France History Timeline

Rousseau published "The Social Contract."

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Rousseau published "The Social Contract."

1763 Feb 10, Treaty of Paris ending the Seven Years' War

1764 Jan 1, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart at 8 years old played for the Royal Family at Versailles in France.

  • Nov 26, France banned Jesuits.

  • Voltaire authored the "Philosophical Dictionary."

1768 May 15 Treaty of Versailles:

1769 April 22, Madame du Barry became King Louis XV's "official" mistress.

1770 May 16, Marie Antoinette (14), married the future King Louis XVI of France (15).

1774 May 10, Louis XV (64), died of smallpox

1774-1792 King Louis XIV ruled.

1774 Sep 13, Tugot, the new controller of finances, urged the king of France to restore the free circulation of grain in the kingdom.

1774 Dec, In Paris nearly 100 feet of the Rue d'Enfer ("street of Hell") collapsed to a depth of 100 feet.

1776 May 12, Turgot, French minister of Finance, resigned.

1776 Dec 23, Continental Congress negotiated a war loan of $181,500 from France.

1777 Feb 13, The Marquis de Sade was arrested without charge and imprisoned in Vincennes fortress.

  • July 27, The Marquis of Lafayette arrived in New England to help the rebellious colonists fight the British.

  • Aug 16, France declared a state of bankruptcy.

  • Dec 17, France recognized American independence.

1778 Feb 6, The US won official recognition from France as the nations signed a treaty of aid in Paris.

  • May 30, Voltaire died.

  • July 2, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (b.1712, died

  • July 10, In support of the American Revolution, Louis XVI declared war on England.

  • July 27, first Battle of Ushant.

1778-1781 Under the Treaty of Commerce and Friendship, France aided the American revolutionaries.

1779 June 18, French fleet occupied St Vincent.

  • July 4, French fleet occupied Grenada.

  • July 24, The Siege of Gibraltar by the Spanish and French was begun. It was finally lifted on Feb 7, 1783.

  • Benjamin Franklin presented his credentials to the French court,

1780 Aug 24, King Louis XVI abolished torture as a means to get suspects to confess.

1781 April 29, French fleet stopped Britain from seizing the Cape of Good Hope.

  • Aug 30, The French fleet arrived in the Chesapeake Bay to aid the American Revolution.

  • Sep 5, British fleet arrived off the Virginia Capes and found 26 French warships in three straggling lines.

1782 April 12, Battle of Les Saintes

  • Sep 13, Gibraltar came under attack by French and Spanish forces.

  • Nov 30, US and Britain signed preliminary peace articles in Paris, ending the Revolutionary War.

1783 Jan 20, The fighting of the Revolutionary War ended.

  • Feb 7, The Siege of Gibraltar, lifted.

  • Sep 3, The Treaty of Paris ended the Revolutionary War.

  • Oct 15, Francois Pilatre de Rozier (Jean Piletre de Rozier) made the first manned flight in a hot air balloon.

1784 Jan 14, The US ratified a peace treaty with England, the Treaty of Paris, ending the Revolutionary War.

  • Feb 29, Marquis de Sade was transferred from Vincennes fortress to the Bastille.

  • May 20, Peace of Versailles ended the war between France, England, and Holland.

1785 Jan 7, The first balloon flight across the English Channel was made.

  • July 17, France limited the importation of goods from Britain.

  • Aug 15, French cardinal De Rohan (51), Bishop of Strasbourg, was arrested in the affair of the diamond necklace.

  • Thomas Jefferson succeeded Benjamin Franklin as US ambassador to France.

1786 Sep 26, France and Britain signed a trade agreement in London.

1787 July 2, The Marquis de Sade shouted from Bastille that prisoners were being slaughtered.

  • July 30, The French parliament refused to approve a more equitable land tax.

  • Sep 4, Louis XVI of France recalled parliament.

  • Nov 29, Louis XVI promulgated an edict of tolerance, granting civil status to Protestants.

  • Thomas Jefferson toured Bordeaux while serving as US ambassador to France.

1788 July 6, Ten thousand troops were called out in Paris as unrest mounted in the poorer districts over poverty and lack of food.

