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1. Look at the diagram of the l’habitation, what do you notice about the first settlement in New France?

2. What problems do you think the first settlements might have encountered in New France?

3. What do you think life was like living in New France in the early 1600s?

Samuel de Champlain

Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635) was a French explorer and navigator who mapped much of north eastern North America and started a settlement in Quebec. Champlain also discovered the lake named for him (Lake Champlain, on the border of northern New York state and Vermont, named in 1609) and was important in establishing and administering the French colonies in the New World. samuel de champlain

In 1603, Champlain sailed to France on Francois Grave Du Pont's expedition. They sailed up the St. Lawrence River and the Saguenay River; they also explored the Gaspe Peninsula. He returned to France in 1603, and decided to search for a Northwest Passage and to settle the Gaspe Peninsula.

He returned to Canada in 1604 on Pierre de Mont's expedition. From 1604-1607, he sailed around and charted most of the coast of Nova Scotia (to the Bay of Fundy) and down the coast to Cape Cod and Martha's Vineyard (Massachusetts), and later to Rhode Island. After a short time in France, Champlain returned to Canada and helped found a colony in Port Royal, Nova Scotia (1605).

In 1608, Champlain led 32 colonists to settle Quebec in order to establish it as a fur-trading center. Here he built l’habitation the first attempt at a permanent settlement in North America. Only nine colonists survived the first bitter winter in Quebec, but more settlers arrived the following summer.

In 1609, Champlain befriended the Huron Indians and helped them fight the Iroquois (this battle led to 150 years of bitterness and hostility between the Iroquois and the French). It was during this venture that he discovered Lake Champlain. In 1613, he again sailed up the St. Lawrence, and explored the Ottawa River. Two years later, after returning from France, he retraced this route and ventured into what is now northern New York state and the eastern Great Lakes (Georgian Bay of Lake Huron, and Lake Ontario).
Champlain headed the Quebec settlement for years, until the English attacked and took the Fort at Quebec in July, 1629. Champlain once again returned to France. After a French-British peace treaty in 1632, Quebec was once again French, and Champlain returned as its governor (1633). He died from a stroke on Dec. 25, 1635.

Comprehension Questions

1. Why is Samuel de Champlain considered the Father of New France?

a) he mapped and explored some of North America

b) he established a relationship with the Iroquois and fought the Hurons.

c) he was the first to establish a permanent settlement in New France.

2. In what year did Champlain lead a settlement to New France?
a) 1603

b) 1608

c) 1629

d) 1635
3. What area did Champlain not sail around and explore;

a) Bay of Fundy around Nova Scotia

b) coast of Cape Cod and Martha’s Vineyard

c) South America

d) Rhode Island

4. On what city site did Champlain found L’habitation?
a) Ottawa

b) Quebec City

c) Montreal

d) Port Royal

5. What country was at war with France and took over the settlement for a short time?
a) Britain

b) Portugal

c) Spain

d) United States

6. What does the term befriend mean?
a) become enemies

b) become allies/friends

7. What Indian tribe did Champlain befriend?
a) Iroquois

b) Métis

c) Hurons

d) Plains

8. Who were the Huron’s bitter enemies?
a) Iroquois

b) Métis

c) Plains

9. Samuel de Champlain died of;

a) scurvy

b) stroke

c) heart attack

d) starvation

10. Where was the location of the first French settlement in North America?
a) Montreal

b) Quebec

c) Port Royal

Champlain Assignment (differentiated instruction)

The province of Quebec is discussing whether or not to make Champlain’s birthday a National Holiday. Use the Raft writing technique to design something that depicts and explains Champlain’s significant contribution to the history of Canada. You get to choose the format and the role you take on.

Role - _________________________ (you choose)

Audience - Province of Quebec

Form - ____________________________ (you choose)

Topic – Explains Champlain’s contribution to the history of Canada.

Some examples;

a) take on a role of an artist and design a painting, collage, to celebrate his accomplishments

b) write a letter as a citizen to the government explaining why Champlain is important and it should be a holiday

c) take on the role as a poet and write a poem

d) write an informative brochure on Champlain

Note: Remember, this assignment must have all the content needed to explain why Champlain is important. Be sure to choose something you’re interested in and a task that suits your abilities as a student.

Post Activity: Below, make a point form list of Champlain’s major accomplishments. This will help you organize and begin your assignment.

The Fur Trade and New France

The discovery of North America and the beaver was an economic jackpot for France and Britain. This demand for beaver was a result of the fashion trends in Europe. Beaver hats were extremely popular in Europe. Prior to the discovery of furs in North America, fur hats and clothing in Europe had come from furs in Europe. However, the depletion of furs because of overhunting in Europe led traders to North America to trade for furs.

After hearing about the beaver in North America, the French sent an expedition to the St. Lawrence River and further inland. They met with Aboriginals who eagerly traded them for items such as iron pots, and other tools.

