Introduction to Alternative Fuels – Course Outline Module 1- compressed Natural Gas (cng)



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Introduction to Alternative Fuels – Course Outline



Module 1- Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
I. Emissions

A) Photochemical smog

1. Formation of smog

a. thermal inversion and smog

2. Health effects of smog

a. respiratory diseases

3. Acid rain
B) 1990 Clean Air Act

1. History

2. Amendments
C) Types of alternative fuels

1. Gaseous fuels

a. CNG

b. LNG


c. Hydrogen

d. Hythane

2. Alcohol based

a. Ethanol

b. Methanol

3. Bio fuels

a. Biobutanol

b. Bioalcohols

c. Biogas

D) Five gas analysis

1. Federal test procedure

2. Local emission testing procedures

3. Five gas trace

a. hydrocarbons

b. carbon monoxide

c. carbon dioxide

d. oxides of nitrogen

e. oxygen


Lecture/demo time = 8 hours

II. Compressed Natural Gas

A) Domestic fuel source

1. Local supply

a. transportation of fuel to California

b. reserves

2. Storage

a. local storage depots/locations

b. site storage

3. Pricing

a. domestic source and pricing stability

B) Properties

1. Composition

2. Odorant

3. Comparison to other fuels

a. diesel

b. gasoline

C) Environmental impact

1. Emissions comparison

a. CNG vs. gasoline

b. CNG vs. diesel

c. CNG vs. ethanol

2. Mileage comparison

a. CNG vs. gasoline

b. CNG vs. diesel

c. CNG vs ethanol
D) Safety

1. Vehicle safety

2. Fueling safety
Lecture/demo = 4 hours

III. Compressed Natural Gas as a fuel

A) Light duty applications

1. OEM systems

a. computerized engine management

b. components

c. fuel vessels

d. maintenance service
2. Aftermarket systems

a. computerized engine management

b. components

c. fuel vessels

d. maintenance service

3. Tubing

a. Hoke

b. Swagelok

c. Parker Hannifin
4. Common components

a. manual valves

b. electric valves

c. ¼ turn valves

d. check valves

e. coalescing filters

f. high pressure regulators

g. inline filters

h. secondary regulators

i. maintenance service


5. Safety overview

a. vehicle safety

b. fueling vessels

c. site safety

B) Heavy duty applications for transit/school bus/truck

1. OEM systems

a. computerized engine management

b. components

c. fuel vessels

d. maintenance service


2. Aftermarket systems

a. computerized engine management

b. components

c. fuel vessels

d. maintenance service

3. Tubing

a. Hoke

b. Swagelok

c. Parker Hannifin
4. Common components

a. Manual valves

b. Electric valves

c. ¼ turn valves

d. check valves

e. coalescing filters

f. high pressure regulators

g. inline filters

h. secondary regulators

i. maintenance service


5. Safety overview

a. vehicle safety

b. fueling vessels

c. site safety


Lecture/demo = 40 hours

IV. Tubing

A) Quality of tubing

B) Fittings

C) Tube bending


Lecture/demo = 6 hours

V. Fueling and fuel vessels

A) Fast fill station

1. fueling compressors

2. operating a fast fill pump

3. fuel station safety and maintenance

4. 3600 vs. 3000 psi

B) Slow fill station

1. fueling compressor

2. operating a slow fill pump

3. fuel station safety and maintenance

4. 3000 PSI operating pressure

C) Home fueling

1. fueling compressor

2. operating a home fill pump

3. fuel station safety and maintenance

4. 3000 PSI operating pressure

D) Fueling vessels and associated plumbing

1. types of tanks

2. tank valves

3. check valves

4. tank location and fastening

5. tubing

E) NFPA 52

1. engine fuel systems

2. CNG Compression, storage, and dispensing
Lecture/demo = 8 hours
VI. Site safety

A) Local regulations

1. local city regulations

2. State regulation

3. Site compliance

B) NFPA 52

1. general, CNG and equipment qualifications

2. residential fueling facility


Lecture/demo = 4 hours

Module 2 - Liquid Natural Gas (LNG)
I. LNG fuel vessel

A) Construction of tank

1. Insulation factor(s)

2. Health effects of smog

3. Pressure gauge

4. Level gauges

5. Mounting of tank
Lecture/demo = 2 hours

II. Physics

A) Boyles Law

B) Charles Law

C) Pressure Law

D) Saturation Line

Lecture/demo = 4 hours

III. Tank Plumbing

A.) Pressure relief valve

1. primary pressure relief valve

2. secondary pressure relief valve

B.) Evacuation plug

1. theory of operation

2. vacuum jacket

C.) Manual shut-off valve

1. location

2. theory of operation

D.) Excess flow valve

1. location

2. theory of operation

E.) Manual vent valve

1. location

2. theory of operation

F.) System check valve

1. location

2. theory of operation

G.) Economizer valve

1. location

2. theory of operation

H.) Vaporizer assembly

1. location

2. theory of operation

I.) Fuel shut-off solenoids

1. location

2. theory of operation


Lecture/demo = 4 hours

IV. Refueling

A.) Safety equipment

1. Clothing

2. Apron, gloves and shoes

B.) Fueling nozzle and hose

C.) Refueling process.