  • July 15, Louis XVI jailed 12 deputies who protest new judicial reforms.

  • July 19, Prices plunged on the Paris stock market.

  • Aug 8, King Louis XVI called the French States and Generals together.

  • Aug 27, Jacques Neeker was named French minister of Finance.

  • Sep 19, Charles de Barentin became lord chancellor of France.

  • Sep 23, Louis XVI of France declared the Parliament restored.

  • Sep 24, After having been dissolved, the French Parliament of Paris reassembled in triumph.

1789 May 5, In France the Estates General, summoned by King Louis XVI, convened to repair the national finances.

  • June 17, The Third Estate in France declared itself a national assembly, and undertook to frame a constitution.

  • June 20, Oath on the Tennis Court in Versailles

  • July 9, French National Assembly declared itself the Constituent Assembly and began to prepare a French constitution.

  • July 11, tavern keepers and wine merchants of Belleville, sacked the local tax collector's office.

  • July 13, Parisians rioted over an increase in price of grain.

  • July 14 Bastille Day.

  • July 15, The electors of Paris set up a "Commune" to live without the authority of the government.

  • July 18, Robespierre, a deputy from Arras, France, decided to back the French Revolution.

  • July 23, The Great Fear swept through France as the Revolution continued.

  • Aug 4, The Constituent Assembly in France dissolved feudal system by abolishing the privileges of nobility.

  • Aug 26, The Constituent Assembly in Versailles, France, approved the final version of the Declaration of Human Rights.

  • Aug 27, French National Assembly issued "Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen."

  • Sep 13, Guardsmen in Orleans, France, opened fire on rioters trying to loot bakeries, killing 90.

  • Sep 16, Jean-Paul Marat set up a new newspaper in France, L'Ami du Peuple (The Friend of the People).

  • Nov 2, The property of the Church in France was taken away by the state.

  • Nov 5, French National Assembly declared all citizens equal under law.

  • Dec 13, The National Guard was created in France.

  • Marquis de Lafayette wrote the original version of the Declaration of the Rights of Man.

  • Sieyes, a delegate to the Estates General, said the third estate is everything, has nothing but wants to be something.

  • The bankruptcy of the French government brought banks across Europe to their knees.

1790 Jan 21, Joseph Guillotine proposed a new, more humane method of execution:

  • Feb 26, France was divided into 83 departments.

  • March 31, Robespierre was elected president of the Jacobin Club.

  • May 21, Paris was divided into 48 zones.

  • July 12, The French Assembly approved a Civil Constitution providing for the election of priests and bishops.

  • July 26, An attempt at a counter-revolution in France was put down by the National Guard at Lyons.

  • Sep 4, Jacques Necker was forced to resign as finance minister in France.

  • Oct 21, The Tricolor official flag of France.

1791 March 10, Pope condemned France's Civil Constitution of the clergy.

  • April 18, National Guardsmen prevented Louis XVI and his family from leaving Paris.

  • June 20, Flight to Varennes.

  • June 21, King Louis XVI and the French royal family were arrested in Varennes.

  • July 16, Louis XVI was suspended from office until he agreed to ratify the constitution.

  • July 17, National Guard troops opened fire in Paris on a crowd of demonstrators calling for the deposition of the king.

  • July 24, Robespierre expelled all Jacobins opposed to the principles of French Revolution.

  • Sep 3, The French National Assembly passed a French Constitution passed.

  • Sep 9, French Royalists took control of Arles and barricaded themselves inside the town.

  • Sep 13, France's King Louis XVI accepted a constitution.

  • Sep 14, Louis XVI solemnly swore his allegiance to the French constitution.

  • Sep 27, Jews in France were granted French citizenship. Jews were granted religious and civic rights in 1791.

  • Oct 1, National Legislative Assembly held its first meeting.

1792 March 20, Legislative Assembly approved the use of the guillotine.

  • April 14, France declared war on Austria, starting French Revolutionary Wars.

  • April 20, France declared war on Austria, Prussia, and Sardinia, marking the start of the French Revolutionary wars.

  • April 25, Highwayman Nicolas Jacques Pelletier became the first person executed by guillotine.