More expeditions followed and some of North America was mapped by different explorers.

One of the first to realize the potential of trade in North America was Samuel de Champlain. In 1603, he made his first trip to North America. He returned several years later to establish a permanent settlement. He wanted to bring many more people to settle in Canada. The King of France gave him permission to do so, but in return Champlain was told to develop the fur trade.

It was not long before the English also saw how much money could be made in the fur trade. The competition between England and France became fierce. They both wanted to be in control of the land and its resources. The English and the French were soon sending shiploads of beaver pelts back to Europe.

Competition in the fur trade sparked fighting between First Nations tribes. The Iroquois would ambush the Huron traders who were bringing furs to Quebec. As a result of this violence, the fur trade almost came to a stop.

When the fur trade first began, First Nations and Inuit people brought the furs to the trading posts. They would arrive by canoe. The furs would be unloaded and traded for goods such as muskets, axes, knives, blankets, whisky and pots. It was not long before some of the men at the trading posts decided they would go inland and get the fur themselves. These were the people known as the coureur de bois.

The coureurs de bois learned the ways of the woods from the First Nations. They were taught how to canoe, hunt and snowshoe. Canoes were made out of birch bark the way the Natives taught them. They dressed in the same kinds of clothes and ate the same food as the First Nation peoples. A typical meal consisted of pemmican, deer meat and dried corn and peas.

The silver birch tree was the most important resource for life in the woods. It was used to build and repair canoes on the journey. Shelters were built with the branches and the bark. The bark was also good for drawing maps on and for writing messages. The bark could even be eaten if there was no other food!

1. Who are the people in the picture?

2. What are they doing?

3. Where are they?

4. Is the person in the picture a courier de bois? Why or why not?

5. Think/Pair/Share. Underline the sentence that tells you that the courier de bois were not native. What background were they?

Fur trade in North America

Pre-lesson Activity

The fur trade was important to the development of Canada. The fur trade brought the French and British to North America to trade furs with the Native people. The courier de bois (runner of the woods) played a vital role in the fur trade.

It has been said that birch bark was the important resource for the courier de bois in the fur trade. Look over the piece of birch bark given to you in your group. Brainstorm a list of uses for the birch park.

Crossword Activity

After reading the fur trade, complete the crossword on important terms and concepts from the lesson on the fur trade.
Problems in New France

Population of New France (Table 1)



Location in New France



Population of Port Royal



Population of Quebec



Population of Quebec



Population of Quebec



Population of New France



Population of New France



Population of New France



Population of New France



Population of New France



Population of New France



Population of New France

Discussion (Making Observations)

Look at the table below which traces the population growth in New France. Discuss any trends you see. Write these trends below.


1. Based on the data, what was the problem with the population in New France? _________________

2. When did the population of New France start to grow? ____________________________________

3. Why do you think the population of New France grew so slowly before 1663? __________________


4. What do you think was done to make the population increase? ______________________________


Population of New France (1665-66: Table 2)





Children and Unmarried







2034 1181

528 491

13 29

1493 661


1. Who is more numerous in New France? _________________________________________________

2. Who is more likely to be widowed? ____________________________________________________

3. Why do you think there are more males/females in New France? ____________________________


4. Many immigrants would come to New France. From the table, who was more likely to immigrate to New France? __________________________________________________________________________


Table 3: Age groups in New France (1665-66)

  1. In the 0-10 year group. Are there more males or females born?

  1. Look at the widowed totals. Who was more likely to die in this society, males, females, neither?

a. Look at the totals of the age groups. What is the largest age group at this time?

b. What does this tell you about the birth rate?

3. Look at the 11-15 and 16-20 age totals compared to the 0-10 total. What does this tell you about death rates among children?

Look at the map.

Where was the first successful French settlement?

What part of North America was being disputed?

Who possessed most of the land in North America?

What was Rupert’s Land?

Where did the English settle first?

Jean Talon Assignment

You have been sent to New France by King Louis XIV to New France with the job of increasing the population and settlement in New France. You are to send a report back to the King with your findings. Your report must include the following three things.

1) Introduction: Purpose of your Report

2) Problems: Your findings on some of the problems that exist. (i.e. few women, few farmers, etc.)

3) Graphs: You are to make 3 graphs from Table 1, 2, 3 in the reading.

4) Solutions: You are to provide suggestions to King Louis on how he might address some of the problems in New France.
You have one week to complete this assignment. The above subheadings should be used in your report. Be sure to include a cover page on your report. It can be either done by hand or computer generated.
Try to be creative and realistic in your suggestions to King Louis XIV. You will be assessed based on the practically of your suggestions along with the number. You must come up with at least three suggestions and explain these fully to meet expectations.
After the assignment is completed and handed in, we will study Jean Talon and what he did to address some of the problems in New France. You will be able to compare your suggestions and what Jean Talon proposed to the King.

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4

The presentation of the assignment lacks organization and creativity.

