Domestic violence in albania: a national population-based survey

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National Institute of Statistics (INSTAT) Albania

Report prepared by
Dr. Robin N. Haarr

International Consultant
Dr. Milika Dhamo

Associate Professor

March 2009

Acknowledgements i

List of personnel involved in the survey ii

Chapter 1: Introduction

Background to the study 1

Albanian laws relevant to domestic violence 3

Why embark on a national study of domestic violence in Albania 5

References 6
Chapter 2: Research Design

Definitions 7

Measuring domestic violence 8

Development of the survey 9

Survey structure 9

Maximizing disclosure 11

Sample design 11

Interviewers 12

Survey administration procedures 12

Data processing and analysis 12

References 13
Chapter 3: Sample Demographics

Household demographics 14

Women’s demographics 14

Children’s demographics 16

Chapter 4: Domestic Violence against Women

Domestic violence against women 18

Emotional abuse 18

Psychological abuse 22

Physical violence 24

Sexual violence 28

Multiple types of domestic violence 31

Year in marriage/relationship when domestic violence began 33

Domestic violence related injuries 34

Alcohol and domestic violence 36

Domestic violence and husband’s level of education 38

Domestic violence and husband’s work status 39

Domestic violence by family members 40

Impact of domestic violence on children 40

Help-seeking behaviors of battered women 41

References 42

Chapter 5: Domestic Violence against Children

Domestic violence against children 44

Which family members abuse children? 47

Help-seeking behaviors of abused children 48

Children’s awareness of domestic violence against his/her mother 49

References 49

Chapter 6: Conclusions and Recommendations

Domestic violence against women 50

Domestic violence and level of education 51

Domestic violence and work status 52

Domestic violence and age 52

Domestic violence and marital status 52

Domestic violence and residence 53

Domestic violence against children 53

Theories of domestic violence 53

References 56

Appendix Tables


This research report on domestic violence in Albania is the product of close cooperation of several institutions and actors. This project is based upon the recognition that national data on domestic violence in Albania is necessary for the development of policies and action plans for response, intervention, and protection in domestic violence cases.

We would like to acknowledge and thank UNICEF and UNDP for funding and supporting this research project and the work of the Steering Committee, the experts’ team, and the various invited experts, advisory researchers, and national and international consultants.
We would also like to extend special thanks and acknowledgement to the National Institute of Statistics of Albania (INSTAT) as the main technical institution that designed and implemented the survey for the first time in Albania, and especially to Dr. Ines Nurja, the General Director, for the administrative and technical management of this project. The involvement of statistics experts from INSTAT was a blessing for the Steering Committee and the experts’ team. INSTAT experts inspected and cleaned the data, defined modes of data analysis, conducted data analysis, and generated findings.
The Steering Committee members from the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities, the University of Tirana, and civil society organizations also provided invaluable support and assistance with the design and administration of this national population-based survey on domestic violence, including defining the ethical standards and safety procedures for interviewing women and children.
We would also like to extend special thanks and acknowledgement to the team of experts – Dr. Milika Dhamo, Dr. Edmond Dragoti, Lantona Sado, Aurela Bozo, and Ledia Thomo – as well as advisory researcher – Entela Lako, Floriana Hima, and Emira Shkurti. We would also like to thank and acknowledge the international consultant, Dr. Robin Haarr, who carried out final data analysis, generated final tables and figures, and wrote the final report.
Finally, we would like to acknowledge and thank the families, including women and children, who participated in this research, and who gave their time to answer our questions and share their knowledge and expertise. We apologize to anyone who may inadvertently remain unnamed.

About the international consultant
Dr. Robin Haarr is a criminologist/sociologist and Associate Professor of Criminal Justice & Police Studies and Director of the Institute for Global Justice & Security at Eastern Kentucky University. Dr. Haarr has vast experience designing and conducting survey and field research, analyzing qualitative and quantitative data, and writing technical and research reports, as well as performing capacity building activities throughout the former Soviet Union and Asia on issues of violence against women and children, domestic violence, human trafficking and exploitation, child protection, victim support services for battered women and human trafficking victims, and social policy and program development. Since 2003, she has worked extensively as an international consultant to UNICEF, ILO, UNDP, OSCE, and the Swiss Cooperation Office. Dr. Haarr has also worked extensively on issues of violence against women and human trafficking with the U.S. Embassy’s in China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Burma/Myanmar, India, and Pakistan. Her dedication and leadership to reduce the social, cultural and institutional aspects of such violence and exploitation has brought about change that benefits women and children, families, and communities.

List of Personnel Involved in the Survey
Steering Committee Members
Professor Bashkim Ruseti, Faculty of Economy, University of Tirana

Dr. Bukurie Dumani, Faculty of Economy, University of Tirana

Professor Theodhori Karaj, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tirana

Anna Xheka, Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities

Iris Luarasi, Counseling Center for Women and Girls
Project Director
Dr. Ines Nurja, National Institute of Statistics of Albania (INSTAT)
UN Donors
Entela Lako, UNDP Albania

Floriana Hima, UNICEF Albania

Alketa Zazo, UNICEF Albania

Dajena Pollo, UNICEF Albania

Ermira Shkurti, UNDP Albania
Survey Coordinator
Lantona Sado, Social Research Center, INSTAT
DV Team of Experts
Dr. Milika Dhamo

Dr. Edmond Dragoti

Lantona Sado

Aurela Bozo

Ledia Thomo
Report Writing (Preliminary Findings)
Dr. Milika Dhamo

Aurela Bozo

Data Processing/Programming
Alma Spaho

Ledia Thomo, INSTAT

Fieldwork Supervisor
Lorena Kola
International Consultant
Dr. Robin N. Haarr

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