  • Aug 10, Some 10,000 Parisians attacked the Tuileries Palace of Louis XVI at the instigation of Danton

  • Aug 11, A revolutionary commune was formed in Paris, France.

  • Aug 13, Revolutionaries imprisoned the French royal family

  • Sep 2, Verdun, France, surrendered to the Prussian Army.

  • Sep 2, In the "September Massacres"- French mobs removed nobles and clergymen from jails, and some 1,600.

  • Sep 3, Princess de Lamballe (b.1749),best friend of Marie Antoinette, was killed and her body mutilated by an angry mob.

  • Sep 5, Robespierre was elected to the National Convention in France.

  • Sep 21, Collot D'Herbois proposed to abolish the monarchy in France.

  • Sep 22, The first French Republic was proclaimed.

  • Nov 6, Battle at Jemappes: French army beat the Austrians.

  • Dec 11, France's King Louis XVI went before the Convention to face charges of treason.

  • The crown jewels of France were stolen including the 67 carot Blue Diamond.

1793 Jan 19, French King Louis XVI was sentenced to death. [see Jan 21]

  • Jan 21, Louis XVI (38), last of the French Bourbon dynasty, was executed on the guillotine.

  • Feb 1, France declared war on Britain and the Netherlands.

  • March 4, French troops conquered Geertruidenberg, Netherlands.

  • March 18, The 2nd Battle at Neerwinden: Austria army beat France.

  • March 26, Pro-royalist uprising took place in Vendée region of France.

  • April 6, In France all executive power was conferred upon a Committee of Public Safety.

  • April 14, A royalist rebellion in Santo Domingo was crushed by French republican troops.

  • June 2, Robespierre, initiated the "Reign of Terror,".

  • June 24, The first republican constitution in France was adopted.

  • July 13, Pierre Dupont de Nemours was ordered arrested in Paris

  • July 13, Jean Paul Marat was stabbed to death in his bath by Charlotte Corday,

  • July 23, The French garrison at Mainz, Germany, fell to the Prussians.

  • July 27, Robespierre became a member of the Committee of Public Safety.

  • Aug 14, Republican troops in France laid siege to the city of Lyons.

  • Aug 22, Louis Duke de Noailles (80), marshal of France, was guillotined.

  • Aug 27, Robespierre was elected to the Committee of Public Safety in Paris, France.

  • Aug 28, Adam-Philippe Custine, Duke de Lauzun was guillotined in Paris.

  • Sep 5, The Reign of Terror began

  • Sep 6, Battle at Hondschoote.

  • Oct 10, Lyons surrendered to Revolutionary troops.

  • Oct 16, Marie Antoinette was beheaded.

  • Oct 31, Execution of 21 Girondins (moderates) in Paris, stepping up the Reign of Terror. Pierre V.

  • Nov 8, The Louvre opened in Paris as a museum.

  • Nov 10, France outlawed the forced worship of God.

  • Nov 12, Jean-Sylvain Bailley (53), French astronomer and mayor of Paris, was guillotined.

  • Nov 19, The Jacobin Club was formed in Paris.

  • Nov 26, Republican calendar replaced the Gregorian calendar in France.

  • Dec 6, Comtesse du Barry, was guillotined in Paris.

  • Dec 19, French troops recaptured Toulon from the British.

  • Jacques-Louis David painted "Death of Marat."

1794 Feb 4, France’s First Republic (Convention) voted for the abolition of slavery in all French colonies.

  • April 5, Georges-Jacques Danton (b.1759), French revolutionary leader, was guillotined along

  • May 6, In Haiti (L’Ouverture), ended his alliance with the Iberian monarchy and embraced French Republicans.

  • May 8, Lavoisier, was executed on the guillotine during France's Reign of Terror.

  • May 10, Elizabeth (30), the sister of King Louis XVI, was beheaded.

  • May 18, The 2nd battle of Bouvines was between France and Austria.

  • June 1, English fleet under Richard Earl Howe defeated the French. (MC, 6/1/02)

  • June 4, Robespierre was unanimously elected president of the Convention in the French Revolution.

  • June 8, Robespierre, staged the "Festival of the Supreme Being" in Paris.