There is some creativity and organization to the report.

There is creativity and organization to the report and meets expectations.

The organization and creativity exceeds the expectations and adds to the quality of the work.

There is little content. There are few suggestions and little findings in the report.

There is some content. There are some suggestions and findings in the report.

The content, findings, and suggestions meet the expectations for this assignment.

There are more than 3 solutions. The solutions are practical and are closely related to the ideas presented by Jean Talon.

The graphing is inaccurate and inappropriate.

There are some errors with the selection of graphs and the presentation. Graphs are missing some labels and details.

There are few errors in the selection and construction of graphs. There are only a few minor missing labels or details.

There are no errors or omissions in the selection of the graphs and the presentation of graphs.

There are many errors or omissions in conventions, grammar and spelling.

There are some errors or omissions.

There are few errors or omissions.

There are no errors or omissions.

Jean Talon and the Changing of New France

Who was Jean Talon?

Jean Talon was the first intendant of New France. The intendant was the chief administrator or manager of the colony of New France for King Louis XIV. His duties included;

  • Informing the king on activities in the colony and ensuring harmony among the people

  • Supervised the day to day running of the colony, law and order and matters relating to the finance and administration in the colony.

During his term from 1665 to 1668, he conducted the first census of the population. Talon attempted to change the economic base of the colony from fur-trading to agriculture and industry, such as forestry. He found out quickly that the future of the colony depended upon increasing the population. Many immigrants were brought to New France at the government’s expense. Over 7000 French immigrants arrived in the colony between 1663 – 1670.

Talon implemented a number of forward thinking policies. He arranged for settlers to come to New France, including over 1000 women known as the filles du roi (“kings daughters”). These women, many of whom were orphans and very young, were sent to New France to marry any men in New France. He encouraged further population growth through marriage grants and baby bonuses (money given to a couple when they married and when they had children). If you had a family over 10 you would receive a bonus and be fined if you were over a certain age and not married.
Talon also tried to convert New France into an economy based on agriculture, not just the fur trade. The fur trade did not allow the population to grow, so he introduced land and settlement incentives such as free land and funding to those who would come and settle in New France. He tried to diversify and expand the economy by introducing new crops such as flax and hops. He also wanted to have New France become less dependent on France for supplies. He established industries such as shipbuilding, brewing, and shoemaking. jean talon
Although some of his policies were a drain on the finances of France, he has been credited for the successful colonization of New France. Without some of his policies, especially his immigration and economic policies, there may have never been a French population in Canada today.

Jean Talon and his policies

Pre-lesson activity;

Fill in the blanks. You have several minutes to attempt to fill in the blanks with the correct words for each definition. We will take these up when you are finished.

________________ Another name for farming.

________________ He was the manager and administrator in New France.

________________ An official account of the number of people living in a country or colony.

________________ Women who came at the King’s expense to settle and marry in New France.

________________ To gain control of an area and bring them under your control (mother country) for economic purposes.

colonization census King’s daughters (filles de roi)

agriculture intendant

Post lesson Activity (Talon’s Policies): With a partner, make a point form list of Jean Talon’s policies for changing New France. Beside the list, make a list of the policies you introduced in your report. Compare.

Talon’s Policies

My Policies

1. What is a census?

a) a survey

b) a collection of data on a population

c) a test
2. The population before Jean Talon grew;
a) slowly

b) not at all

c) there was a large increase of people
3. Why did the population grow slowly in New France?
a) many people died because of different diseases

b) the fur trade industry did not require a population in New France, most were young males working in the fur trade.

c) Native people were attacking them so people left and were afraid to immigrate.

Intendant Responsibilities in New France

Finances in the colony.

In charge of fur trade.

Formulated and enacted laws.

Informing the King.

Collecting taxes for the church.

Law and order in New France.
Post lesson Activity: Connect the correct responsibilities of an intendant in New France. Three of these are correct and 3 are incorrect.
Answering Essay Questions

Define and state the Historical Significance

Students of history are required to analyse, synthesize, and make inferences based on reading information. In order to be a successful history student it is essential you learn to communicate effectively in writing.

To begin, students need to be able to answer short essay questions. In the assessments that will follow, you will be required to define and state the historical significance of a historical event. To answer this question, you must pull out relevant information about a topic that answer the essential questions related to who, what, where, when, why. (5 W’s) The second part to answer this question effectively is to answer the historical significance of the event. This question is essential because it answers why this event or person is studied in history as opposed to other events or people.
Harriet Tubman was a runaway slave from Maryland who became known as the "Moses of her people." Over the course of 10 years, and at great personal risk, she led hundreds of slaves to freedom along the Underground Railroad, a secret network of safe houses where runaway slaves could stay on their journey north to freedom. She later became a leader in the abolitionist movement, and during the Civil War she was a spy for the federal forces in South Carolina as well as a nurse. She is important because she was a woman he displayed great strength and rescued hundreds during slavery.
Below is a sample answer of the question, defining who Harriet Tubman was and stating her significance.
The first part of this question defines the term, event or person. When answering, give as much detail as you can on the subject. The second part is to state its historical significance. For this part, you must come up with reasons why we study this and why it is remembered as an important historical event or why this person is remembered.

