africa migrate to these colonies to work? (15 points)

  36. Read the Conclusion, carefully.



Chapter 24/25—Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism 1800-1870 (pages 679-705)


  1. What French/European initiatives were implemented by Muhammad Ali and Ibrahim?

  2. Describe how Serbia was able to gain its independence from the Ottoman Empire.

  3. What effect did Selim III’s death have on the reform movements within the Ottoman Empire?

  4. How was Greece able to gain its independence?

  5. What did the Ottoman Empire do in response to their loss of Greece? What happened to the Janissary?

  6. What was the Tanzimat? What did it do for the Ottoman Empire? Positive & Negative (25 points)

  7. What cultural and social effects did improvement in military technology have on the Ottoman Empire? Provide 5 examples (20 points)

  8. Create a main idea sentence for the first paragraph under “The Crimean War and Its Aftermath” (pg 686).

  9. Explain the Crimean War. Who fought who, where, why, what happened? (30 points)

  10. Explain the short term effects of this war.

  11. Explain the long term effects of this war.

  12. Describe the influences of Europe on the Ottoman Empire after the Crimean War.

  13. What was extraterritoriality?

  14. What was happening to the economy of the Ottoman Empire?

  15. Who were the Young Turks?

  16. Why was the Russian Empire more aligned with the Ottoman Empire than the other European powers?

  17. Why did Nicholas I want to limit the number of educated peoples in his country if this would stymie their industrial growth?

  18. Who was the “sick man of Europe”? Why were they allowed to survive?

  19. How were the Russians able to defeat Asian enemies when they were soundly defeated by European powers in the Crimean War?

  20. What impact did Russian expansion have on Iran and the Ottoman Empire? What areas became buffer zones? What country was truly afraid of the expansion by Russia? Why? (35 points)

  21. VENN DIAGRAM—Compare and Contrast the Ottoman Empire with Russia

  22. Create main idea sentences for each paragraph under “Economic and Social Disorder” (pages 694) (30 points)

  23. Describe the Opium War. Be sure to explain the results and the warfare practices that were used. (25 points)

  24. Explain what the Treaty of Nanking said. What impact did this have on China?

  25. What part of East Asia does France gain control of?

  26. What was the cause of the Taiping Rebellion? Who was their leader and what did he “preach” to motivate people to join? (20 points)

  27. How did the Qing react after Nanjing fell in 1853? How did the Taiping leaders respond to this? (20 points)

  28. Why did Britain and France get involved? Who did they fight first and why?

  29. Why were the casualties so high (30 million) during the Taiping Rebellion?

  30. What were the three long term impacts of the Taiping Rebellion?

  31. What did Zeng Guofan do for China?

  32. How did the power of the Qing Dynasty come to an end?

  33. Read the Comparative Perspectives & Summary—What European pressures were faced by the Qing, Russian, and Ottoman Empires? Why was Russia considered European? Why were the Qing and Ottoman Empires looked down upon? (20 points)



Chapter 26—The New Power Balance 1850-1900 (pages 739-767)


  1. What happened on January 18, 1871 in Versailles, France?

  2. What does this statement mean about the improvement of the steamships and telegraphs: “annihilation of time and space”? (page 742)

  3. What changes to the steel process impacted the great leap in production from 1870 (1/2 million tons) to 1900 (28 million tons)?