  • June 15, The Guillotine was moved to outskirts of Paris.

  • June 26, The French defeated an Austrian army at the Battle of Fleurus.

  • July 8, French troops captured Brussels, Belgium.

  • July 13, Robespierre boycotted Committee of Public Safety and the National convention after being denounced as a dictator.

  • July 23, Chaos and anarchy were averted temporarily when Robespierre joined conciliation talks in Paris.

  • July 26, Robespierre demanded that the National Convention punish "traitors" without naming them.

  • July 26, The French defeated an Austrian army at the Battle of Fleurus in France.

  • July 27, Robespierre was overthrown executed the following day.

  • July 29, Seventy of Robespierre's followers were guillotined.

  • Aug 21, France surrendered the island of Corsica to the British.

  • Sep 28, The Anglo-Russian-Austrian Alliance of St. Petersburg, which was directed against France, was signed.

  • Nov 3, Thomas Paine was released from a Parisian jail with help from the American ambassador James Monroe.

  • Nov 22, Strasbourg, Alsace-Lorraine, prohibited circumcision and the wearing of beards.

1795 Feb 4, France abolished slavery in her territories and conferred slaves to citizens.

  • Feb 21, Freedom of worship was established in France under constitution.

  • May 4, Thousands of rioters entered jails in Lyons, France, and massacred 99 Jacobin prisoners.

  • May 6, Dr. Pierre-Joseph Dessault visited the incarcerated 10-year-old dauphin, the heir to the French throne.

  • May 15, Napoleon entered the Lombardian capital of Milan in triumph.

  • May 16, Treaty of Basel

  • June 8, Dauphin (Louis XVII), son and sole survivor of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, died

  • July 7, Thomas Paine defended the principal of universal suffrage at the Constitutional Convention in Paris.

  • July 14, "La Marseillais," written in 1792, became the French national anthem.

  • July 22, Spain signed a peace treaty with France and ceded Santo Domingo to France.

  • Sep 23, A national plebiscite approved the new French constitution.

  • Sep 23, Conseil of the Cinq-Cents (Council of 500), formed in Paris.

  • Oct 4, Napoleon led the rout of counterrevolutionaries in the streets of Paris,

  • Oct 26, Napoleon , second-in-command, became the army's commander

  • Nov 2 Directory seized power over the Convention.

1796 March 9, Napoleon , age 26, married Josephine Tascher de Beauharnais (32) in Paris.

  • April 2, Haitian revolt leader Toussaint L’Ouverture commanded French forces at Santo Domingo.

  • April 13, Battle at Millesimo, Italy: Napoleon beat the Austrians.

  • April 22, Napoleon defeated the Piedmontese at Battle of Mondovi.

  • May 10, Napoleon won a brilliant victory against the Austrians at Lodi bridge in Italy.

  • Nov 17, Napoleon defeated an Italian army near the Alpone River, Italy, in the Battle of Arcole.

  • 1796-1797 Napoleon conquered northern Italy.

1797 Jan 14, Napoleon defeated Austrians at Rivoli in northern Italy.

  • Feb 19, Pope Pius VI ceded papal territory to France in the Treaty of Tolentino.

  • Feb 22, The last invasion of Britain took place when some 1,400 Frenchmen landed at Fishguard, in Wales.

  • April 18, France and Austria signed a cease fire.

  • Oct 17 War of the First Coalition – The Treaty of Campo Formio

  • French forces attacked Britain at the port of Fishguard.

  • The Republic of Liguria in NW Italy was set up by Napoleon.

1798 Feb 20, Pope Pius VI fled Rome to Siena following an invasion of French forces.

  • May 19, A French armada of 335 ships carrying nearly 40,000 men set sail for Alexandria,

  • July 1, Napoleon took Alexandria,

  • July 7, Napoleon 's army began its march towards Cairo, Egypt, from Alexandria.

  • July 7 US Congress rescinded treaties with France, the semi-official beginning of the Quasi-War.

  • July 21, Battle of the Pyramids, thus becoming the master of Egypt.

  • July 22, Napoleon captured Cairo, Egypt.