Let’s Practise

Define and state the historical significance of Jean Talon. Complete the following in point form.
Historical Significance
Now we will write a sample answer in the space below. Use the following leads when answering the historical significance.
We study this because ......
This person, event is historical significant because .....
This is important because ................
You will be marked out of 4, using the following rubric. Assess your friends answer.

Level 1

Level 2

Level 3

Level 4

There are few details. He/ she has not stated the significance. Person displays little understanding for the concept, person, or event.

There are some details. He/she has attempted to answer the historical significance but it is not accurate. Person understands some of the concept, person, or event.

There are most details and information. He/she has stated the historical significance.

Person has demonstrated they understand most of the concept, person, or event.

Answer is historically complete and accurate. He/she has stated the historical significance. Person has displayed a thorough understanding.

Life in New France

Seigneurial System

The seigneurial system was introduced to New France in 1627 by Cardinal Richelieu. Land was arranged in long strips, called seigneuries, along the banks of the St. Lawrence River. Each piece of land belonged to the lord, or seigneur. The seigneur divided the land further among his tenants, known as censiteurs or habitants, who cleared the land, built houses and other buildings, and farmed the land. The habitants paid taxes to the seigneur (the cens et rentes, or "cents and rents"), and were usually required to work for their seigneur for three days per year, often building roads (the corvée).file:seigneurial system.svg

The seignerurial system in New France was different than in France. The seigneurs of New France were not all nobles. Seigneuries were granted to military officers, some were owned by the Catholic clergy and even by unions of local inhabitants. In 1663, half of the seigneuries of French Canada were managed by women. This situation came to be because a woman could inherit her husband's property after his death.

Discussion Questions

1. Who owned the land in New France?

2. Why were the seigneuries developed along the water?

3. How was the seigneurial system different in New France?

Pre-lesson Activity (Seigneurial System)

You have been given the task of setting up a settlement within a year by the King. There will be 125 people immigrating to New France from France.

1. What will materials will you need? Make a list.
2. What will you need to do/build?
3. Organize a settlement, like a land use map, to show how you would actually physically organize the settlement. (i.e. Would you have a church, where would it be located? How is the land going to be organized among the farmers?)

Post Lesson Activity: Fill in the Blanks

The ____________________________ System was a land division system used in New France used to allocate and divide land. It divided land into long, rectangular land plots called ___________________. The __________________________ was the manager of the seigneur. He handed out the land the tenants who were called the ________________________. They were responsible for working and clearing the land and paying a tax to the seigneur. They were also required to work for 3 days a year for the seigneuir to build roads. This was called a _______________________. Unlike in France, the seigneurs were not all ____________________. In New France even __________________________ could manage a seigneury as they could ______________________ their land from their husbands.

Post Lesson Activity

In the space below, draw a diagram of the organization of a seigneury. Make sure you label and draw a legend for your seigneury.

The Catholic Church in New France

The Catholic Church

Champlain believed it was his duty to spread Christianity and the Roman Catholic religion in New France. He encouraged the Jesuits – a group of Catholic missionary priests - to come to North America to convert the Native peoples of New France. The French King and the ministers believed that if all people within in New France were Catholic it would be a stronger colony.


1. Why do you think the French wanted to convert the Native peoples living in North America?

2. How would you feel if you were one of the Native people?

3. Do you think it was fair? Why or why not?

In 1627, Cardinal Richelieu, a powerful church leader, declared that only Roman Catholics could emigrate from France to New France.

While the trading companies controlled New France, the main institution and major influence in the colony was the Roman Catholic Church. The church concerned itself with the religious life of the colony as well as establishing schools and hospitals. The Jesuits played a leading role in these developments.

The Jesuits

The Jesuits first arrived in New France in 1625 and were called the Black Robes by Native peoples. They established a college for the sons of settlers at Quebec in 1635, and established a hospital and convents by brining a group of nuns to New France.

The Jesuits built churches and schools for the Huron’s (natives) in Huronia between 1639 and 1649. Huronia is the name of the area where the entire nations of Huron’s lived. The Jesuit headquarters were located in the mission of St. Marie in Huronia. This mission contained a chapel, a hospital, a bakery, a carpentry shop, and blacksmith shop. They also planted crops and raised livestock at the mission.

The Jesuits had considerable influence in New France. In 1647, the leader of the Jesuits (Bishop) was one of three main members of the Superior Council which administered the colony.

The Jesuits left written records of early life in New France in the Jesuit relations, annual reports that they sent home to Paris.


