Department of multimedia and graphic arts academic year



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TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF CYPRUS

DEPARTMENT OF MULTIMEDIA

AND GRAPHIC ARTS

ACADEMIC YEAR 2013-2014

FALL SEMESTER

PGT 320

DESIGN FOR ALL


INSTRUCTOR

FERNANDO LOIZIDES


«HEARING LOSS AND SPEECH»


Rallia Minkova










Content

Definition p.3

Types of hearing loss p.4
Degree of hearing loss p.5

Age categories p.6

Understanding / knowledge level / Learnability p.7

Communication p.8

Accessibility Features / Acceptant Technologies p.9

References p.16

Questionnaire p.18

Analysis questionnaire p.19

Persona p.20

Suggestions for prototype p.21

Poster Suggestions p.22

Poster p.24



Definition

«Hearing loss is considered to be the most common inherited disorder in newborns. Is one of the most common disorders and is the consequence of sensor neural and / or conductive malfunctions ear. "

People can’t think without a language, at least not at the level humans are accustomed to. That's why deafness can have far more serious consequences than blindness, developmentally speaking. The blind suffer many hardships, not the least of which is the inability to read in the usual manner. But even those sightless from birth acquire language by ear without difficulty in infancy, and having done so lead relatively ordinary lives. A congenitally deaf child isn't so lucky, unless someone realizes very early that he's not talking because he can't hear, his grasp of communication may never progress beyond the rudiments.

If someone becomes totally deaf until after he has acquired language his problems are not minor, but manageable. He thinks in whatever spoken language he has learned. Given some commonsense accommodation during schooling, he will progress normally intellectually. Depending on circumstances he may be able to speak and lip-read.



Types of hearing loss


  • Conductive hearing loss

Barrier to conduction of air prevents proper transmission of sound waves through the outer ear canal and / or until the instrument. Almost equal to the loss of all frequencies. May be congenital or caused by accident. Some conductive hearing loss can be treated surgically or eardrum, stapedectomy, and the use of hearing aids and assistive listening devices.


  • Sensor neural

It is the lack of perception of sound due to a defect of the screw and / or the division of acoustic vestibulocochlear nerve. This type of hearing loss is usually irreversible.

It tends to be uneven, with a greater loss in higher frequencies

Many patients with sensor neural hearing loss may be authorized or corrected by the use of hearing aids otherwise used cochlear implant. Device, which bypasses the damaged structures of the cochlea and stimulates the auditory nerve function.


  • Auditory Neuropathy (AN)

Characterized physiological effects and OAE response significantly abnormal ABR, even when measured with very loud sounds. The damaged area for AN is often unknown. This may be congenital or acquired. Audiograms of children with AN differ from hearing within normal limits with complaints of difficulty hearing in noise to severe hearing loss.



  • Auditory Processing Disorder (APD)

Is a deficit in neural processing of acoustic stimuli is not due to higher order language, cognitive, or other relevant factors. APD can lead to or be associated with difficulties in the higher-order language, learning, and communication functions. This type of hearing problem affects more complex processes audio, such as understanding speech when there is background noise. The effects of hearing sensitivity and physiological tests as otoacoustic emissions (OAE) and auditory brainstem (ABR) is normal in children with central auditory disorder.

Degree of hearing loss

The degree of loss can be the same in both ears (symmetric hearing loss) or could be different for each ear (asymmetrical hearing loss). Hearing loss refers to a person with hearing loss based on residual hearing to communicate through speech and lip - reading.

-10 - 15 dB HL Normal Hearing

16-25 dB HL slight hearing loss

26-40 dB HL mild hearing loss

41-55 dB HL moderate hearing loss

56-70 dB HL moderately - severe hearing loss

71-90 dB HL severe hearing loss

> 90 dB HL profound hearing loss

Age categories


About one child in a thousand is born with no ability to hear anything. Years ago such people were called deaf-mutes. Often they were considered retarded, and in a sense they were because they'd never learned language, a process that primes the pump for much later development. The critical age range seems to be 21 to 36 months. During this period children pick up the basics of language easily, and in so doing establish essential cognitive infrastructure. Later on it's far more difficult. If the congenitally deaf aren't diagnosed before they start school, they may face severe learning problems for the rest of their lives, even if in other respects their intelligence is normal.

Normal hearing in the first six months of life is also considered vital for normal speech and language skills. Therefore, early identification and appropriate intervention within the first six months of life has been shown to prevent or reduce many of the negative consequences and facilitate learning.