  • Aug 1, Battle of the Nile at Aboukir Bay,

  • Sep 2, Maltese people revolted against the French occupation,

  • Dec 24, Russia and England signed a Second anti-French Coalition.

  • Napoleon expelled the Knights of Malta from their base in Malta.

  • 1798-1857 Auguste Comte, the French founder of the philosophical system of Positivism.

1799 March 6, Napoleon captured Jaffa

  • March 12, Austria declared war on France.

  • March 17, Napoleon Acra,

  • March 19, Napoleon began the siege of Acre

  • April 14, Napoleon called for establishing Jerusalem for Jews.

  • May 20, Napoleon withdrawal from his siege of St. Jean d'Acre in Egypt.

  • June 17, Napoleon incorporated Italy into his empire.

  • July 17, Ottoman captured Aboukir, Egypt from the French.

  • July 30, The French garrison at Mantua, Italy surrendered to the Austrians.

  • Aug 22, Napoleon returned to France.

  • Oct 7, Napoleon landed at Saint Raphael, 50 miles east of Toulon.

  • Oct 16, Napoleon arrived in Paris.

  • Nov 9 Coup of 18 Brumaire: Napoleon 1st consul, of France.

  • Dec 10, The metric system was established in France.

  • Dec 24, A Jacobin plot against Napoleon was uncovered.

  • Dec 25, Napoleon’s new constitution went into effect.

1800 Jan 20, Carolina, the sister of Napoleon I, married King Joachim Murat of Naples.

  • March 20, French army defeated Turks at Heliopolis, Turkey, and advanced to Cairo.

  • June 14, Battle of Marengo.

  • Sep 5, Malta surrendered to British after they blockaded French troops.

  • Oct 1, Spain ceded Louisiana to France in a secret treaty.

  • Dec 3, Battle of Hohenlinden, near Munich.

1801 Feb 9 Treaty of Lunéville, Second Coalition war end.

  • July 16, Pope Pius VII and 1st consul Napoleon signed a concord.

  • Oct 6, Napoleon imposed a new constitution on Holland.

  • Napoleon opened the Louvre to the public.

  • Napoleon's army in Egypt surrendered to Turkish and English forces.

1802 Jan 25, Napoleon was elected president of Italian (Cisalpine) Republic.

  • Feb, Napoleon sent Leclerc, to regain control of St. Domingue.

  • March 27, Treaty of Amiens was signed. The French Revolutionary War ended.

  • April 8, French Protestant church became state-supported and controlled.

  • May 19 Napoleon established the French Order of Legion d'Honneur award (Legion of Honor).

  • May, Toussaint L’Ouverture surrendered to French forces.

  • July 8, Toussaint L'Ouverture sent to France in chains.

  • Aug 2, Napoleon was proclaimed "Consul for Life"

  • Aug 7, Napoleon ordered the re-instatement of slavery on St. Domingue (Haiti).

  • Aug 25, Toussaint L'Ouverture was imprisoned in Fort de Joux, Jura, France.

  • Sep 11, Piedmont, Italy, was annexed by France.

  • Dec 20, The US bought the Louisiana territory from France. [see Jan 11, 1803]

  • The Rosetta Stone was seized by the British

1803 April 7, Toussaint L'Ouverture died in a dungeon at Fort Joux in the French Alps.

  • May 18, Great Britain declared war on France after General Napoleon continued interfering in Italy and Switzerland.

  • May 23, Lord Elgin and his family were detained in Paris.

  • Dec 20, The Louisiana Purchase formally transferred from France to the US

1804 Jan 1, Dessalines proclaimed the Republic of Haiti

  • March 21, The French civil code, later called the "Code Napoleon," was adopted.

  • April 20, Dessalines, Haitian rebel leader, commanded a massacre of the French at town of Cape Francois.

  • May 18, The French Senate proclaimed Napoleon emperor.

  • Dec 1, Napoleon married Josephine de Beauharnais, of Martinique.

  • Dec 2, Napoleon crowned himself emperor

1805 May 26, Napoleon was crowned king of Italy.

  • May 28, Napoleon was crowned in Milan, Italy. [see May 26]

  • Aug 9, Austria joined Britain, Russia, Sweden and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in the Third Coalition

  • Sep 30, Napoleon's army entered the Rhine valley.