Lecture/demo = 2 hours

V. Leak Testing

A.) Commercial leak detection solutions

B.) Electronic methane detector

Lecture/demo = 2 hours

VI. Leak Repair

A.) Generic sealants

B.) Loctite

C.) Primers


Lecture/demo = 2 hour

VII. Insulation Test

A.) Manufacturer specifications and procedures


Lecture/demo = 2 hour

VIII. Fuel Level Gauge Diagnosis

A.) Manufacturer specifications and procedures


Lecture/demo = 2 hour

Module 3 - Bio Fuels
I. Ethanol

A) Photochemical smog

1. Formation of smog

a. thermal inversion and smog

2. Health effects of smog

a. respiratory diseases

3. Acid rain
B) Economics and home land security

1. Economy and jobs

2. Energy security and independence

3. Crude oil import

4. Fueling infrastructure

C) Fuel or food

1. Sustainability and consumption

a. farming issues

2. Ethanol from algae

3. Ethanol from sugar and starch crops

4. Ethanol from cellulosic bio mass
D) Ethanol vs. other viable fuels

1. Ethanol vs. Gasoline

a. Energy density

b. Stoichiometric ratios

c. MPG differential

d. Driveability issues

e. Additional vehicle cost/modification

2. Ethanol vs. CNG

a. Energy density

b. Stoichiometric ratios

c. MPG differential

d. Driveability issues

e. Additional vehicle cost/modification

3. Ethanol vs. Diesel

a. Energy density

b. Stoichiometric ratios

c. MPG differential

d. Driveability issues

e. Additional vehicle cost/modification

E) Vehicle platforms

1. Domestic vehicles

2. Asian imports

3. European
Lecture/demo time = 8 hours


II. Bio-diesel

A) Photochemical smog

1. Diesel emissions

a. Particulate matter

b. NOx

2. Health effects of diesel particulates and NOx



a. Respiratory diseases

3. Specialized vehicle emission/s treatment devices


B) Diesel

1. Import of crude oil

2. Refining process

a. standards

b. cost/s

3. Fuel properties

a. cetane rating

b. energy density

c. stoichiometry

d. BTU content

e. weight
C) Green diesel

1. Refining process

a. standards

b. cost/s

2. Fuel properties

a. cetane rating

b. energy density

c. stoichiometry

d. BTU content

e. weight


D) Plant based Bio-diesel

1. What is Bio-diesel

a. food or fuel

b. farming aspects

c. politics

d. economics of bio-diesel

e. fueling infrastructure

f. environmental


2. Crop/s

a. algae


b. tallow

c. palm oil

d. jatropha

e. coconut oil

f. rapeseed

g. soy


h. peanut

i. sunflower

j. hemp
3. Refining process

a. standards

b. production

c. cost/s

d. blends
4. Fuel properties of each crop

a. cetane rating

b. energy density

c. stoichiometry

d. BTU content

e. weight


E) Bio-diesel and OEM acceptance

1. Domestic vehicles

a. blends

b. specialized vehicular equipment

c. warranty issues

2. Asian imports

a. blends

b. specialized vehicular equipment

c. warranty issues

3. European

a. blends

b. specialized vehicular equipment

c. warranty issues

4. Farm equipment

a. public acceptance

b. blends

c. specialized vehicular equipment