1. How did the Jesuits help with the development of New France?

2. Were they powerful and influential in New France? Discuss.

3. Were the Jesuit Relations a primary or secondary source? Why are they important in Canadian history?

Women of God in New France

Much like the Jesuits, the Ursuline Nuns came to New France to spread the Catholic religion in North America. They first landed in Canada on August 1st, 1639. They were primarily responsible for education and care of the elderly and sick. They began with education of Aboriginal girls. They were quite successful with conversion and education, more successful than there Jesuit counterparts.

painting: ursuline nuns in new france / national archives of canada / c-010520

Comprehension Questions

1. Looking at the photograph, who were the Ursuline Nuns working with in New France?

2. Who were the Jesuits and what was their role in New France?

3. Who did the Jesuits work with?

4. What 3 roles did the Ursuline Nuns play in New France?

5. Who was the bishop and what was his role in New France?

6. What was the Jesuit Relations and why was it important?

Women of God (Shared Reading Activity)

Commanded by a vision, Marie Guyart—better known as Marie de l’Incarnation—arrived in 1639 in what would become Quebec City. By 1642, Marie, the first Ursuline nun in New France, had established the first school and built a convent in New France.

Prior to arriving in New France, her parents arranged her marriage at seventeen to a man in whom she had no interest in. Two years later, she was a widowed young mother. She discouraged all further men, lived with her father, and earned a living as an embroiderer.

In her diary, Marie tells of a unique spiritual experience on the morning of March 25, 1620, when an irresistible force came upon her. In a moment, the eyes of her spirit were opened and all her faults and imperfections were revealed to her with “a clearness more certain than any certitude.” She saw herself immersed in Christ’s blood. After confession, she was completely changed, and committed to prayer. She studied the Gospels, meditated on the life of Christ, and practised the sacraments at her local parish church.

Marie left her father to help her sister and brother-in-law in their shipping company. They made her the company manager because of her skill for administration. At the same time she became involved in benevolent works in Tours.

Her son, Claude, had entered college at age twelve, a separation that was hear-rending for Marie. She sought the advice for her priest and waited for divine guidance. In January 1631, she asked her sister to care for her son and entered the noviciate of the Ursulines of Tours. Distraught, Claude tried to storm the convent with a band of schoolboys. During the uproar, Marie overheard him crying; “Give me back my mother, give me back my mother.” She would later say of her decision to leave her son that “no human explanation can justify such an action,” she was obeying divine commands.

Marie took her vows in 1633 as Marie de l’Incarnation. Like many other nuns, Marie had read of opportunities to create religious communities in New France in Relations des Jesuits (published in English as Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents), and she prayed fervently for the Catholic work in the colony.

She studied Indian languages under the Jesuits and she became so fluent that she wrote Algonquin, Iroquois, Montagnais, and Ouendat dictionaries and a catechism in Iroquois. She wrote prolifically, and her correspondence—over 12,000 letters—is a valuable document of Canadian history.


1. Why do you think Marie left her son?

2. Why was she important for Canadian history?

3. What was her contribution to New France?

4. What historical documents did she leave behind?

Shared Reading Lessons (Women of God)

Day 1

Vocabulary – for the list below, find a synonym and antonym for each word. After this has been done and taken up, read through the passage.

vision catechism uproar divine

prolifically meditated embroiderer distraught


Day 2 – Read through the passage. Discuss why we can highlight and summarize information. Summarize in your own words, important accomplishments of Marie Guyart in New France. Use a highlighter to highlight first, than summarize in point form.

Day 3

1. Read through the passage one more time.

2. Activity. We will use RAFT technique of writing. Role, audience, form, topic.

Role – a nun.

Audience-King Louis

Form – letter

Topic – Take on the role of a nun; explain your own reasons for coming to New France, what you have encountered since you have been in New France, and the duties/roles that you carry out living there. This should be at least one page long. Be sure to write it in your own handwriting as they didn’t have computers back then.

The Royal Government in New France

Discussion (Pre-activity)

1. What kind of government do we have in Canada?

2. What is a monarchy?

3. What do you think is meant by the term absolute monarchy?

4. What is wrong with an absolute monarchy as a system of government?

5. Who do you think is in the photograph?

6. Who is the head of the monarchy in England today? Is there an absolute monarchy in England?

The government in New France was led by King Louis XIV from his throne in France. It was the responsibility of the Governor General, who was the king’s representative, to govern the colony of New France. He was responsible for the military and external issues. He was assisted by others who made up the Sovereign Council. The Intendant was the administrator and manager of the colony. He ensured that policies were implemented and was in charge of finances in the colony. The intendant had more influence than the Governor General. The Bishop was also part of the Sovereign Council. He was responsible for the missionary efforts, as well as hospitals and schools in the colony. He was chosen by the king and confirmed by the Pope, the head of the Catholic Church. The Sovereign Council was renamed the Superior Council in 1703. The Council acted as a court of appeal in criminal and civil cases. The governor and bishop made these appointments until the King of France decided to make these appointments.hyacinthe rigaud, louis xiv, 1701

The King was at the head of the government from his post in France. He was an absolute monarchy meaning he had all the power and authority for decisions and who were his advisors.