  4. What major advances were made in chemistry during this time period? Provide 5 examples.

  5. What impact does electricity have on city life at this time?

  6. Create main idea sentences for the “World Trade and Finance” section (pages 744). (25 points)

  7. What were the causes behind massive migration movements at this time?

  8. Why did the population increase so much at this time? Provide 4 examples.

  9. How did industrial cities improve daily and personal life?

  10. Describe the role of middle and upper class women. How had it progressed? How had it digressed? (20 points)

  11. Who were the bourgeoisie? Who were the proletariat?

  12. Describe the philosophy of Karl Marx.

  13. How did labor unions feel their needs would be best met?

  14. How did language influence, both positive and negative, nation building?

  15. How did Italy become unified? (30 points)

  16. What were the 2 sides of German unification? What were their differences? What benefits did Prussia have? (15 points)

  17. How was Germany united and what made France so mad? (25 points)

  18. Why were more schools opened in the late 1800s?

  19. What did Wilhelm I do to improve life in Germany and protect German world power? What did Wilhelm II do to destroy this? (20 points)

  20. What problems faced France at this time? (BONUS—what was the Dreyfus Affair? Do research outside of your textbook; +30 points)

  21. Why was nationalism difficult to achieve in Austria-Hungary and Russia?

  22. What did Tsar Alexander II do in 1861? Why did this not help Russia as much as he hoped?

  23. What was so shocking about the Russo-Japanese War?

  24. Explain the political structure of Japan. Why were they more open to foreign influences than China?

  25. What was the Treaty of Kanagawa? How did provincial shoguns react to it?

  26. When was Japan’s civil war? Who took control of Japan?

  27. What did the Meiji oligarchs do to make Japan a new world power? (read all of 758-760) (30 points)

  28. What are “spheres of influence”? What were Japan’s spheres of influence? Why did they feel they needed to have them? How did they control of them? (20 points)

  29. What was the Boxer Uprising?

  30. Read the Summary and explain why 1850 to 1914 would be considered a “golden age” in world history. (20 points)



Chapter 27—The New Imperialism 1869-1914 (pages 768-794)


  1. Explain the variety of people that were present at the opening of the Suez Canal. Why were they all there? What was the significance?

  2. Explain each of the three motives for the new wave of imperialism—political, cultural, & social (30 points)

  3. What tools were used to help imperialistic nations? Provide 6 examples. (30 points)

  4. What did the Battle of Omdurman show/prove?

  5. How did European nations run colonial governments?

  6. How did Britain and France gain power in Egypt? What were their roles?

  7. What happened in 1882? How long did the army stay? What was so important that they needed to be there? (15 points)

  8. How did Britain impact Egypt? How did Egyptians feel about the British being there?

  9. Explain how France acquired such a vast amount of territory in Africa?

  10. What was the result of the Berlin Conference?

  11. How was West Africa different from East Africa in economic power? What did East Africa do? How successful was this? (15 points)

  12. How was South Africa different than the rest of the African continent during this time period?

  13. How as South Africa finally taken over? Why were Afrikaners mad at the British?

  14. What company did Cecil Rhodes start? What are they known for? What two countries did he establish?

  15. Describe the causes and results of the South African War. (20 points)

  16. What happened in South African after the war was over?

  17. List some examples (4) of Africans resisting European dominance.

  18. How were many African women impacted by this new imperialism?

  19. What areas did the Russians take over in Central Asia? What impact did the Russians have on these people?

  20. Using the map on 785 and the reading on 784-789, list the imperialist powers and the areas that they controlled in Southeast Asia and Indonesia.

  21. What impact did the Europeans have on this area? What two things did they provide for the people?

  22. What social changes developed because of a rise in the population in this area?

  23. Why did the US go into Hawaii? When did we acquire it?

  24. Why did the US go to war with Spain in 1898?

  25. How did the Filipino people react to US control? (20 points)

  26. What is free trade imperialism? How was this used in Latin America? (20 points)

  27. What were the 4 reasons Europeans avoided expanding into Latin America? (30 points)

  28. Explain the Spanish American War. Who fought where and why? What was the result? (15 points)

  29. Provide main idea sentences for each paragraph under “American Intervention in the Caribbean and Central America, 1901-1914” (pgs. 790-791) (25 points)

  30. What was the relationship between new imperialism and global trade? (30 points)

  31. What effects did the new imperialism have on the environment in Africa, Asia, & Latin America? (30 points)

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