History and Social Science Standards of Learning Enhanced Scope and Sequence



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2. Lead a class discussion of the varying positions and attitudes towards abolition. Encourage students to discuss which strategy would be most effective.



Session 3: The Declaration of Sentiments and the Declaration of Independence

Materials

  • Copy of the Declaration of Sentiments

  • Copy of the Declaration of Independence

  • “Analysis Worksheet for the Declaration of Sentiments” (Attachment A)

Instructional Activities

1. Explain to students that many abolitionists also supported the women’s rights movement in the 1830s. In the early 1800s, women had few legal rights: they were not allowed to own property, could not claim custody of their children, and could not divorce their husbands. Women were expected to marry and take care of the home and children. Women such as Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the first women’s rights convention in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York.


2. Give each student a copy of the Declaration of Sentiments and the “Analysis Worksheet for the Declaration of Sentiments” (Attachment A). A copy of the Declaration of Sentiments can be found at The National Park Service Web site, <http://www.nps.gov/wori/declaration.htm>, which also provides short biographies on the signers of the document. Have the students read the introduction of the document and discuss as a class the main ideas. Help students make connections between this document and the Declaration of Independence. Students may need to see the documents together in order to make these connections. Have students consider the ways the Declaration of Independence in its original form fell short of providing true equality to all.
3. Have students complete the worksheet (Attachment A) as they finish reading the document.

Session 4: Women’s Societal Position from the 19th Century to the Present

Materials

  • Information from “Analysis Worksheet for the Declaration of Sentiments” (Attachment A), completed in Session 3

  • Internet access

  • “Analysis Worksheet for Changes in Women’s Societal Position” (Attachment B)

Instructional Activities

1. Have students compare the societal position of women in the 1800s with that of women today. Students should use the information they learned from the Session 3 and also do research to discover changes in women’s societal roles over time.


2. Give each student a worksheet (Attachment B), and have students work individually or in pairs to complete the worksheet, using information from Session 3. Assist students in completing the “Women in the 1800s” column by considering what they learned in the previous lesson. Correct answers to column two are shown in the table below.
3. After students complete the second column, direct them to appropriate resources for completing column 3, “Women Today.” Suggested Web sites for research are listed below:

  • Political/Legal: National Foundation for Women Legislators. <http://www.womenlegislators.org>

  • Economic: The Reality of Men’s and Women’s Wages. <http://www.equityfeminism.com>

  • Education: Projection of Education Statistics to 2007. <http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=97382>




Rights/Position

Women in the 1800s

Women Today

Political/Legal

What political/legal rights do women have?



Women were not permitted to vote, run for political office, serve on a jury, or face their accusers in a court of law. Women were not permitted custody of their children. Once married, women were the “property” of their husbands.

Women received the right to vote with the passage of the 19th amendment. Students’ research should focus on the number of women in elected positions.

Economic

What economic opportunities exist for women?



Women were not permitted to own property and were not permitted access to “professional” employment. Working women were paid lower wages.

Students’ research should focus on the number and variety of professional positions that women now hold and women’s salaries as compared to those of men. Students should examine possible setbacks to promotion for women.

Educational

What educational opportunities are available to women?



Women were limited in access to public education.

Students’ research should focus on the number of women enrolled in college and graduate school as compared with men.

Social

Are women considered the true equals of men?




Women were not considered social, political, or economic equals. Women were subordinate to their husbands. Women were expected to marry and have children and keep the home. Women were expected to be dependent on men.

Students’ research or observations should examine how men and women interact today. What are current expectations for women?

Session 5: Assessment

Materials

  • Assessment (Attachment C)

Instructional Activities

1. Administer assessment. Sample assessment items are contained in Attachment C.



Attachment A: Analysis Worksheet for the Declaration of Sentiments
In 1848, a group of women and men met in Seneca Falls, New York, to discuss the plight of women in the United States. The members of that convention, which included active abolitionists, decided to draft a document that addressed women’s grievances. By making a formal declaration, supporters of women’s rights were making their voices heard in an attempt to gain equality for women in American society.
Directions: Read The Declaration of Sentiments, and answer the following questions. A copy can be found at The National Park Service site, <http://www.nps.gov/wori/declaration.htm>.


  1. What document does the Declaration of Sentiments, especially its introduction, resemble?


  1. What are three specific examples of how the documents are similar?



  1. What are two specific examples of how the documents differ?


  1. Who was the audience for this document?




  1. What are four specific grievances listed in the Declaration of Sentiments? Express these in your own words.


  1. Are the frustrations expressed in this document justified? In other words, did women have a right to be angry about their place in society during this time period? Why, or why not?

Attachment B: Analysis Worksheet for Changes in Women’s Societal Position


Rights

Women in the 1800s

Women Today

Political/Legal

What political/legal rights do women have?









Economic

What economic opportunities exist for women?









Educational

What educational opportunities are available to women?









Social

Are women considered the true equals of men?









Attachment C: Sample Assessment Items
Asterisk (*) indicates correct answer.