5 Councillors


(Record Keeper)

Attorney General who handled legal matters

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Advisors in French Government in France
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New France

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In New France, the Governor General, Intendant, and the Bishop made up the Sovereign Council with 5 councillors, a clerk, and the Attorney General. They made up laws, enforced laws and carried out the King’s wishes.

Governor General

People in New France

The people of New France had little say in the government, although they would try to influence officials. Women were not involved at all in the government.

Government in New France

Post Lesson: Fill in the incomplete flow chart on the structure of the government in New France.

The Royal Government

Post lesson activity: Fill in the blank with the correct person who corresponds with each job description.

___________________________ This person was the head of the church in France and in charge of all the missionaries in New France. He sat on the Sovereign Council in New France.

___________________________ This person was the head of the government from his throne in France.

____________________________ This person was responsible for handling legal matters in New France.

____________________________ This position was responsible for carrying out the King’s wishes in New France. His position was largely ceremonial and was held by someone from the military.

____________________________ The duties of this position required the person to keep records on the Sovereign Council in New France.

Post lesson Activity: Complete the following true and false statements. If they are false, write the statement so it is true.

1. ___ The King was an absolute monarchy meaning he had absolute power to make decisions and appoint officials in the government.


2. ___ The Sovereign Council was made up the governor general, the bishop, and the intendant.


3. ___ Women were not allowed to take part in the government in New France.


4. ___ People could elect members of the Sovereign Council.


5. ___ The Governor General was appointed by the King and held the most power in New France.


War and Conflict: France and Britain

Britain and France were rivals in Europe and in competition in North America. These conflicts over land and wealth could be seen in North America. France built Louisburg to control the Atlantic and entrance to the St. Lawrence River and inland. Britain built Halifax in 1749 to provide them with protection from France.


1. Who do you think had more of a strategic position and better access to New France and the rest of North America? Why?

2. Why did Britain build Halifax? What is at the location of Halifax today?

3. Why do you think Britain or France wanted to control the St. Lawrence River?

4. What island is Louisburg on?

5. Do you think it would be easy to attack Louisburg?

6. What was Port Royal?

Conflict (France vs. Britain)

Below is a list of conflicts between Britain and France in the 1600’s and 1700s. France and Britain were rivals in Europe and New France. The chart shows the impact and changes that these wars had on North America. Treaties were signed between England and France and usually resulted in some changes in North America.

War In Europe

War in North America

Peace Treaty

Results in North America

War of the League of Augsburg (1688-97)

King William’s War


Peace of Ryswick


-brief end to British-French hostilities

War of the Spanish Succession


Queen Anne’s War


Treaty of Utrecht


-French surrendered forts in territories of Hudson Bay Co.

-French gave up claims to Newfoundland and Acadia

-Iroquois declared British subjects

-islands of the Gulf of St. Lawrence French

War of the Austrian Succession


King George’s War


Treaty of Aux-la-Chapelle (1748)

-Louisburg returned to French

Seven Years’ War (1756-63)

French and Indian Wars


Treaty of Paris (1763)

-all French land possessions in North America except tiny islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon off coast of Newfoundland became British

(Taken from Canada Revisited)


1. What do you notice about the length of the wars?

2. In what war, did France receive the largest land loss?

3. Why do countries go to war today and historically?

4. Why do you think France and Britain went to war so often?

5. France and England were bitter enemies in the 1600s and 1700s. Make a list of enemies in the world today. (e.g. Iran vs Iraq)

6. What conflict had the largest impact on Canada? Explain.

Pre-lesson Activity (War and Conflict)

1. What is a treaty?

2. With a partner, imagine that you are leaders of the United States and Canada and we have just finished a war and Canada has won. You are going to sign a treaty. Make a name for the treaty. Discuss what you will negotiate as a settlement at the end of the war. Make a list of concessions by the U.S. to Canada. Be creative, but realistic.

Post Activity: Cause and Effect

Match the correct cause or effect with each statement. Write it in the space below from the list under the chart.



After the war of Spanish Succession and King George’s War

there was a brief end to British/French hostilities

When treaties were signed in Europe to end wars

The treaty of Utrecht was signed

all French land possessions were given to Britain except for tiny islands St. Pierre and Miquelon.

When the Seven Years War ended Louisburg was returned to France

The effects were felt in North America After King William’s War and the Peace Treaty

of Ryswick

French surrendered forts, gave up claims

to Newfoundland and Acadia, and the Iroquois

were declared British subjects.

