Framework curricula for primary education



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HEALTH



Years 6 and 8
Objectives and tasks
The aim of teaching this subject, ‘Health’, is to equip pupils with up-to-date knowledge, skills and capabilities to protect their own health. They need to recognise the correlations between lifestyle, behaviour and health.

Pupils should be motivated to develop a feeling of responsibility towards themselves. They need to realise the necessity of planning a future, of conscious building of their life, and they need to be made to see that individual decisions, the ways they solve situations and problems play a great role in this process. They need to be given assistance to correctly interpret the fact that the preservation of health greatly depends on the actions and choices made by the individual, and on their interpersonal relationships.

The subject must familiarise pupils with the development and conditions of habits and behaviour important from a health aspect, as well as the factors which have influence on these. They need to be given guidance and a frame of reference to make lifestyle choices, also helping them to recognise health-promoting behaviour and solution methods as alternatives in their everyday life.

The subject must help pupils to master strategies in tackling problems through which thy can preserve or re-establish balance in their life.


Developmental requirements
Teaching this module builds upon pupils’ existing knowledge. The range of their health-related concepts should widen and become more differentiated, and the concept of health development is filled with new and new content.

Activity-based methods and confirmation of positive examples and patterns help develop skills necessary to preserve health and prevent illnesses.

The module focuses on fields which possess critical importance with respect to health: nutrition, safety, alcohol and drug consumption, smoking, family and peer relationships, environmental protection, active life, personal hygiene and sexual development. These are, however, not taught isolated and out of context, but the subject presents them against a richly textured background in interconnections.

In the course of education, pupils should gain direct experience in interpreting major concepts, they should realize and comprehend in its entirety the difference between ‘healthy’ and ‘less healthy’ activities and materials, as well as a positive world view. They need to understand that health – leading a well-balanced life – is a tool in achieving a happy life.

The contents of the module should make pupils realise that there are many ways to lead a healthy life: any particular lifestyle, system of customs may only be considered and judged against the specific life situation, cultural and ethnic identity.
New activities
Introduction to key elements of behaviour with respect to leading a healthy life, as well as their contexts and the ways in which they can be influenced.

Pupils learn about the importance of personal safety.

Through role-playing and situational games, they learn that a stable psyche and the feeling of general well-being plays an important role in recognising and handling possible risks and dangerous situations.

Through examples from their everyday lives, they learn to identify and differentiate between form of everyday and holiday nutrition and alcohol consumption, and the underlying cultural and social customs.

The group foods into two categories: ‘healthy’ and ‘less healthy’, and lead a balanced and healthy diet.

They collect examples to learn about the effect mechanisms of advertising focusing on health, lifestyle and diet; they create posters and magazine articles.

They interview their family members, analyse and interpret the results.

Using the tools of group work, pupils examine their everyday practice in the fields of physical activity and body hygiene.

In small groups, they discuss decisions concerning regular exercise, activity (daily exercise, jogging), and compete in the realisation of these decisions.

They realise that due to the physical changes in their bodies, they need to pay special attention to personal hygiene and that it influences their relationships, self-image and general well-being.

They learn about psychoactive substances, as well as their dangers.

They learn to recognise social situations where they may be offered legal or illegal ‘substances’, and practice refusal.

They come to understand the dangers of addiction, as well as its health aspects.

They become familiar with various aspects of physical and emotional development, the characteristics of adolescence, human sexuality and the differences between male and female roles in society.

Through project work in small groups, pupils not only gain up-to-date knowledge about environmental damages, but also develop a personal feeling of responsibility and competence with respect to the environment.
Year 6
Number of teaching hours per year: 18



Topics

Contents

Safety

Some factors endangering human health: ‘risky’ and ‘dangerous’ behaviour.

Links between emotions and behaviour.

Dangerous professions.


Nutrition

The importance of changes to one’s diet.

Familiarity with eating habits and cuisine of various regions and nations (e.g. Mediterranean cuisine).

Examples of healthy eating.


Exercise and personal hygiene

The role of regular exercise and body care in preserving health.

Planning regular exercise.

Importance and forms of relaxation.

Possibilities of remaining healthy for the disabled.



Dangerous substances

Negative health effects of alcohol consumption and smoking.

Common features in addiction illnesses.