  • Oct 20, Austrian general Karl Mac surrendered to Napoleon’s army at the battle of Ulm.

  • Oct 21, Battle of Traflagar

  • Dec 2 Battle of Austerlitz

  • Dec 31, The French Revolutionary calendar law was abolished.

  • Napoleon defeated Austria and Prussia.

  • Liguria was incorporated into France.

1806 June, Lord Elgin was paroled by the French government.

  • July 12 Napoleon dissolved the Holy Roman Empire, and created the Confederation of the Rhine,

  • July 12, Napoleon granted Liechtenstein sovereignty.

  • Oct 8, British forces laid siege to French port of Boulogne

  • Oct 14, The forces of Napoleon I defeated the Prussians in the twin battles of Jena and Auerstadt.

  • Oct 27, Napoleon entered Berlin.

  • Nov 21, In the Decree of Berlin Napoleon banned all trade with England.

  • Nov 28, French forces led by Joachim Murat entered Warsaw.

  • Dec 26, Napoleon’s army was checked by the Russians at the Battle of Pultusk.

  • Jean Ingres painted his magnificent: "Napoleon I on His Imperial Throne."

  • In Paris the 3-mile Canal St. Marten waterway was built to connect the Seine to northeast France.

  • Napoleon issued his Berlin Decrees. They established the Continental System to restrict European trade with Britain.

  • Napoleon ordered that all French citizens be vaccinated against smallpox.

  • 1806-1813 Trieste was held under French rule.

1807 Jan 7, Responding to Napoleon's blockade of the British Isles, The British blockaded Continental Europe.

  • Jan 20, Napoleon convened the great Sanhedrin in Paris.

  • Feb 8, At Eylau, Poland, Napoleon’s Marshal Pierre Agureau attacked Russian forces in a heavy snowstorm.

  • Feb 9, French Sanhedrin was convened by Napoleon.

  • June 14 Battle of Friedland

  • June 25, Napoleon and Czar Alexander I met near Tilsit,

  • July 7, Napoleon and Czar Alexander signed a treaty at Tilsit

1808 March 1, In France, Napoleon created an imperial nobility.

  • March 23, Napoleon's brother Joseph took the throne of Spain.

  • March 31, French created the Kingdom of Westphalia and ordered Jews to adopt family names.

  • April 17, The Bayonne Decree by Napoleon I of France ordered the seizure of U.S. ships.

  • May 2 Beginning of the Peninsular War

  • May 30, Napoleon annexed Tuscany and gave it seats in French Senate.

  • July 20, Napoleon decreed that all French Jews adopt family names.

  • Aug 1, Joachim Murat (1767-1815), became king of Naples (1808-1815) and Sicily.

  • Aug 21, Junot was defeated by Wellington at Battle of Vimiero, Portugal.

  • Napoleon chased Portugal’s royal family to Brazil.

  • Napoleon codified the French educational curriculum

1809 March 12, Great Britain signed a treaty with Persia forcing the French out of the country.

  • April 10, Austria declared war on France and her forces entered Bavaria.

  • April 20, Napoleon defeated Austria at Battle of Abensberg, Bavaria.

  • April 22, At the Battle at Eckmahl Napoleon beat Austrian archduke Karl.

  • May 17, The Papal States were annexed by France. Pope Pius VII responded by excommunicating Napoleon.

  • July 5, Pope Pius VII was taken prisoner to France and held there until 1814.

  • July 5-6, Battle of Wagram.

  • July 27-28, Battle of Talavera

  • Oct 14, The Treaty of Schönbrunn ended hostilities between France and Austria.

  • Dec 16, Napoleon was divorced from the Empress Josephine

  • Nicholas Appert won a French prize of 12,000 francs for his method of keeping food in glass bottles.

1810 Jan 10, French church annulled the marriage of Napoleon I & Josephine.

  • March 11, Napoleon of France was married by proxy to Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria.

  • Aug 21, Sweden’s Riksdag elected Bernadotte, as heir apparent to the Swedish throne.