Deportation of the Acadians

One of the most important wars between France and Britain was the War of Spanish Succession. In this war each country was fighting to gain countrol of colonies in a number of areas. This included areas of North America. This war was fought between 1702 and 1713 and ended with the signing of the treaty of Utretch. France decided to give up New France as it was less valuable to them then other colonies that produced sugar. Acadia became a British colony in 1713.


1. Why do you think France decided to give up Acadia?

2. Why do you think the Acadians might be nervous about having the British take control of them as a colony?

3. What challenged might the British face?
The challenge the British faced was that the Acadians were French speaking citizens who had came to North America from France and they were living in a British controlled colony. They were living in the colony of Nova Scotia where more and more British people were immigrating through the port of Halifax to Nova Scotia. What the British wanted to know was if they again went to war with the French that the Acadians would not revolt against them. The British attempted to have the Acadians swear an Oath of Allegiance to Britain.
If the Acadians did not take their oath they would be expelled from their land. As the British colonial office wrote in 1720 to the Governor of New France;

As to the French inhabitants of Nova Scotia

who appear to be so disloyal, we are concerned

they will never become good subjects to his

Majesty ..... for this reason we think they ought

to be removed.
The British did not pay that much attention to Acadia, but in 1755 they again asked the Acadians to take the Oath. In meetings with Acadians in July 1755 in Halifax, Governor Lawrence pressed them to take an oath of allegiance to Britain. When they refused, he imprisoned them and gave the fateful order for deportation.
Between 1755 and 1763, approximately 10 000 Acadians were deported. They were shipped to many areas around the Atlantic. Large numbers were sent to the English colonies, others in France or the Caribbean. Thousands died of disease or starvation in the squalid conditions on board ship. To make matters worse, the inhabitants of the English colonies, who had not been informed of the arrival of refugees, were furious. Many Acadians were forced, to wander in search of loved ones or a home.
Although the Acadians were not actually shipped to Louisiana by the British, many were attracted to the area by the same language and culture. Back in Nova Scotia, the Acadian land was soon occupied by British settlers. When the Acadians were finally allowed to return after 1764, they settled far from their old homes as much of it had been occupied.

Deportation of the Acadians

In this lesson, we will be using De-Bono’s six hats to study the deportation of the Acadians. The students are to be put into groups. Give each group a marker and chart paper or poster board. Each group will read the story of the deportation of the Acadians. Each group will be assigned one of the six hats in sequence. Use the sequence below. Start with the white hat and work your way through. Give the groups 5 minutes or so to work their way through each hat. Discuss the groups’ results at the end of each session. When they are done this, they will answer the comprehension sheet to consolidate the learning of this topic.

DeBono’s Six Hats

  • The White Hat

  • The White Hat calls for information known or needed. Consider purely what information is available, what are the facts?

  • The Red Hat

  • The Red Hat signifies feelings, hunches and intuition. How do they feel? What do you feel? Instinctive gut reaction or statements of emotional feeling (but not any justification)

  • The Black Hat

  • The Black Hat is judgment -- the devil's advocate or why something may not work. Be the devil’s advocate. Logic applied to identifying flaws or barriers, seeking mismatch.

  • The Yellow Hat

  • The Yellow Hat symbolizes brightness and optimism. Logic applied to identifying benefits, seeking harmony.

  • The Green Hat

  • The Green Hat focuses on creativity: the possibilities, alternatives and new ideas.

  • Statements of provocation and investigation, seeing where a thought goes.

  • The Blue Hat

The Blue Hat is used to manage the thinking process.

Post Activity: After you have completed the lesson on the Deportation of the Acadians, answer the following questions in your book.

Comprehension Questions

1. Define the term deportation.

2. Who were the Acadians?

3. Where did they live?

4. What reasons were they deported?

5. How many Acadian were deported?

6. How would you have felt if you were an Acadian living during this time? Explain.

7. Consider current day examples of people who have had similar situations as the Acadians. People who have been forced to leave a country or area?

8. Where were the Acadians deported to? Where did they go?

9. What province has a large French population today?

10. What is unique about this province and situation in Canada? What province is it similar to in some ways?

Battle of the Plains of Abraham

Pre-lesson (Making Inferences)

1. Look at the picture below. What do you think is happening?

2. What city is in the background?

3. Where do you think the army in the river want to attack? Why?

The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, 13 September 1759, during SEVEN YEARS' WAR, fought upstream from Québec on a tract of land that is thought to have been named after Abraham Martin, to whom it was granted 1635-45. A powerful British force under Major-General James WOLFE and Vice-Admiral Charles Saunders was sent up the St Lawrence to capture Québec. The French, commanded by Lieutenant-General the Marquis de MONTCALM, at first held the British at bay.

