“Analysis Worksheet for the Declaration of Sentiments” (Attachment A)
1. Explain to students that many abolitionists also supported the women’s rights movement in the 1830s. In the early 1800s, women had few legal rights: they were not allowed to own property, could not claim custody of their children, and could not divorce their husbands. Women were expected to marry and take care of the home and children. Women such as Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the first women’s rights convention in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York.
2. Give each student a copy of the Declaration of Sentiments and the “Analysis Worksheet for the Declaration of Sentiments” (Attachment A). A copy of the Declaration of Sentiments can be found at The National Park Service Web site, <http://www.nps.gov/wori/declaration.htm>, which also provides short biographies on the signers of the document. Have the students read the introduction of the document and discuss as a class the main ideas. Help students make connections between this document and the Declaration of Independence. Students may need to see the documents together in order to make these connections. Have students consider the ways the Declaration of Independence in its original form fell short of providing true equality to all.
3. Have students complete the worksheet (Attachment A) as they finish reading the document.
Session 4: Women’s Societal Position from the 19th Century to the Present
Information from “Analysis Worksheet for the Declaration of Sentiments” (Attachment A), completed in Session 3
“Analysis Worksheet for Changes in Women’s Societal Position” (Attachment B)
1. Have students compare the societal position of women in the 1800s with that of women today. Students should use the information they learned from the Session 3 and also do research to discover changes in women’s societal roles over time.
2. Give each student a worksheet (Attachment B), and have students work individually or in pairs to complete the worksheet, using information from Session 3. Assist students in completing the “Women in the 1800s” column by considering what they learned in the previous lesson. Correct answers to column two are shown in the table below.
3. After students complete the second column, direct them to appropriate resources for completing column 3, “Women Today.” Suggested Web sites for research are listed below:
Political/Legal: National Foundation for Women Legislators. <http://www.womenlegislators.org>
Economic: The Reality of Men’s and Women’s Wages. <http://www.equityfeminism.com>
Education: Projection of Education Statistics to 2007. <http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=97382>
Women in the 1800s
What political/legal rights do women have?
Women were not permitted to vote, run for political office, serve on a jury, or face their accusers in a court of law. Women were not permitted custody of their children. Once married, women were the “property” of their husbands.
Women received the right to vote with the passage of the 19th amendment. Students’ research should focus on the number of women in elected positions.
What economic opportunities exist for women?
Women were not permitted to own property and were not permitted access to “professional” employment. Working women were paid lower wages.
Students’ research should focus on the number and variety of professional positions that women now hold and women’s salaries as compared to those of men. Students should examine possible setbacks to promotion for women.
What educational opportunities are available to women?
Women were limited in access to public education.
Students’ research should focus on the number of women enrolled in college and graduate school as compared with men.
Are women considered the true equals of men?
Women were not considered social, political, or economic equals. Women were subordinate to their husbands. Women were expected to marry and have children and keep the home. Women were expected to be dependent on men.
Students’ research or observations should examine how men and women interact today. What are current expectations for women?
Session 5: Assessment
Assessment (Attachment C)
1. Administer assessment. Sample assessment items are contained in Attachment C.
Attachment A: Analysis Worksheet for the Declaration of Sentiments In 1848, a group of women and men met in Seneca Falls, New York, to discuss the plight of women in the United States. The members of that convention, which included active abolitionists, decided to draft a document that addressed women’s grievances. By making a formal declaration, supporters of women’s rights were making their voices heard in an attempt to gain equality for women in American society.
Directions: Read The Declaration of Sentiments, and answer the following questions. A copy can be found at The National Park Service site, <http://www.nps.gov/wori/declaration.htm>.
11. “As the first runaway slave to speak publicly against slavery, I ask for abolition immediately and I call for slaves to lead the fight for this cause.” Which of the following people might have made this statement?
A William Lloyd Garrison
B Susan B. Anthony
C Isabel Sojourner Truth
D Frederick Douglass *
12. Who is know for assisting with the Underground Railroad?
A Robert Fulton
B Jo Anderson
C Harriet Tubman *
D Eli Whitney
13. What abolitionist and women’s rights leader escaped from slavery?
A Isabel Sojourner Truth *
B Dolley Madison
C Martha Washington
D Susan B. Anthony
14. Who traveled and worked across the nation to help get women the right to vote?
A Isabel Sojourner Truth
B Dolley Madison
C Susan B. Anthony *
D Martha Washington
Standard(s) of Learning
USI.1 The student will develop skills for historical and geographical analysis, including the ability to
a) identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history to 1877;
b) make connections between the past and the present;
c) sequence events in United States history from pre-Columbian times to 1877;
d) interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives;
b) explaining how the issues of states’ rights and slavery increased sectional tensions;
c) identifying on a map the states that seceded from the Union and those that remained in the Union;
d) describing the roles of Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, and Frederick Douglass in events leading to and during the war;
e) using maps to explain critical developments in the war, including major battles;
f) describing the effects of war from the perspectives of Union and Confederate soldiers (including black soldiers), women, and slaves.
Essential Understandings, Knowledge, and Skills
Skills (to be incorporated into instruction throughout the academic year)
Identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history to 1877.
Make connections between the past and the present.
Sequence events in United States history from pre-Columbian times to 1877.
Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives.
Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events.
Interpret patriotic slogans and excerpts from notable speeches and documents.
Explain how the following cultural, economical, and constitutional differences between the North and the South eventually resulted in the Civil War:
While there were several differences between the North and the South, the issues related to slavery increasingly divided the nation and led to the Civil War.
The North was mainly an urban society in which people held jobs.
The South was primarily an agricultural society in which people lived in small villages and on farms and plantations.
Because of their cultural differences, people of the North and South found it difficult to agree on social and political issues.
The North was a manufacturing region, and its people favored tariffs that protected factory owners and workers from foreign competition.
Southerners opposed tariffs that would cause prices of manufactured goods to increase. Planters were also concerned that England might stop buying cotton from the South if tariffs were added.
A major conflict was states’ rights versus strong central government.
Summarize the South’s fear that the North would take control of Congress. Explain that Southerners began to proclaim states’ rights as a means of self-protection.
Explain the Northern belief that the nation was a union and could not be divided.
Explain that, while the Civil War did not begin as a war to abolish slavery, issues surrounding slavery deeply divided the nation.
Summarize the following issues that divided the nation:
An important issue separating the country related to the power of the Federal government. Southerners believed that they had the power to declare any national law illegal. Northerners believed that the national government’s power was supreme over that of the states.
Southerners felt that the abolition of slavery would destroy their region’s economy. Northerners believed that slavery should be abolished for moral reasons.
Explain the following compromises that attempted to resolve the differences between the North and the South:
Missouri Compromise (1820): Missouri was a slave state; Maine, a free state.
Compromise of l850: California was a free state. Southwest territories would decide about slavery.
Kansas-Nebraska Act: People decided the slavery issue (“popular sovereignty”).
Explain that, following Lincoln’s election, the Southern states seceded from the Union. Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter, in South Carolina, marking the beginning of the Civil War.
Explain that Lincoln and many Northerners believed that the United States was one nation that could not be separated or divided. Most Southerners believed that states had freely created and joined the union and could freely leave it.
Explain that Southern states that were dependent upon labor-intensive cash crops seceded from the Union. Identify these states:
Identify the Northernmost slave states (border states) that stayed in the Union:
Identify the following free states that remained in the Union: