Framework curricula for primary education



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INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY


Years 6 through 8
Objectives and tasks
It is essential for individuals to learn of information necessary to shape his life and work in time and to be able to apply and process these information appropriately. The school’s mandate is to prepare pupils for the correct procedures of information retrieval, storage, processing and transmission, as well as introducing them to the legal and moral rules concerning the processing of data. This can be carried out most effectively through teaching Information Technology for several years, and through an IT education which should be present throughout the school life.

Computer skills – including multimedia and the World Wide Web –, together with library skills, comprises the major topics in Information Technology.

The computer, as a device reacting instantly to the actions of pupils, allows for learning at an individual pace, as well as special provision for the gifted. Solving some problems involving computers requires team work, dividing the problems up and discussing problems with others. The subject ‘Information Technology’ may undertake an important role in the nurturing of creativity, as both programming and creating documents, diagrams or graphs result in new products. The subject is also a good opportunity to develop Algorithmic thinking, which is important for everyday life as well.

When teaching library skills, the pupils need to be prepared for utilising the ever widening means of obtaining information, for accessing, critical selection and processing information, and for the evaluation of the entire process. The aim is to develop pupils into secure and self-confident users by introducing them to the school library and other libraries, library sources and equipment, as well as practicing relevant activities. The ability to use the library as a resource centre should be the basis for attitudes, skills and learning methods necessary for self-education.

The rapid development of IT is a force which shapes society. The aim is to prepare pupils for adapting to new conditions. They must also learn the ethical rules of obtaining, processing and using information.

The objective of this subject is to nurture a constant interest in information technology in the pupils , to introduce them to its tools, methods and concepts in order to enable them to develop the right attitude towards IT and to be able to develop their knowledge, skills and capabilities and use them in other subjects, in further studies, in everyday life and in work. The goal is to create an attitude in the pupils whereby they feel part of the global information society.

It is especially important with respect to this rapidly evolving and changing field to develop the desire for the regular renewal of one’s IT knowledge. Of the new devices the computer is the most versatile, providing new ways for problem-solving. If linked to a network, it allows new forms of communication, such as the web, chat and e-mail.

Developmental requirements
Pupils should be familiar with the rules related to working with computers, and work by these rules, especially as concerns the prevention of accidents and ergonomic aspects. They should be well-organised when working with the devices and follow relevant instructions. They should be familiar with the basics of computer use, and be at home with IT equipment, using the computer and computer peripherals at the level of a practised layman. They should be experienced with using devices and data carriers.

They should recognise information in its various forms of appearance, be able to present data in various forms of appearance, and be experienced in using various form (text, voice, visual) together. They should be able to evaluate and apply the information obtained. They should be able to use the library, media library and the Internet confidently to expand their knowledge, and be used to using informative literature, magazines, lexicons, manuals, multimedia and hypermedia.

They should understand the essence of direct and indirect (technical) communication, and be aware of the role of media (the Internet, TV, press ...) in the life of individuals and society.

Pupils should be able to work with the computer in an interactive manner, use the main functions of the operating system and supplementary applications. They should observe the rules of programme and data protection. They should be able to use the network and its basic services on their own, and use the network to communicate with others and to search for data. They should know how to use educational programmes.

Pupils should be familiar with the basic document types and be able to create such documents using templates; they should strive for formatting their document in a way which is pleasant for the eye and which emphasizes contents.

When required to solve a problem, they should be able to select the appropriate methods, devices and applications from those they are familiar with.

They should recognise and express in various ways the portions of activities in their surroundings which may be expressed as Algorithms, and also use certain logical operations (and, or, not, if ... then etc.) correctly.

They should be able to search registries manually and databases by simple search engines, and interpret the answers provided by the software. With some help, they should recognise correlations between data.

Pupils should be introduced to information technology’s role in the society, as well as the legal and ethical basic principles of using various software. They should be familiar with the role and activities of Hungarian scientists in the development of the global culture of computers, and appreciate these achievements.

Pupils should be aware of the negative effects on health and personality of too much use of IT devices (eg. problems of computer addiction, video game addiction).

Pupils should be able to easily navigate between the rooms and sections of the library, be familiar with the services found there, use the school library regularly, be familiar with and observe the rules of library use and behaviour in the library. They should be familiar with the form and content attributes of documents, and use them independently. They should recognise that with the evolution of technology, new and new media are developed for carrying information, and they should try to use these as well.

Pupils should be familiar with the role of the manuals section of the library in education and learning. They should be able to select and use independently the manuals necessary for everyday information and for school tasks. They should be able to use various criteria to search for documents in the library catalogues and databases, select sources for their tasks, find relevant information in them, and report on the work done. They should be familiar with the correct way of quoting and giving references.

Based on their own experience, pupils should recognise the importance of libraries in information and in spending of one’s free time usefully. Beside using the school library regularly, they should also be familiar and make use of other public libraries at their place of living.

They should have hands-on knowledge about how IT devices based on new technologies expand the framework of traditional information possibilities available in the library.


Year 6
Number of teaching hours per year: 18
New Activities
Basic IT skills
Correct use of the everyday meaning of ‘information’.

Using everyday communication equipment (eg. telephone).

Denoting the same piece of knowledge using different symbols.

Using simple secret codes.

Using the PC correctly, without accidents.

Using the keyboard and the mouse.

Understanding the function of the screen and extension stores (discs).

Taking notes, with help from the teacher.

Using the operating system.

Changing between storages and directories, entering directories, navigating in the directory structure.

Finding files located at a known place, copying to other directories and other data medium.

Logging in and leaving the school network.

Using simple educational software.
Algorithms and data
Everyday Algorithms, simple Logo Algorithms to develop spatial navigation skills.

Sequential control, interpreting and running cyclic programmes with counter.

Collection of information from magazines appropriate for the age group, systematic arrangement, grouping and utilisation of the collected data, with assistance.
Text, graphics and music
Using certain basic functions of graphics software and a word editor.

Formatting characters in a text: font type, size, bold, italic and underlined.

Selecting the right graphics tool.

Creating simple drawings.

Creating invitation cards, a poster, poem and letter.

Saving and printing, with assistance.

Playing sound and graphics on a multimedia PC.
Library skills
Finding particular books and books relevant to a particular topic in the open section of the library.

Recognising form, content and use attributes of documents of various types and topics.

Interpreting the catalogue card.

Finding documents by author, title (and other attributes) with the help of the alphabetic descriptive catalogue.




Topics

Contents

IT basics

Information

The transmission of information (the telephone).

The world of symbols.

Secret codes.

The PC and peripherals (keyboard, mouse, screen, disk drive).


Using the OS

Changing between storages, selecting directories, navigating in the storage.

Finding and copying files.

Logging in and out of the network.

Running software.



Algorithms and data

Interpreting Algorithms in drawing and text. Executing algorithms on the computer.

Text, graphics and music

Basic functions of the drawing software.

Drawing tools and colours.

Creating drawings.

Typing, correcting and changing text.

Formatting characters: setting font type, size, fonts styles: italic, underlined, bold.

Simple everyday documents.

Saving and printing.

Multimedia components: text, sound and graphics.



Library skills

Order of books: fiction, alphabetic order.

Non-fiction books: fields and categories.

Document types; printed (books, press products) and non-printed data media.

Structure and use of the alphabetic descriptive catalogue.





Prerequisites of moving ahead
Pupils should understand that the same information may be denoted using different symbols. They should be able to use the keyboard and the mouse, change between storages and directories, entering and leaving directories, and navigating on the directory tree levels. They should interpret and execute simple everyday Algorithms, as well as Algorithms developing spatial orientation skills (Logo). They should use the drawing software to create drawings and graphics, and be able to format text characters and create simple documents.

They should find their way in the open section of the school library, differentiate between main document types, and search the alphabetic descriptive catalogue by author and title.


Year 7
Number of teaching hours per year: 37


New Activities
Basic IT skills
Understanding the major parts of the computer and their functions; adept use of the keyboard and mouse, using disks and other peripherals. Familiarity with ergonomic aspects when designing the computer workplace. Discussion of the dangers of too much use of IT devices (TV, video, PC). Collecting and categorising types of signs; differentiation between information and data; binary codes; using various communication systems and forms of communication.

Familiarity with lexicons, books and magazines about IT, intended for the age group of the pupils.


Using the operating system
Formatting floppy discs, creating the desired directory structure on the disc using the commands format, create and delete. Selecting, copying, moving, renaming and deleting consecutive and non-consecutive files. Finding a known file in a storage. Virus types, protection against their propagation, running virus protection software, using virus protection software with assistance. Compressing files, viewing and decompressing compressed files. Moral aspects of using IT equipment and software. Using subject-specific educational software (hypermedia).
Network communication
Using a mail programme: sending and receiving mails, functions of main fields: To:, Subject, Copy self. Attaching files. Creating and using their own e-mail address (with the help of the system administrator), and using it.

Using network search engines, practising searching by topic and single keyword. Independent visits to useful web locations (eg. web pages of Hungary, MEK (Hungarian Electronic Library), railroad information, web pages of local governments, pupil pages, pages of interest). Saving part of a web page to own storage or to a new file using the cutboard. Viewing a chat programme.


Algorithms and data
Sequential and conditional control, interpreting, coding and trying cyclic programmes.

Creating programmes working with graphics and text.


Using the PC to create documents
Familiarity with and using basic elements of texts. Creating documents with various formatting. Using the cutboard (cutting, copying, pasting, moving, deleting). Saving and printing documents. Creating documents in the usual way. Collecting images, using images in the document and in the image editor software, enhancing characteristic features. Drawing pictures. Creating documents used in school life.
Library skills
Familiarity with the structure of the manuals section of the library. Using various types of books in the manuals section to solve problems in various subjects. Visits to various types of libraries, or introduction to various types of libraries using indirect sources.


Topics

Contents

IT basics

Main parts of the PC.

Healthy and agronomical computer workplace.

Using IT equipment.

Keyboard, mouse, discs, printer.

Categorisation of symbols.

Information, code, data content of signals.

Data transmission, communication.


Using the OS

Formatting floppy discs, checking suitability for use without re-formatting.

Creating a directory tree structure in the storage.

Selecting, copying, moving, renaming and deleting files.

Viruses and their effects.

Launching virus protection software; messages received.

Preventing virus propagation.

Functions of compression, simple compression methods.

Viewing compressed files, decompressing selected files.

Compressing the contents of a selected directory.

Multimedia educational software.



Network communication

Outline of the school network, relationship of the serves and workstations.

Categorisation of networks by connectivity and size.

Brief history of network services.

Basic rules of using the network.

Own e-mail address.

Basic functions of electronic mailing: sending and receiving e-mails.

Thematic and keyword-based search engines on the web.

Useful web pages.

Introduction to a chat programme.


Algorithms and data

Creating algorithms in a descriptive language.

Coding algorithms in a simple programming language “understood” by the computer.



Using the PC to create documents

Text elements.

Formatting characters, paragraph and pages.

Operations with the cutboard.

Drawing graphics, modification of drawings.

Inputting images.

Designing and editing shorter documents.

Designing documents with texts and graphics; the usual way of creating documents.

Creating letter, a newspaper page, questionnaire, worksheet.



Library skills

The library’s manuals section: types of books and their use.

Types of libraries: national library, professional, public and school library.





Prerequisites of moving ahead
Pupils should be able to use the main PC peripherals, navigate in the directory structure of the computer, use one of the auxiliary programmes required for the maintenance of the computer, or some services offered by the operating system. They should be able to send and receive e-mail, create algorithms (consisting of a few commands), as well as documents with various formatting. Pupils should know the types of book belonging to the manuals section of the library, be able to search for information in manuals (dictionaries, lexicons, encyclopaedias). They should know that beside the school library, they may also use public libraries, and that Hungary’s national library is the National Széchenyi Library.
Year 8
Number of teaching hours per year: 37
New Activities
Basic IT skills
In accordance with the teacher’s instructions and using informative books, magazines and CD-ROM’s about IT, as well as the Internet, collecting data on the history of information technology; information about contemporary hardware; collecting information on the fields where computers and robots are used.
Algorithms and data
Sequential and conditional control, interpreting, coding and trying cyclic programmes. Using processes. Solving simple logical and mathematical problems. Using data of various number format (integers, real numbers), using elemental and complex data.
Using the PC to create documents
Using tabulators in texts. Creating tables related to family and school life. Correction of the form and content of documents, spellchecking. Creating documents with both text and graphics. Inclusion of documents downloaded from the Internet in our own documents. Moral aspects of using software. Solving a complex problem or task (e.g. plan and documents related to a class trip) with the help of IT tools (software, hardware) in team-work, under the teacher’s guidance.
Basics of data processing
Presentation of data in tables; he advantages of this method. Arranging data in tables. Drawing conclusions from data sets; reading correlations between data in tables and diagrams; recognising linked data and simple correlations in tables.

Gaining familiarity with basic concepts of tables (cell, row, column, reference, function) through simple examples.

Creating and modifying tables with the computer (data entry, movement, copying, deleting). Saving and printing products. Creating diagrams corresponding to tables.

Gaining familiarity with tables relevant to various school subjects (mathematics, physics, chemistry, geography, economics), solving simple problems in various subjects with tables.

Gaining hands-on experience with using databases; collecting and processing data (books at home and in the library; address book); searching in databases of educational software for various subjects.
Library skills
Using subject catalogues to search for sources in order to solve problems in various school subjects. Keywords or categories for the searched topic (Recognising and practising the steps of search).

Using the documents in the library or the Internet to work with a simple topic in IT; with assistance, exact description of the theme, selection of the issue, selection of sources; creating a report, references to sources.




Topics

Contents

IT basics

The history of computers, Neumann’s principle.

The role of Hungarian scientists in he development of information technology and its culture.

Fields where computers are applied in the society.


Algorithms and data

Creating algorithms and describing them in a descriptive language.

Coding algorithms in a simple programming language “understood” by the computer.

The principle of step-by-step refining.

Elemental and complex data, integers and real numbers.

Data series.


Using the PC to create documents

The use of tabulators.

Rearranging texts; search, replace, spelling.

Creating tables.

Including documents downloaded from the Internet in our own document.

Copyright.

Ethical aspects of using IT products.

Creating documents for various school systems.


Basics of data processing

Introduction to tables.

Using tables in everyday life.

Arranging data in tables, data processing.

Cell, row, column, reference, function.

Creating diagrams corresponding to tables.

Searching existing databases.



Library skills

Subject catalogues: professional catalogues, keyword catalogue.



Prerequisites of moving ahead
Pupils should be familiar with the major fields where computers are applied in society and understand their significance. They should recognise algorithmic structures (divergence, cycle), and be able to create algorithms consisting of a few steps. They should be able to create documents after templates and present data in a table format. The need to know that keywords or category denominations indicate the contents of books, and be able to search for informative works in the open section of the library. With assistance, they should be able to execute simple search tasks with the help of the subject catalogue.

Where the necessary equipment (computer room or Internet access) are not available, greater emphasis should be placed on topics not requiring devices, and where possible, simulation should be used.




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