  • Oct 4, Alexander Walewski, French earl, foreign minister, son of Napoleon I, was born.

1811 March 20, Napoleon II, the Duke of Reichstadt, was born. He was the son of Napoleon .

1811 Napoleon gave to his wife, Empress Marie Louise, a tiara with 950 diamonds (700 carats).

1811-1882 Louis Blanc, French utopian socialist, "from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs."

1812 March 9, Swedish Pomerania was seized by Napoleon.

  • June 24, Napoleon crossed the Nieman River [in Lithuania] and invaded Russia.

  • July 22, English troops under the Duke of Wellington defeated the French at the Battle of Salamanca in Spain.

  • Aug 12, British commander the Duke of Wellington occupied Madrid, Spain, forcing out Joseph Bonaparte.

  • Aug 17, Napoleon 's army defeated the Russians at the Battle of Smolensk during the Russian retreat to Moscow.

  • Sep 7, On the road to Moscow, Napoleon won a costly victory over the Russians under Kutuzov at Borodino.

  • Sep 14 The Fire of Moscow marks, The Russian army left Moscow.

  • Sep 18, A fire in Moscow (set by Napoleon's troops) destroyed 90% of houses and 1,000 churches. [see Sep 14]

  • Oct 18, The Russian army attacked French forces on the outskirts of Moscow.

  • Oct 19, French forces under Napoleon began their retreat from Moscow.

  • Oct 23, There was a failed coup against emperor Napoleon.

  • Nov 14, As Napoleon 's army retreated form Moscow, temperatures dropped to 20 degrees below zero.

  • Nov 27, One of the two bridges across the Beresina River collapsed.

  • Nov 29, The last elements of Napoleon 's Grand Armee retreated across the Beresina River in Russia.

  • Dec 6, The majority of Napoleon 's Grand Armeé staggered into Vilnius, Lithuania,

  • Dec 13, The last remnants of Napoleon 's Grand Armeé reached the safety of Kovno, Poland,

  • Dec, 14, The last French units of Napoleon’s Grand Armeé crossed the Nieman River of Lithuania, leaving Russia.

  • Dec 18, Napoleon arrived in Paris after his disastrous campaign in Russia.

1813 Feb 28, Russia and Prussia formed the Kalisz union against Napoleon.

  • March 4, Russians fighting against Napoleon reached Berlin.

  • June 26, Metternich met with Napoleon at Dresden

  • July 15, Napoleon 's representatives met with the Allies in Prague to discuss peace terms.

  • Aug 23, Battle of Grossbeeren Prussians under Von Bulow repulsed the French.

  • Aug 26-27, Battle of Dresden

  • Oct 16-19, Battle at Leipzig (aka Battle of the Nations)

  • Oct 18, Allies defeated Napoleon at Leipzig.

  • Nov 2, Treaty of Fulda.

  • Dec 31, Some 83,000 Prussian and Russian soldiers pursued Napoleon across the Rhine at Pfalzgrafenstein Castle.

  • A new 45 carat blue diamond emerged in France.

1814 Feb 10, Napoleon victory over the Russians at Champaubert.

  • Feb 27, Oudinot was pushed back at Barsur-Aube by

  • March 10, Napoleon was defeated at the battle of Laon, in France.

  • March 30, Britain and allies marched into Paris after defeating Napoleon.

  • March 31, Forces allied against Napoleon captured Paris.

  • April 4, Napoleon first abdicated at Fontainebleau. He was allowed to keep the title of emperor.

  • April 11, Napoleon (45) abdicated at Fontainebleau a 2nd time and was banished to the island of Elba,

  • April 20, Napoleon departed for exile in Elba.

  • April 24 First Restoration:

  • April 26, King Louis XVIII landed on Calais from England.

  • April, The Duke of Wellington capture Toulouse

  • May 4, Bourbon reign was restored in France.

  • May 29, Empress Josephine died.

  • May 30, The First Treaty of Paris.

  • Sep, The Congress of Vienna convened in late September and continued to June 8, 1815.

  • Alexander I of Russia entered Paris.

  • The Marquis de Sade died.

1815 Feb 25, Napoleon left his exile on the Island of Elba, intending to return to France.
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