Even children who have mild or unilateral permanent hearing loss may have difficulty with speech understanding, especially in a noisy environment, and problems with education and psychosocial. Children with hearing loss often have therapist deficits and exhibit lower academic performance and poorer social - emotional development than their peers with normal hearing.


  • Adults / elderly

The hearing loss is that gradually occurs in most individuals as they grow. Hearing loss is a common disorder associated with aging and is ranked as the third most prevalent chronic disease in the elderly after arthritis and hypertension.

The loss associated with presbycusis is usually greater for high-pitched sounds. However, the same person may be able to clearly hear the sound in the low

Presbycusis most often occurs in both ears, affecting them equally. Because the process of loss is gradual, people who have presbycusis may not realize that their hearing is reduced.

The negative effects of hearing loss in older adults are important. Hearing loss associated with depression, social isolation, low self-esteem, and functional, especially for those suffering from hearing problems which have not yet been evaluated or treated for hearing loss.



Understanding / knowledge level / Learnability

Children with hearing loss learn concrete words like cat, jump, five, and red more easily than abstract words like before, after, equal to, and jealous. They also have difficulty with function words like the, an, are, and a. They have difficulty understanding words with multiple meanings. For example, the word bank can mean the edge of a stream or a place where we put money. Children with hearing loss often cannot hear word endings such as -s or -ed. This leads to misunderstandings and misuse of verb tense, pluralization, no agreement of subject and verb, and possessives. They often cannot hear quiet speech sounds such as "s," "sh," "f," "t," and "k" and therefore do not include them in their speech. Thus, speech may be difficult to understand.


Theory-of-mind (ToM) abilities were studied in 176 deaf children aged 3 years 11 months to 8 years 3 months who use either American Sign Language (ASL) or oral English, with hearing parents or deaf parents. A battery of tasks tapping understanding of false belief and knowledge state and language skills, ASL or English, was given to each child. There was a significant delay on ToM tasks in deaf children of hearing parents, who typically demonstrate language delays, regardless of whether they used spoken English or ASL. In contrast, deaf children from deaf families performed identically to same-aged hearing controls (N=42). Both vocabulary and understanding syntactic complements were significant independent predictors of success on verbal and low-verbal ToM tasks.
Reading to children improves vocabulary acquisition through incidental exposure, and it is a best practice for parents and teachers of children who can hear. Children who are deaf or hard of hearing are at risk for not learning vocabulary as such. A procedure for using books read on DVD in American Sign Language with English-language learners who are deaf or hard of hearing. This research examined the effectiveness of DVDs as a tool to increase a student’s production of the printed word in American Sign Language. The researchers used expository books with math vocabulary in a multiple-baseline design (ABC) across three sets of five vocabulary words. Four participants aged 10 to 12 with severe to profound hearing loss engaged in vocabulary activities using the DVD math expository books read through American Sign Language. DVDs alone were less effective for increasing vocabulary than when accompanied with preteaching of the target vocabulary words.
Communication
The major challenge faced by people with hearing problems is communication. Hearing individuals differ greatly in their communication skills.

Among the conditions affecting the development of communicative skills of the hearing impaired are




  • personality

  • intelligence

  • the nature and degree of deafness

  • the degree and type of residual hearing

  • degree of benefit derived from amplification with hearing aid

  • the family environment

  • age of onset

Sign language

The profoundly deaf can and do acquire language. It's just gestural rather than verbal. The sign language most commonly used in the U.S. is American Sign Language, or just Sign. Those not conversant in Sign may suppose it's an invented form of communication like Esperanto or Morse code. It's not. It's an independent natural language, evolved by ordinary people and transmitted culturally from one generation to the next. It bears no relationship to English and in some ways is more similar to Chinese, a single highly inflected gesture can convey an entire word or phrase.



Sign can be acquired effortlessly in early childhood — and by anyone, not just the deaf (e.g., hearing children of deaf parents). Those who do so use it as fluently as most Americans speak English. Sign equips native users with the ability to manipulate symbols, grasp abstractions, and actively acquire and process knowledge — in short, to think, in the full human sense of the term. Oralists have long insisted that the best way to educate the deaf is to teach them spoken language, sometimes going so far as to suppress signing. Sacks and many deaf folk think this has been a disaster for deaf people.
Accessibility Features / Acceptant Technologies


  • Hearing aids







  • Hearing implant






Telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD)

  • C-Print at NTID 

This technology involves using a C-Print captionist who generates text based on what is spoken. The difference between C-Print and real time captioning is that C-Print is not verbatim.