Dangers of psychoactive substances in the life of children.


Human sexuality

Adolescence: the age of physical and emotional changes.

Awareness of the process of sexual maturity.

Development of sexual identity.

Stereotypes of gender roles of various generations.



Family life and relationships

The importance of contact networks.

Friendship as one basic element of the system of relationships.

The meaning, role and importance of self-awareness.

Conflicts in relationships.



Environment

The effects of the present on the future

Large-scale production and the environment.

Negative consequences of the evolution of technology.

Cooperation of humankind to protect nature.



Year 6
New activities


Pupils continue to deepen their knowledge in the field of behaviour, correspondences and influences which are of importance to leading a healthy life. They continue to practise relevant skills and capabilities.

Pupils examine the effects of a peer group on their personal security. Through role-playing and situational games, they learn that identifying and expressing emotions, credible personal communication is a significant part of our wellbeing, and have an important role in recognising and handling possible dangers and risks.

They continue to practice categorising foodstuffs as ’healthy’ or ’less healthy’. They become familiar with various menus (which are different from traditional Hungarian cuisine), as well as the way to prepare suggested foods. They work in pairs or small groups to examine their own eating habits and any changes therein.

They compare the effects of legal and illegal ’substances’ on the body, on personality and behaviour. They learn about the legal regulations and consequences relevant to the abuse of illegal substances, as well as possible forms of assistance. They work in groups to analyse underlying motifs of drug abuse.

They deepen their understanding of various aspects of physical and emotional development, survey the changes they had experienced in themselves, with special emphasis on their interests, family and peer relationships and romantic relationships.

Through role-playing and situational games, they practice ways of communication which help stabilise relationships and assume behaviour corresponding to gender roles. They learn of forms of sexuality which society views as problematic, and the relevant social reactions.

Year 8
Number of teaching hours per year: 18



Topics

Contents

Safety

The relationship between the individual and the group in terms of assessing and neutralising risks.

Nutrition

The importance of changes to one’s diet.

familiarity with eating habits and cuisine of various regions and nations (e.g. Mediterranean cuisine).

Planning regular exercise.

Importance and forms of relaxation.

Possibilities of remaining healthy for the disabled.


Exercise and personal hygiene

The amount and intensity of exercise, and health.

Confirmation of the body image.

Components, meaning and effects of appearance.


Dangerous substances

‘Legal’ and ‘illegal’ substances, the concept of addiction and dependence; relevant legislation.

Phases and types of addiction, society’s judgement.



Human sexuality

Biological gender and culture.

Aspects of sexuality and related issues.

Moral, cultural and religious aspects of abortion.


Family life and relationships

How do others see us? Methods and techniques of solving typical problems of adolescence.

The link between personality and realistic self-image.

Seeing thongs from another’s perspective (empathy).

The role of communication in handling problems.



Environment

“Think globally, act locally!” Advertising techniques and environmental protection.


Prerequisites of moving ahead
Having gained understanding, skills and capabilities in health preservation, pupils realize the importance of a balanced lifestyle in preserving their own health. They understand basic concepts of health preservation, with special emphasis on the responsibility of the individual.

Pupils should be aware that health is not lack of illness, but a state of physical, emotional, intellectual and social well-being, and that everyday lifestyle habits and decisions will have a decisive influence on later health conditions and perspectives.

They need to distinguish between ’risky’ and ’dangerous’ things, activities. They need to be familiar with behavioural elements which endanger health, and recognise situations when they might have to make a choice.

They need to understand the consequences of smoking, alcohol consumption and drug abuse in terms of their health, the law and society. They need to be able to differentiate between using medicine which also contain drugs, and the abuse of drugs.

They need to be aware of social aspects of sexuality, gender and family roles, and be familiar with elementary hygiene aspects of sexuality.

They need to possess communication skills which help them to make decisions concerning health preservation, as well as ’servicing’ their social relationships, handling conflicts.

They need to understand that balanced nutrition has a fundamental importance in preserving health.

They need to be aware of the benefits of leading an active life, especially the beneficial effects of everyday exercise and its importance in keeping fit. Also, they need to see the role of leading an active life in interpersonal relationships and self-appreciation.

They need to undertake responsibility for their immediate and wider environment, and see what they can personally do to promote nature conservation.



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