Having sailed upstream past the city on September 5 and 6, Wolfe's army landed without opposition on September 13, climbing the cliffs a few km above Québec. Wolfe believed this would be a suitable spot to attack. He believed the French would not expect an attack from here. Also, from here Montcalm's communications with his source of supplies were threatened; he felt obliged to accept battle and impulsively attacked without waiting to collect all his forces. The armies actually on the field seem to have been about numerically equal - some 4500 each - but the British were all regulars, whereas many of the French were ill-trained militia. The French attack was broken by British infantry fire, and the French retired in disorder. Both Wolfe and Montcalm were mortally wounded. The French field army retreated up the St Lawrence by a circuitous route that night. Québec surrendered on September 18. A French attack early in 1760 failed to recover the city, and later in the year the British captured Montréal and NEW FRANCE fell.

Post Activity: Fact and Opinion

1. _____ The attack on the British during the Seven Years War at the Plains of Abraham was upstream from Quebec.

2. ____ The attack for the British was led by General James Wolfe who was the strongest General in the British Army.

3. ____ General Marquis de Montcalm was the leader of the French Army at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.

4. ____ The Plains of Abraham was a good place for an attack.

5. ____ The win for the French was pivotal because it allowed them to take Quebec eventually leading to the fall of New France.

6. ____ Montcalm was not a very strong leader.

7. ____ There were many ill trained French militia fighting for the French at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.

8. ____ Montcalm and Wolfe were both mortally wounded at the battle.

9. ____ Wolfe and Montcalm, both generals, were the two most important leaders in the history of Canada.

10. ____ At the battle, the number of troops was numerically equal for both sides.

Making Inferences – the French lose the Battle

Making inferences requires the reader to read between the lines and interpret the text for the answer. Try this with a partner. Discuss why the French lost the battle at the Plains of Abraham. Use the diagram to assist you as well. You should be able to come up with three reasons.


Seven Years Wars and the end of French domination in North America

Making Predictions

1. Look at the title of this lesson, what do you think it is going to be about?

2. What does the word domination mean?

3. Who dominates politics and government in the world today? What evidence is there of this?

4. Define the term capitulate.

Seven Years War

The Seven Years War began in 1754 in North America, but it began in 1756 in Europe. Ironically, it is still called the Seven Years War. The war was a large war fought in many parts of the world. It was fought in North America, beginning in controlling the Atlantic. In June of 1758 the British attacked Louisburg and after 60 days they were able to take over Louisburg. This allowed the British access to the rest of France down the St. Lawrence River.

After Louisburg, the British focused their attention on Quebec. Quebec was the center of French power in North America and the capture of it would mean the end to French control in North America.

In the spring of 1759 General James Wolfe sailed with a massive force up the St. Lawrence towards Quebec. He first tried to land soldiers on Beauport Shore downstream from Quebec without success. He finally came up with a plan to go upriver and send troops up a steep cliff to fight on the Plains of Abraham. Wolfe’s key strategizing and Montcalm’s questionable decision making led to a disastrous loss at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. The French retreated to Quebec. The loss allowed the British access to Quebec and soon after the French capitulated.

As part of their surrender the French Governor, Marquis de Vaudreil presented General Amherst with a list of demands to protect the French people living in New France. This list was called the Articles of Capitulation.

The Seven Years War ended in 1763 with the signing of the Treaty Utrecht. Much of what France had gained was now lost. Their domination in this part of North America was over. Now, the French in Quebec would come under British rule with some special concessions. Below is a list of the demands of the French and what the British allowed in the Articles of Capitulation.

Seven Years War and the end of French Control

Post Activity: Put the following events in the order they occurred.

Remember when sequencing events look at transition words and refer back to the text to check for an accurate sequencing of events.

___ The Treaty of Utrecht was signed.

___ The British captured Louisburg which allowed them access to the St. Lawrence River and to the rest of New France.

___ After the Battle of the Plains of Abraham and the French retreat, the British attack Quebec and it falls soon after.

___ The end of the war signifies the end of French rule in North America. New France will now come under French rule.

___ The Seven Years War began in Europe in 1756, but it began in North America in 1754, although it is still considered the Seven Years War.

___ After the capture of Louisburg, the British focused their attention on Quebec.

___ With the fall of Quebec, the French capitulate.

___ As part of their surrender, the French Governor presented General Amherst with the Articles of Capitulation which outlined a list of demands to protect the people living in New France.

___ General Wolfe attack the French at Aux de foulone a set of cliffs by the Plains of Abraham.

___ General Montcalm was mortally wounded at the battle and the French retreat to Quebec.

Articles of Capitulation

The Articles of Capitulation outlined the terms under which the French and the Canadiens
_______________________to the British. They were binding until a formal ____________________ was concluded between Britain and France who were still at war in Europe. The Capitulation stated that:

  • The French had to ________ down their arms.

  • New France's territory was now under British _______________rule.

  • Those who wished to return to France were allowed to do so. The elite of the colony (government administrators, army officers, and some merchants) took advantage of this offer and left. The Canadiens (artisans, peasants, and clergy) ______________.

  • The people of New France were allowed the freedom to practise their Roman Catholic ____________________ and continue their ________________.

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