  • Type Well 

This is a system that operates on the same principles as C-Print.



  • Viable Technologies

Transcription, a service whereas transcribers listen to the classroom speech and produce text that can be read by the deaf student.



  • Accessaphone IP-TTY

The accessaphone IP-TTY is a computer-based text telephone (TT) designed for use by individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing or who have communication disabilities. This telecommunication device for the deaf (TDD or TTY) is engineered to enable TTY communications using existing technology and most modern real- time text solutions with no analog lines required. This device supports hearing carry over (HCO) and voice carry over (vco) and includes a multi-line display and a recent calls list. This TTY also enables users to set up an initial response macro for answering incoming calls and save conversations in a text file.

  • Intele Modem

The Intele-Modem is an external modem that automatically converts ASCII code to Baudot code, enabling the user to talk to various types of TDDs and computers and to use a personal computer (PC) as a telecommunication device. Intele-Modem connects directly to the phone line and works with standard communication software (AT/Hayes compatible command set) and BBS (bulletin board system) software. The unit automatically detects ASCII and Baudot calls; lights on the front panel indicate the current operating mode and line status. The modem has a built-in speaker with volume control for audio monitoring. Visual call progress monitoring indicates dial tone, ringing, or busy signal. Intele-Modem works with tone or pulse dialing, and automatic or manual telephone answering.

Pocket sized handheld portable telephone device for the deaf (TDD or TTY) for all hearing impaired and speech impaired people. Can be used on any telephone (pushbutton and dial) as long as the other party is using a pushbutton tone telephone. Caller attaches the acoustic coupler to any telephone earpiece, then depresses buttons on pushbutton tone phone to send message. Message appears on receiving end on a portable LCD display. 81 preprogrammed messages. Status indicator which allows hearing impaired person to know when there is dial tone, ringing signal or a busy signal. Can review the last 80 characters by pushing review button. Powered by 9 volt battery. If battery is weakening TE 98 will indicate low battery by blinking the last character on the display.

  • PeacePHONE


Mobile phones are employed as an assistive platform to improve the living quality of individuals who are deaf. However, deaf individuals experience difficulties using existing functions on mobile phones. This study identifies the functions that are inadequate and insufficient for deaf individuals using existing mobile phones. Analytical results were referenced by designers to optimize mobile phone functions for the deaf community. A simulated mobile phone interface, the PeacePHONE, was designed to evaluate functions. Functions were developed based on the conceptual design of a multifunction mobile phone. This conceptual design was based on the daily life requirements of individuals who are deaf. PeacePHONE usability was tested by 18 deaf individuals. Five factors were assessed: user experience profile, user perceived usability, functions on existing mobile phones that should be retained, new functions that should be added to existing mobile phones, and functions that are most useful to individuals who are deaf. Positive and negative feedback on the PeacePHONE is presented as well.

Visual clue/ hint

  • Captioning

Whenever video, television programs, video conferences, and/or teleconferences are part of the distance education program, captioning or a transcript must be provided to facilitate access for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. There are several different types of captioning. Closed Captioning (CC) is visible text turned on and only seen at the discretion of the viewer. Open Captioning (OC) is visible text that always appears for all viewers. Real time captioning is the simultaneous preparation and transmission of captions at the time of origination by highly-skilled captionists using specialized stenotype software and equipment.
http://www.accesselearning.net/mod1/images/opencaption.gif http://www.accesselearning.net/mod1/images/closedcaption.gif



  • Hand Talk

Besides helping the deaf community in communication through translation to Pounds, the app also teaches you to learn new signs. Convert audio content, digital texts and photographed for the Brazilian Sign Language.

  • EMBRACE+

The EMBRACE+ is a smart piece of wearable technology that alerts you to changes in your environment. Through a combination of visual and tactile cues, the EMBRACE+ gives you the information you want to know - while your smartphone stays in your pocket or purse. It brings a smart and subtle change to our daily lifestyle as it keeps us connected to our phone no matter what we are doing, when we are doing it, and where we are at.

  • Firetext

The firetext smoke detector has been cleverly designed with SMS technology enabling the smoke detector to send you a text message when the alarm is activated. With the smoke detector being manufactured to the latest British Standards and having CE approval, the firetext gives you peace of mind even if you’re not in the house.

  • IFTTT Philips Hue

A system that uses lights to notify an event or state of home environment.

  • The National Gallery

Offers a range of facilities to help exploring the paintings and visit exhibitions. Also offers a program of British Sign Language (BSL) interpreted discussions on the paintings. Deaf lecturers also regularly deliver talks in BSL. Audio guides available for the paintings with volume enhancement. Exhibition videos and films have subtitles and transcripts. Transcripts of audio guides.