1. One of the first white abolitionists to call for the “immediate and complete emancipation” of enslaved people was _________.

A Benjamin Lundy

B William Lloyd Garrison *

C David Walker

D Frederick Douglass

2. Most abolitionists believed that _________.

A the Constitution should be amended to restrict slavery to areas east of the Mississippi River

B slavery was morally wrong *

C slavery should be abolished gradually

D each state should be allowed to determine the legality of slavery within its own borders

3. Women who were fighting to end slavery recognized their own bondage and formed the _________.

A temperance movement

B education movement

C employment movement

D women’s rights movement *

4. The first women’s rights convention was held in _________.

A Georgia

B New York *

C Virginia

D Ohio

5. Who purchased his freedom from his slaveholder and later started an abolitionist newspaper called The North Star?

A Frederick Douglass *

B Horace Mann

C Charles T. Weber

D William Lloyd Garrison

6. The network of escape routes out of the South for enslaved people was the _________.

A Freedom Network

B Slave Network

C Underground Railroad*

D Southern Railroad

7. Who was the most famous Underground Railroad conductor?

A Isabel Sojourner Truth

B Angelina Grimke

C Sarah Grimke

D Harriet Tubman *


8. The most controversial issue at the Seneca Falls convention was ________.

A education

B suffrage *

C jobs


D slavery

9. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony were best known for their struggle to __________.

A prohibit the sale of alcohol

B improve low wages for workers

C secure the right of women to vote *

D expose government corruption

10. Who published the anti-slavery newspaper, The Liberator?

A William Lloyd Garrison *

B Nat Turner

C Harriet Beecher Stowe

D John Brown

11. “As the first runaway slave to speak publicly against slavery, I ask for abolition immediately and I call for slaves to lead the fight for this cause.” Which of the following people might have made this statement?

A William Lloyd Garrison

B Susan B. Anthony

C Isabel Sojourner Truth

D Frederick Douglass *

12. Who is know for assisting with the Underground Railroad?

A Robert Fulton

B Jo Anderson

C Harriet Tubman *

D Eli Whitney

13. What abolitionist and women’s rights leader escaped from slavery?

A Isabel Sojourner Truth *

B Dolley Madison

C Martha Washington

D Susan B. Anthony

14. Who traveled and worked across the nation to help get women the right to vote?

A Isabel Sojourner Truth

B Dolley Madison

C Susan B. Anthony *

D Martha Washington


Organizing Topic

Civil War

Standard(s) of Learning

USI.1 The student will develop skills for historical and geographical analysis, including the ability to

a) identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history to 1877;

b) make connections between the past and the present;

c) sequence events in United States history from pre-Columbian times to 1877;

d) interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives;

f) analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events;

h) interpret patriotic slogans and excerpts from notable speeches and documents.


USI.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the causes, major events, and effects of the Civil War by

a) describing the cultural, economic, and constitutional issues that divided the nation;

b) explaining how the issues of states’ rights and slavery increased sectional tensions;

c) identifying on a map the states that seceded from the Union and those that remained in the Union;

d) describing the roles of Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, and Frederick Douglass in events leading to and during the war;

e) using maps to explain critical developments in the war, including major battles;

f) describing the effects of war from the perspectives of Union and Confederate soldiers (including black soldiers), women, and slaves.

Essential Understandings, Knowledge, and Skills

Correlation to

Instructional Materials

Skills (to be incorporated into instruction throughout the academic year)

Identify and interpret primary and secondary source documents to increase understanding of events and life in United States history to 1877.


Make connections between the past and the present.
Sequence events in United States history from pre-Columbian times to 1877.
Interpret ideas and events from different historical perspectives.
Analyze and interpret maps to explain relationships among landforms, water features, climatic characteristics, and historical events.
Interpret patriotic slogans and excerpts from notable speeches and documents.
Content

Explain how the following cultural, economical, and constitutional differences between the North and the South eventually resulted in the Civil War:



  • Slavery

    • While there were several differences between the North and the South, the issues related to slavery increasingly divided the nation and led to the Civil War.

  • Cultural

    • The North was mainly an urban society in which people held jobs.

    • The South was primarily an agricultural society in which people lived in small villages and on farms and plantations.

    • Because of their cultural differences, people of the North and South found it difficult to agree on social and political issues.

  • Economic

    • The North was a manufacturing region, and its people favored tariffs that protected factory owners and workers from foreign competition.

    • Southerners opposed tariffs that would cause prices of manufactured goods to increase. Planters were also concerned that England might stop buying cotton from the South if tariffs were added.

  • Constitutional

    • A major conflict was states’ rights versus strong central government.

Summarize the South’s fear that the North would take control of Congress. Explain that Southerners began to proclaim states’ rights as a means of self-protection.


Explain the Northern belief that the nation was a union and could not be divided.
Explain that, while the Civil War did not begin as a war to abolish slavery, issues surrounding slavery deeply divided the nation.
Summarize the following issues that divided the nation:

  • An important issue separating the country related to the power of the Federal government. Southerners believed that they had the power to declare any national law illegal. Northerners believed that the national government’s power was supreme over that of the states.