d. warranty issues


Lecture/demo time = 12 hours


Module 4

Hybrid, Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicle Technology

I. Transportation, past, present and future

A) Alternative fueled vehicles, past

1. Electric

2. Bio fueled vehicles

3. Hydrocarbon based fueled vehicles

B) Alternative fueled vehicles, present

1. Electric

2. Bio fueled vehicles

3. Hydrocarbon based fueled vehicles

4. Hybrid vehicles


C) Alternative fueled vehicles, future

1. Electric

2. Fuel cell

3. Electric hybrid

Lecture/demo = 6 hours

II. Hybrid vehicles


  1. Light duty

  1. Safety

    1. SAE standards

  2. Emissions

    1. Compared to conventional internal combustion engines

  3. Fuel economy

    1. Compared to conventional internal combustion engines

    2. Highway mileage vs. city

  4. Toyota drivetrain

    1. Theory of operation

    2. Battery technology

    3. Hybrid cooling system

    4. Service/maintenance

    5. Auxiliary systems

  5. Honda drivetrain

    1. Theory of operation

    2. Battery technology

    3. Hybrid cooling system

    4. Service/maintenance

    5. Auxiliary systems

  6. Nissan Drivetrain

    1. Theory of operation

    2. Battery technology

    3. Hybrid cooling system

    4. Service/maintenance

    5. Auxiliary systems

  7. GM Drivetrain

    1. Theory of operation

    2. Battery technology

    3. Hybrid cooling system

    4. Service/maintenance

    5. Auxiliary systems




  1. Heavy duty

  1. Safety

  2. Emissions

  3. Fuel economy

  4. Transit applications

    1. Different systems and applications

    2. Theory of operation

    3. Battery technology

    4. Hybrid cooling system

    5. Service/maintenance

    6. Auxiliary systems

  5. Truck applications

    1. Theory of operation

    2. Battery technology

    3. Hybrid cooling system

    4. Service/maintenance

    5. Auxiliary systems


Lecture/demo = 20 hours

III. Electric Vehicles

A.) Safety



  1. Equipment

  2. Personal protection

B.) Environmental



  1. Emissions

  2. Fuel economy

  3. Charging

C.) An introduction to light duty electric vehicles



  1. Nissan

  2. Mitsubishi

  3. Miles

  4. Coda

  5. Zap

  6. E tracer

  7. Tesla

  8. Others


Lecture = 8 hours

IV. An Introduction to Fuel Cell Vehicle Technology

A.) Safety



  1. Equipment

  2. Personal protection

B.) Environmental



  1. Emissions

  2. Fuel economy

  3. Hydrogen refueling and infrastructure

C.) California Fuel Cell Partnership



  1. Mission

  2. Membership

  3. Achievements

D.)Fuel cell technology



    1. Fell cell technology

a. Theory of operation

b. Electric traction motor

c. Electrical/electronic systems

d. Fuel vessels and refueling

e. On board reformation

f. On board battery

g. Projected vehicle cost

h. Emergency response guides

i. Educational

1. FuelCellStore



2. Educational experiments
Lecture/demo = 10 hours

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