  • Google Glass







References
http://books.google.com.cy/books?hl=el&lr=&id=7-Xi91OINwIC&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&dq=Understanding+/+knowledge+level+/+Learnability+deaf+people&ots=cPyYLq8_gJ&sig=QjHyF_8yX67YQwrRpOFAyeKoMXo&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/encyclopedia/en/article/272/

http://deafed-course-language.wiki.educ.msu.edu/file/view/SLP.Audio.Resource.File.pdf

http://deafness.about.com/

http://deaftec.org/classact

http://ds.oregonstate.edu/faculty/dhoh.php


http://e-bility.gr/eutexnos/disabilities.asp
http://tutoringdhohlearners.weebly.com/capestone-project.html
http://www.asha.org/public/hearing/Effects-of-Hearing-Loss-on-Development/
http://www.deafgadgets.com/
http://www.deafwebsites.com/technology/telecommunication-devices.html
http://www.hearingloss.org/
http://www.interactiveaccessibility.com/deaf-hard-hearing
http://www.washington.edu/doit/Stem/hearing.html
http://www.wwhearing.org/

http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/visiting/access/deaf-hard-of-hearing


http://www.cyprushearingaids.com/hearing-aids-cyprus
http://envoymedical.com/lives-changed/
http://www.accesselearning.net/mod1/1_02.php
http://deafness.about.com/od/education/a/classroomaccess.htm
http://www.abledata.com/abledata.cfm

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10400435.2010.483649

http://www.handtalk.me/

http://www.kickstarter.com/projects/embraceplus/embrace-a-smart-piece-of-wearable-technology

http://firetext.me/

http://www.meethue.com/en-AT#relivemoment

http://www.google.com/glass/start/what-it-does/

Questionnaire


  1. Φύλο

γυναίκα

  1. Ηλικία

48 χρονων

  1. Επάγγελμα

βοηθος στη σχολη κωφων

  1. Πώς και πότε αποκτήσατε την αναπηρία σας

απο λαθος γιατρου σε ηλικια 1 χρονου

  1. Γνωρίζετε τι την προκάλεσε

ο ψηλος πυρετος

  1. Αντιμετωπίζετε οποιεσδήποτε δυσκολίες στην καθημερινότητα σας

δεν δυσκολευομαι.κανω οτι κι εσεις.

  1. Πώς σας αντιμετωπίζουν τα άτομα από το στενό σας περιβάλλον ή μη;

σπανια με αντιμετωπιζουν ασχημα

  1. Χρησιμοποιείται κάποιου είδους τεχνολογία που σας βοηθά σε σχέση με την επικοινωνία σας με άλλα άτομα και την προσβασιμότητα σε ιδιωτικούς και δημόσιους χώρους π.χ. νοσοκομεία, σινεμά κλπ.;

με το κινητο μου και κλεινω ραντεβου μεσω της cyta στους γιατρους

  1. Χρησιμοποιείτε κάποια από τις ακόλουθες συσκευές;

Η/Υ , κινητό τηλέφωνο, tablet

κινητο και Η/Υ



  1. Ακολουθείτε κάποιου είδους φαρμακευτική αγωγή;

Οχι

  1. Πόσο συχνά επισκέπτεστε το γιατρό σας;

Σπανια

  1. Θα θέλατε να έχετε κάποιου είδους τεχνολογία που να σας βοηθήσει με την υγεία σας;

Όχι

Questionnaire Analysis

A 48 year old female user. She works as an assistant at deaf school.

At the age of one she had fever that caused infection in the ears. Because of the wrong treatment the user now has the disability of hearing loss. In everyday life she has no problem doing the things people with no disability do. Rarely the society treated her badly. The mobile phone and the computer are generally known technologies for her. She doesn’t have some kind of medication that she needs to take. The user rarely visits a doctor. With her mobile phone and an application (CYTA) she manages to get an appointment with her doctor. The user wouldn’t like to have some kind of technology to help her with her health.

Persona

Name: Anna Goula

Age: 48


Location: Nicosia

Profession: Assistant at deaf school

Technologies used: Smart phone and Computer

Likes: Working with children

Dislikes: To underestimate her

Needs: To communicate easy and fast with writing



Suggestions for prototype

An Android application that works like a reminder/alarm/timer for daily events like taking a pill. Minimal buttons and options so it can be easy to use and personalized.





Poster suggests









Poster





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