  • Southerners felt that the abolition of slavery would destroy their region’s economy. Northerners believed that slavery should be abolished for moral reasons.

Explain the following compromises that attempted to resolve the differences between the North and the South:



  • Missouri Compromise (1820): Missouri was a slave state; Maine, a free state.

  • Compromise of l850: California was a free state. Southwest territories would decide about slavery.

  • Kansas-Nebraska Act: People decided the slavery issue (“popular sovereignty”).

Explain that, following Lincoln’s election, the Southern states seceded from the Union. Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter, in South Carolina, marking the beginning of the Civil War.


Explain that Lincoln and many Northerners believed that the United States was one nation that could not be separated or divided. Most Southerners believed that states had freely created and joined the union and could freely leave it.
Explain that Southern states that were dependent upon labor-intensive cash crops seceded from the Union. Identify these states:

  • Alabama

  • Arkansas

  • Florida

  • Georgia

  • Louisiana

  • Mississippi

  • North Carolina

  • South Carolina

  • Tennessee

  • Texas

  • Virginia.

Identify the Northernmost slave states (border states) that stayed in the Union:



  • Delaware

  • Kentucky

  • Maryland

  • Missouri.

Identify the following free states that remained in the Union:



  • California

  • New Jersey

  • Connecticut

  • New York

  • Illinois

  • Ohio

  • Indiana

  • Oregon

  • Iowa

  • Pennsylvania

  • Kansas

  • Rhode Island

  • Maine

  • Vermont

  • Massachusetts

  • West Virginia

  • Michigan

  • Minnesota

  • New Hampshire

  • Wisconsin

  • (Western counties of Virginia that refused to secede from the Union)

Explain how the views of Abraham Lincoln and Robert E. Lee differed on the nature of the United States and how those differences led to an unavoidable conflict.


Summarize roles of the following Civil War leaders and explain the different views of the nature of the Union that Lincoln and Lee held:

  • Abraham Lincoln

    • Was President of the United States

    • Opposed the spread of slavery

    • Issued the Emancipation Proclamation

    • Determined to preserve the Union — by force if necessary

    • Believed the United States was one nation, not a collection of independent states

    • Wrote the Gettysburg Address that said the Civil War was to preserve a government “of the people, by the people, and for the people.”



  • Jefferson Davis

    • Was president of the Confederate States of America.

  • Ulysses S. Grant

    • Was general of the Union army that defeated Lee.

  • Robert E. Lee

    • Was leader of the Army of Northern Virginia

    • Was offered command of the Union forces at the beginning of the war but chose not to fight against Virginia

    • Opposed secession, but did not believe the union should be held together by force

    • Urged Southerners to accept defeat at the end of the war and reunite as Americans when some wanted to fight on.

  • Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson

    • Was a skilled Confederate general from Virginia.

  • Frederick Douglass

    • Was a former slave who escaped to the North and became an abolitionist.

Identify the location of the critical events and major battles of the Civil War:



  • The firing on Fort Sumter, S.C., began the war.

  • The first Battle of Manassas (Bull Run) was the first major battle.

  • The signing of the Emancipation Proclamation made “freeing the slaves” the new focus of the war. Many freed slaves joined the Union army.

  • The Battle of Vicksburg divided the South; the North controlled the Mississippi River.

  • The Battle of Gettysburg was the turning point of the war; the North repelled Lee’s invasion.

  • Lee’s surrender to Grant at Appomattox Court House in 1865 ended the war.

Describe how location and topography influenced the following critical developments of the Civil War:



  • The Union blockade of Southern ports (e.g., Savannah, Charleston, New Orleans)

  • Control of the Mississippi River (e.g., Vicksburg)

  • Battle locations influenced by the struggle to capture capital cities (e.g., Richmond; Washington, D.C.)

  • Control of the high ground (e.g., Gettysburg).

Describe the extremely harsh conditions on the battlefield and on the home front that led to death from disease and exposure.


Summarize the following effects of the Civil War on the lives of soldiers and women:

  • Families and friends were often pitted against one another.

  • Southern troops became increasingly younger and more poorly equipped and clothed.

  • Much of the South was devastated at the end of the war (e.g., burning of Atlanta and Richmond).

  • Disease was a major killer.

  • Clara Barton, a Civil War nurse, created the American Red Cross.

  • Combat was brutal and often man-to-man.

  • Women were left to run businesses in the North and farms and plantations in the South.

  • The collapse of the Confederacy made Confederate money worthless.

Explain the following effects of the Civil War on African Americans:

  • African Americans fought in both the Confederate and Union armies.

  • The Confederacy often used slaves as naval crewmembers and soldiers.

  • The Union moved to enlist African American sailors early in the war.

  • African American soldiers were paid less than white soldiers.

  • African American soldiers were discriminated against and served in segregated units under the command of white officers.

  • Robert Smalls, a sailor and later a Union naval captain, was highly honored for his feats of bravery and heroism. He became a Congressman after the Civil War.


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