Affricate phonemes in English: /t/, /d--The only affricates in English that can occur
at both the beginning and the end of words.
The similarities between fricatives and stops:
As in stops, the vowels in voiceless fricatives are shorter than those in voiced fricatives. strife vs. strive; teeth vs. teethe; rice vs. rise; mission vs. vision
Stops and fricatives are the only English consonants that can contrast by voicedness.
A voiceless stop at the end of a syllable (as in “hit”) is longer than the corresponding voiced stop (as in “hid”). Likewise, the voiceless fricatives are longer than their voiced counterparts in pairs such as “safe; save”, “lace; laze”.
Like stops, voiced fricative at the end of a word, as in “prove, smooth”, “choose, rouge” are voiced throughout their articulation only when they are followed by another voiced sound (e.g. “prove it”). They are not fully voiced while followed by a voiceless sound (e.g. “prove two times two is four”) or by a pause at the end of a phrase (e.g. “try to improve”).
stops , fricatives : Obstruents
Approximants /w, r, j, l/:
/l/, /j/, /w/: voiceless after /p/, /t/, /k/
“play” [ple], “pew” [pju], “twice” [twa]
/l/: velarization (the arching upward of the back of the tongue) at the end of a
word. “leaf” [lif] vs. “feel” [fil ]
British Speakers: /l/ velarized when it is word final or before a consonant
Some speakers of English also sound /h/ before /w/, so they contrast “which” [hw] and “witch” [w]. (The [w] after /h/ is voiceless and sometimes transcribed as [: “which” [h], “whether” [h
RULES FOR ENGLISH CONSONANT ALLOPHONES
Consonants are longer when at the end of a phrase.
“bib, did, don, nod”
Voiceless stops /p, t, k/ are aspirated when they are syllable initial.
“pip, test, kick” 
Voiced obstruents (= stops and fricatives) (that is, //) are voiced through only a small part of articulation when they occur at the end of an utterance or before a voiceless sound.
/v/ in “ try to improve”, /d/ in “add two”.
Voiced stops and affricates (/) are voiceless when syllable initial, except when immediately preceded by a voiced sound.
The approximants // are at least partially voiceless when they occur after initial //.
“play, twin, cue” 
Voiceless stops // are unaspirated in words.
“spew, stew, skew”
Voiceless stops and affricates // are longer than the corresponding voiced
stops and affricates // when at the end of a syllable.
“cap” vs. “cab”, “back” vs. “bag”
Stops are unexploded when they occur before another stop in words.
“apt” [”rubbed” [
In many accents of English, syllable final // are accompanied by a glottal
“tip, pit, kick” [
In many accents of English, // is replaced by a glottal when it occurs before an alveolar nasal in the same word.
“beaten, kitten" 
Nasals are syllabic at the end of a word when immediately after an obstruent.
“leaden, chasm” [
The lateral // is syllabic at the end of a word when immediately after a consonant.