The Algonquians were ________________________ meaning they moved their village or community from place to place to where they could find food. The men hunted and _____________________. The women played an important role in society. They would gather berries, roots, and seeds. They lived in
___________________ or tents covered with birch bark or animal skin. In the summer, to travel, they used _____________________. In the winter they travelled by foot on ______________________ and
also on ________________________. There social structure was _____________________ meaning the men were leaders and head of their families. They believed in spirits and the forces of nature. They would have a _________________________ or medicine man. It was believed this person could expel evil spirits and had power over the ________________________ of nature.
The Iroquois called themselves ____________________________________ meaning the people of the longhouses. The lived in and around the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Lowlands. Iroquois villages were usually heavily ______________________ and large. They lived in distinctive ___________________ that were covered by elm bark and could be over 200 feet in length. Different clans would live __________________________ together. The Iroquois social structure was _________________________ meaning the women owned all the property and determined kinship. After a marriage, the man would move into the women’s longhouse and become part of her _________. They were ______________________ meaning they lived permanently in a community and did not move. They would only move for safety or if the area become poor and they could not live off the land. _______________________ provided them with their food. They diet consisted of _________________, squash and beans. The _____________________ owned and tended to the fields under the supervision of the clan mother. Men usually left in the fall for the fall _______________. They would usually return in the middle of the winter. In the spring they would fish. The Iroquois were most known for their strong _________________________ system. This allowed them to endure the first 200 years of colonial history.
3. Do you think this group is nomadic or sedentary? Why or why not?
4. Why do you think there is a fence/wall around the village?
5. Is there any evidence of European influence?
You have been hired as an artist to design a commemorative coin that celebrates the history of the Algonquians. Draw a picture design for the front of the coin. Use aspects of their lives that have been discussed in class and from the reading.
Post Activity (Native Peoples)
Native peoples were greatly affected by their environment. It determined all aspects of their lived; the way they eat, dress, travel, and even their homes.
Look at the two native groups studied above. Using the t-chart below, determine how the environment influenced the way each native group lived.
Post Activity: The Plains Indians were another native group that lived around what is now Saskatchewan and parts of Manitoba and Alberta. The plains were flat with few forests. There was much grass for the buffalo to feed off of, so they were abundant and travelled long distances in herds. Answer the following questions about the Plains Indians to determine how they may have lived.
1. Main Food: ___________________________ 2. Clothing made out of? __________________
3. Shelter: Teepee or Longhouse_______________ 4. Nomadic or sedentary? _________________
5. Other food they may have ate from the land: _____________________________________________
6. How would the winter have affected the lives of the Plains Indians? ___________________________
Samuel Champlain and L’habitation
Colonization involves one country (the mother country like France) bringing another separate region under its control for economic purposes. Colonization was a major goal of most Kings in the 16th century. King Louis VIV made it a priority for France to acquire new lands which would bring him greater power and prestige. Any colonies would also act as markets to buy manufactured products from France.
Spain had great success in gaining colonies in Central and South America, so France began to explore North America and attempt to set up a colony there.
Early explorers of North America found success in trading with natives. The French government granted trading monopolies to some companies that promised to invest a portion of their profits and to support missionaries. It became clear though that these companies were not interested in settling and attempting to colonize. Thus, very few settlers immigrated to New France before the French government to greater control and interested in the colony in the 1660’s.
In 1608, Samuel de Champlain attempted to try and establish a settlement in the St. Lawrence Valley, where there was a better access to the Native peoples and the fur trade.
The habitation was built like a small European fort. It served both as a living space and working space for Champlain and the settlers. On July 3, 1608, Champlain landed at the "point of Quebec" and set about fortifying the area by the erection of three main wooden buildings, each two stories tall, that he collectively called the "Habitation", with a wooden stockade and a moat 12 feet (4 m) wide surrounding them. This was the very beginning of Quebec City. In the 1620s, the Habitation at Quebec was mainly a store for the Compagnie des Marchands (Traders Company), Champlain lived in the wooden Fort Saint Louis newly built up the hill (south from the present-day Château Frontenac Hotel), near the only two houses built by the two settler families (the ones of Louis Hébert and Guillaume Couillard, his son-in-law).