The alveolar sounds /t, d, n, l/ are articulated as dental before the dental fricatives // and //.
/t/ and /d/ become postalveolar in front of the postalveolar /r/
tea / tree, do, drew
The articulation of the velar sounds /k, g, / varies with neighbouring vowels:
near a front vowel: contact between the tongue and the velum is made further front (pre-velar)
near a central vowel: velar
near a back vowel: contact between the tongue and the velum is made further back
Clear and dark allophones of /l/ (RP)
The clear allophone (with the front of the tongue raised) occurs before vowels and /j/ (lake, failure)
The dark allophone (with the back of the tongue raised) occurs before consonants and word-finally (melt, fail)
Variations in manner of articulation
The frictionless continuant /r/ is articulated as a fricative after /t/ and /d/ (try, dry)
The frictionless continuants /j/ and /w/ become fricatives (and voiceless) when they combine with /h/ (huge, which)
The release of plosives
Normally, the plosives have oral plosion, i.e. the air is released through the mouth, with no obstruction.
Nasal release (i.e. the air is released through the nose) occurs when the plosive is followed by a homorganic nasal (i.e. /p, b/ followed by /m/, /t, d/ followed by /n/, /k, g/ followed by // (happen, button, bacon)
Lateral release (i.e. the air is released along the sides of the tongue) occurs when the alveolar plosives /t, d/ are followed by /l/ (little, middle)
Inaudible release (unexploded stop) occurs when the plosive is followed by another stop. (suit – suitcase)
Aspiration usually follows the release of the fortis plosives /p, t, k/. The aspiration disappears if the plosive is preceded by /s/ (within the same syllable) (key vs. ski)
English consonants – Solving potential pronunciation problems
Pronunciation problems arise because
English has phonemes that Norwegian doesn’t have (differences in phonemic inventory).
A Norwegian learner will have to learn how to pronounce the “new” phonemes and how to distinguish them from other, similar phonemes
English phonemes are articulated in a (slightly) different way from corresponding Norwegian phonemes
A Norwegian learner will be understood, but sound foreign, unless the precise articulation is learnt
An English phoneme may have a different distribution from its Norwegian counterpart
A Norwegian learner may need to learn to articulate a phoneme in an “unusual” position.
Differences in inventory (RP/GA vs. Standard Eastern Norwegian)